GOD'S ETERNAL WORD

Containing

 

THE OLD TESTAMENT

 

of the

 

HOLY BIBLE

 

Translated from the original languages

By C R Priebbenow

BA, B Ed, MA (Cantab.)

 

 

First printed August 2005

 

 

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry

 

Priebbenow, Clarence BA Bed, MA (Trans) 1935-

God's Eternal Word

ISBN: 0-646-41208-6

 

 

Revised Edition

2008

 

FINDING CHAPTERS

This version does not enable calling up a chapter and verse directly. To find a chapter, use Edit / Find (Ctrl f) and type in the required abbreviation below, followed by a space and then the chapter number. The abbreviation for each chapter is listed in hidden text at the beginning of each chapter. (Do not add a chapter number after Obd, 2 Joh, 3 Joh, or Jd.).

 

List of Abbreviations to use in Search

GENESIS Gn

EXODUS Ex

LEVITICUS Lv

NUMBERS Nm

DEUTERONOMY Dt

JOSHUA Jos

JUDGES Jdg

RUTH Rth

1 SAMUEL 1 Sm

2 SAMUEL 2 Sm

1 KINGS 1 Kng

2 KINGS 2 Kng

1 CHRONICLES 1 Chr

2 CHRONICLES 2 Chr

EZRA Ezr

NEHEMIAH Neh

ESTHER Esth

JOB Jb

PSALMS Ps

PROVERBS Prv

ECCLESIASTES Eccl

SONG OF SOLOMON SSol

ISAIAH Isa

JEREMIAH Jr

LAMENTATIONS Lam

EZEKIEL Ezk

DANIEL Dn

HOSEA Hos

JOEL Jl

AMOS Ams

OBADIAH Obd

JONAH Jnh

MICAH Mch

NAHUM Nah

HABAKKUK Hbk

ZEPHANIAH Zph

HAGGAI Hgg

ZECHARIAH Zch

MALACHI Ml

 

 

 

GENESIS

1

Gn 1

The Account of the Origin of the Earth (1:1-2:4) — Job 38:4-11; John 1:1-5

1 In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was formless and empty, darkness covered the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the water. 3 God said, "Let there be light!"*1 And there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good. God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God named the light "day" and named the darkness "night." There was evening, and there was morning, the first day.

6 God said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water!"

7 So God made the expanse and separated the water below the expanse from the water above it. It was so. 8 God named the expanse "sky." There was evening, and there was morning, the second day.

9 God said, "Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let the dry land appear!"

It was so. 10 God named the dry land "earth," and He named the gathered water "seas." God saw that it was good.

11 God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation: plants bearing seeds, and fruit trees bearing fruit with seeds in it, each according to its kind!"

It was so. 12 The earth produced vegetation: plants bearing seeds according to their own kinds, and trees bearing fruit with seeds in it each according to its kind. God saw that it was good. 13 There was evening, and there was morning, the third day.

14 God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night! Let them serve as signs to mark feasts, days, and years, 15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth!"

It was so. 16 God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day and the smaller light to govern the night. He also made the stars. 17 God set them in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth, 18 to govern the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. God saw that it was good. 19 There was evening, and there was morning, the fourth day.

20 God said, "Let the water teem with living creatures, and let flying creatures fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky!"

21 Therefore God created the large sea creatures, every living and moving thing with which the water teems, according to their kinds, and every winged creature according to its kind. God saw that they were good. 22 God blessed them and said: "Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let there be many flying creatures on the earth!"

23 There was evening, and there was morning, the fifth day.

24 God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kinds: domestic animals, crawling animals, and wild animals according to their kinds!"

It was so. 25 God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the domestic animals according to their kinds, and every animal that crawls on the ground according to its kind. God saw that it was good.

26 God said: "Let Us make man in Our image, in Our likeness, and let them rule over the fish in the sea, over the flying creatures in the sky, over the domestic animals, and over every kind of animal that crawls on the earth!"

27 So God created man in His own image. He created them in God's image. He created them male and female.

28 God blessed them and told them: "Be fruitful and increase in number, fill the earth, and bring it under your control! Rule over the fish in the sea, the flying creatures in the sky, and over every kind of animal that crawls on the earth.

29 God said: "Look! I have given you every seed-bearing plant on the face of all the earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. 30 I have also given every green plant as food to every wild animal, to every flying creature in the sky, and to every animal that crawls on the ground, to everything that has the breath of life." It was so. 31 God saw all that He had made and, indeed, it was very good. There was evening, and there was morning, the sixth day.

2

Gn 2

God's Rest on the Seventh Day

1 Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in their entire vast array. 2 By the seventh day God had completed the work that He had been doing. Then, on the seventh day, He rested from all His work, which He had done. 3 Therefore God has blessed the seventh day and has set it apart as holy, because on that day He rested from all the work of creation that He had done.

4 This is the account of the origin of the heavens and the earth.

The Family History of Adam (2:4b-5:1)

4b When earth and sky were created, at the time when the LORD God made them, 5 there was as yet no shrub of the field on the earth, and no green plants were yet springing up in the field. For the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the earth. There was no man to farm the ground. 6 Surface-water used to go up from the earth and water the whole face of the ground.

God's Forming of the First Two Human Beings

7 Then the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed the breath of life into his nostrils, and the man became a living being. 8 The LORD God had planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and there He put the man whom He had formed. 9 The LORD God had caused every kind of tree that was pleasing to the eye and that was good for food to grow out of the ground. The tree of life was in the middle of the garden, as well as the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. 10 A river flowed from Eden to water the garden. From there it divided into four headwaters. 11 The name of the first river is Pishon. This one flows around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12 The gold of that land is good. Bdellium and onyx stone are also found there. 13 The name of the second river is Gihon. This one winds around the whole land of Cush. 14 The name of the third river is Tigris. This one flows east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

15 Then the LORD God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden, to farm it and to take care of it. 16 The LORD God commanded the man: "Although you may freely eat from every tree of the garden, 17 you shall not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil! For in the day when you eat from it you will surely die."

18 The LORD God said, "It is not good for the man to be alone. I shall make him a helper, suitable for him."

19 The LORD God had formed from the ground every beast of the field and every bird in the sky. He brought them to the man to see what he would name them. Whatever the man named each living creature, that became its name. 20 The man gave names to all the domestic animals, the birds in the sky, and every wild animal. However, Adam did not find a helper who was suitable for him. 21 The LORD God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep, and, while the man was sleeping, He took out one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh. 22 Then the LORD God fashioned the rib that He had taken from the man into a woman, and brought her to the man. 23 The man said: "This at last is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh. She will be named ‘woman,' because she has been taken from ‘man.'" 24 Therefore a man will leave his father and his mother. He will be united with his wife, and they will become one flesh. 25 The man and his wife were both naked, but they were not ashamed.

3

Gn 3

Adam and Eve's Fall into Sin, and the First Promise of the Saviour — Rom 5:12-21

1 The snake was more cunning than any other wild animal that the LORD God had made. He asked the woman, "Has God really said, ‘You shall not eat from any tree in the garden!'?"

2 The woman told the snake: "We may eat the fruit from the trees in the garden. 3 However, God has said about the fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden: ‘You shall not eat from it, and you shall not touch it, or you will die!'"

4 The snake told the woman, "You will certainly not die. 5 For God knows that in the day when you eat of it your eyes will be opened and you will be like God, knowing good and evil."

6 When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, that it was a delight to look at, and that the tree was desirable for making someone wise, she took some of its fruit and ate it. Then she also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate it. 7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realised that they were naked. Therefore they sewed fig leaves together and made loin coverings for themselves.

8 At the time of the day when there was a breeze, the man and his wife heard the sound of the LORD God walking in the garden, and they hid from the presence of the LORD God among the trees in the garden. 9 Then the LORD God called to the man and asked him, "Where are you?"

10 The man said, "I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked. So I hid."

11 He said, "Who has told you that you are naked? Have you eaten fruit from the tree from which I have commanded you not to eat?"

12 Then the man said, "The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate it."

13 Then the LORD God asked the woman, "What is this that you have done?"

The woman said, "The snake deceived me, and I ate."

14 Then the LORD God told the snake: "Because you have done this, you are cursed, more than every domestic animal and every wild animal. You will crawl on your belly and you will eat dust all the days of your life. 15 I shall make you and the woman hostile to each other, and I shall make your descendants and her Descendant hostile to each other. He will crush your head, and you will crush His heel."

16 He told the woman: "I shall greatly increase your painful labour and your pregnancy. In pain you will give birth to children. You will yearn for your husband, and he will rule over you."

17 Then to the man He said: "Because you have listened to what your wife has said and have eaten from the tree about which I had commanded you, ‘You shall not eat from it!' the ground is cursed because of you. You will eat from it through painful toil all the days of your life. 18 It will cause both thorns and thistles to grow for you, and you will eat the plants of the field. 19 You will eat bread in the sweat of your brow until you return to the ground. For you were taken from it. For you are dust, and you will return to dust."

20 The man named his wife "Eve,"*2 because she was the mother of every living person.

21 Then the LORD God made tunics from skins for the man and his wife, and clothed them.

22 Then the LORD God said: "Look! Man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil. However, that he may not reach out his hand and take from the tree of life as well, and eat it, so that he would live for ever —."

23 Therefore the LORD God sent him out of the Garden of Eden to work the ground from which he had been taken. 24 He drove the man out and placed cherubim at the east of the Garden of Eden with a flaming sword-blade, which turned in all directions, to guard the way to the tree of life.

4

Gn 4

Cain's Murder of Abel — Luke 11:51; Heb 11:4; Heb 12:24

1 The man had relations with his wife Eve and she became pregnant and gave birth to Cain. She said, "I have acquired a man, the LORD."

2 Then she gave birth to his brother Abel. Abel was the shepherd of a flock of sheep, but Cain farmed the soil. 3 In the course of time, Cain brought some of what the ground produced as an offering to the LORD. 4 Abel also brought some firstborn animals of his flock, and some of their pieces of fat. The LORD looked favourably at Abel and his offering. 5 However, He did not look favourably at Cain and his offering. Cain became very angry and his face was downcast.

6 The LORD asked Cain: "Why are you angry and why has your face fallen? 7 If you do right, will you not be accepted? However, if you do not do right, sin is crouching at the door. It longs to get you, but you should master it!"

8 Cain spoke to his brother Abel. However, while they were in the field, Cain attacked his brother Abel and killed him.

9 Then the LORD asked Cain, "Where is your brother Abel?"

He answered, "I do not know. Am I my brother's keeper?"

10 He asked: "What have you done? The voice of your brother's spilt blood is crying out to Me from the ground. 11 Therefore you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's spilt blood from your hand. 12 When you work the ground, it will no longer yield you its produce. You will be a homeless wanderer on the earth."

13 Cain told the LORD: "My punishment is greater than I can endure. 14 Look! Today You have driven me from the face of the ground, and I shall be hidden from Your presence. So I shall be a homeless wanderer on the earth, and anyone who finds me will kill me."

15 However, the LORD told him, "Therefore anyone who kills Cain will meet with sevenfold retribution."

Then the LORD put a mark on Cain to keep anyone who found him from killing him. 16 Cain went away from the presence of the LORD and lived in the land of Nod,*3 to the east of Eden.

The Family-Line of Cain

17 Cain had relations with his wife she became pregnant and gave birth to Enoch. Cain was building a city, and he named the city "Enoch," after his son's name. 18 Enoch was the father of Irad. Irad was the father of Mehujael. Mehujael was the father of Methushael, and Methushael was the father of Lamech.

19 Lamech married two women. One was named "Adah," and the other was named "Zillah." 20 Adah gave birth to Jabal. He was the father of those who live in tents and own livestock.

21 His brother's name was "Jubal." He was the father of all who play the lyre and the pipe. 22 Zillah also gave birth to Tubal-Cain. He was a smith, who taught every craftsman in copper and iron. Tubal-Cain's sister was Naamah.

23 Lamech told his wives: "Adah and Zillah, listen to me! You wives of Lamech, listen to what I say! ‘I have killed a man for bruising me, a boy for wounding me.' 24 If revenge is taken on Cain seven times as much, then on Lamech seventy-seven times as much.'"

The Birth of Seth

25 Adam came together with his wife again. She gave birth to a son, and she named him "Seth," saying, "It is because God has appointed another child for me instead of Abel. For Cain has killed Abel."

26 Seth also had a son, and he named him "Enosh."

At that time, a beginning was made in calling on the name of the LORD.

5

Gn 5

1 This is the family history of Adam.

The Family History of Noah (5:3-6:9)

The Account of the Line from Adam to Noah — 1 Chron 1:1-4; Luke 3:36-38

1b When God created man He made him like God. 2 He created them male and female. He blessed them and named them "mankind" when He created them.3 When Adam had lived a hundred and thirty years, he had a son who was in his own likeness, in his own image; and named him "Seth." 4 After Adam became the father of Seth, he lived for eight hundred years and had other sons and daughters. 5 Altogether, Adam lived for nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.

6 When Seth had lived for a hundred and five years, he became the father of Enosh. 7 After Seth became the father of Enosh, he lived for eight hundred and seven years, and had other sons and daughters. 8 Altogether, Seth lived for nine hundred and twelve years, and he died.

9 When Enosh had lived for ninety years, he became the father of Kenan. 10 After Enosh became the father of Kenan, he lived for eight hundred and fifteen years, and had other sons and daughters. 11 Altogether, Enosh lived for nine hundred and five years, and he died.

12 When Kenan had lived for seventy years, he became the father of Mahalalel. 13 After Kenan became the father of Mahalalel, he lived for eight hundred and forty years and had other sons and daughters. 14 Altogether, Kenan lived for nine hundred and ten years, and he died.

15 When Mahalalel had lived for sixty-five years, he became the father of Jared. 16 After Mahalalel became the father of Jared, he lived for eight hundred and thirty years, and had other sons and daughters. 17 Altogether, Mahalalel lived for eight hundred and ninety-five years, and he died.

18 When Jared had lived for one hundred and sixty-two years, he became the father of Enoch. 19 After Jared became the father of Enoch, he lived for eight hundred years, and had other sons and daughters. 20 Altogether, Jared lived for nine hundred and sixty-two years, and he died.

21 When Enoch had lived for sixty-five years, he became the father of Methuselah. 22 After Enoch became the father of Methuselah, he walked with God for three hundred years, and had other sons and daughters. 23 Altogether, Enoch lived for three hundred and sixty-five years. 24 Enoch walked with God, and then he was no more, because God took him away.

25 When Methuselah had lived for one hundred and eighty-seven years, he became the father of Lamech. 26 After Methuselah became the father of Lamech, he lived for seven hundred and eighty-two years, and had other sons and daughters. 27 Altogether, Methuselah lived for nine hundred and sixty-nine years, and he died.

28 When Lamech had lived for one hundred and eighty-two years, he had a son, 29 and he named him "Noah."*4 He said, "This child will bring us comfort from the work and painful toil of our hands because of the ground, which the LORD has cursed."

30 After Lamech became the father of Noah, he lived for five hundred and ninety-five years, and had other sons and daughters. 31 Altogether, Lamech lived for seven hundred and seventy-seven years, and then he died. 32 After Noah was five hundred years old, he became the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

6

Gn 6

The Increasing Wickedness in the World and God's Intention to Wipe out Sinful Mankind

1 When mankind began to become numerous on the surface of the earth, daughters were born to them. 2 The sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they married whatever women they chose. 3 Then the LORD said: "My Spirit will not struggle for ever with human beings because of their errors. They are sinful human nature. However, they will still live for a hundred and twenty years."

4 There were giants on the earth in those days, as well as later, when the sons of God had intercourse with the daughters of men, who gave birth to children by them. These were the heroes who were famous men from time long ago. 5 The LORD saw that the people on the earth were very wicked and that every tendency of the thoughts in their hearts was nothing but evil all the time. 6 The LORD regretted that He had made mankind on the earth, and He felt grieved in His heart. 7 The LORD said: "I shall wipe from the face of the ground the people whom I have created, both people, cattle, creeping things, and birds of the sky, because I am sorry that I have made them."

8 However, the LORD regarded Noah kindly.

9 This is the family-history of Noah.

The Family History of the Sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth (6:10-10:1)

9b Noah was a righteous man. He was blameless among the people of his time. Noah walked with God. 10 Noah had three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 11 The world was corrupt in God's sight, and the earth was filled with violence. 12 God saw that the world was indeed corrupt, because every human being on earth had made his way of life corrupt.

The Building of the Ark

13 God told Noah: "The end of all human beings has come before Me, because the earth has become full of violence because of them. So, look! I am about to destroy them together with the earth. 14 Make yourself an ark of gopher-wood! Make compartments in the ark! Coat it inside and outside with tar! 15 This is how you shall make it: The ark shall be a hundred and fifty metres long, twenty-five metres wide, and fifteen metres high! 16 Make a roof for the ark! Finish it to precisely fifty centimetres from the top! Put the door of the ark in the side of it! Build it with lower, second, and third decks! 17 Look! I am about to bring flood water on the earth to destroy every being that has the breath of life under the sky. Everything that is on the earth will die. 18 However, I shall establish My Covenant with you: You shall go into the ark, you, your sons, your wife, and your sons' wives with you! 19 You shall take two of every kind of living being, of every animal, into the ark, to keep them alive with you! They must be a male and a female! 20 Two of every kind of bird, every kind of animal, and every kind of creature that crawls on the ground will come to you to keep them alive. 21 You shall collect every kind of food that is eaten and store it with you, that it may be food for yourself and for them!"

22 Noah did exactly as God had commanded him. That is what he did.

7

Gn 7

The Great Flood — Luke 17:26-27

1 The LORD told Noah: "Go into the ark, you and your whole family! For I have seen that you are righteous before Me among the people of today. 2 Take with you seven pairs of every clean animal, a male and its female, and a pair of the unclean animals, a male and its female! 3 Take also seven pairs of the birds of the sky, male and female, to keep their progeny alive all over the earth! 4 For after seven more days I shall make it rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights, and I shall wipe from the face of the ground every living creature that I have made."

5 Noah did exactly as the LORD had commanded him.

6 Noah was six hundred years old when the floodwater came on the earth. 7 Noah, his sons, his wife, and his sons' wives went with him into the ark to escape from the water of the flood. 8 Clean animals and unclean animals, birds, and everything that crawls on the ground 9 came in pairs, male and female, to Noah in the ark as God had commanded Noah. 10 After seven days, the water of the flood came on the earth. 11 In the six-hundredth year of Noah's life, on the seventeenth day of the second month, on that day, all the springs of the great deep broke open, the windows of the heavens burst open, 12 and the rain came down on the earth for forty days and forty nights. 13 On that very day Noah and Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, as well as Noah's wife and his sons' three wives, went with them into the ark. 14 They came, together with every wild animal according to its kind, every domestic animal according to its kind, every creature that crawls on the earth according to its kind, and every bird according to its kind, every creature with wings. 15 They came in pairs to Noah in the ark out of all living creatures that had the breath of life in them. 16 Those that came in were male and female. Some of every kind of living creature came as God had commanded Noah. Then the LORD shut him in. 17 For forty days the flood came on the earth. As the water increased, it lifted up the ark, so that it rose high above the ground. 18 As the water swelled and became very deep on the earth, the ark floated on the surface of the water. 19 The water swelled extremely over the earth and all the high mountains under the entire sky were covered. 20 They swelled seven and a half metres on top of the mountains and they were covered. 21 Every living creature that moved on the earth died, including the birds, the tame animals, the wild animals, all the swarming creatures that teemed on the earth, and every human being. 22 Everything that had in its nostrils the breath of the spirit of life, everything that was on the dry land, died. 23 Therefore God wiped out every living being that was on the surface of the ground, human beings, animals, crawling creatures, and birds of the sky. They were wiped off the earth. Only Noah and those who were with him in the ark were left.

The End of the Flood

24 The water flooded the earth for a hundred and fifty days.

8

Gn 8

1 However, God remembered Noah, every wild animal, and every tame animal that was with him in the ark. God made a wind blow over the earth, and the water receded. 2 The springs of the deep and the windows of the heavens had been stopped up, and the rain from the sky had been kept back. 3 The water continued to recede from the earth, so that by the end of the one hundred and fifty days the water had gone down. 4 On the seventeenth day of the seventh month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. 5 The water continued to decrease until the tenth month. On the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains appeared. 6 After forty more days, Noah opened the window that he had made in the ark, 7 and sent out a raven. It kept flying back and forth until the water had dried up from the earth. 8 Next, he sent out a dove, to find out if the water had receded from the surface of the ground. 9 However, when the dove could not find a place to set the sole of its foot, because there was water all over the whole earth, it came back to him at the ark. He put out his hand, caught the dove, and brought it back into the ark with him. 10 After he had again waited for seven more days, he sent the dove out of the ark again. 11 The dove came to him in the evening, and there in its beak was a freshly plucked leaf of an olive-tree! Then Noah knew that the water had subsided on the earth. 12 After he had waited again for seven days more, he sent the dove out, and it did not come back to him any more. 13 By the first day of the first month of the six hundred and first year of Noah, the water had dried up from the land. Then Noah took off the roof of the ark, looked out, and saw that the surface of the ground had dried up.

14 By the twenty-seventh day of the second month, the earth had become dry. 15 Then God spoke to Noah, 16 "Come out of the ark, you and your wife, your sons, and your sons' wives with you! 17 Bring out with you every kind of living being that is with you, birds, domestic animals, and every creature that crawls on the ground, so that they may abound on the earth, have young, and increase in number on the earth!"

18 Therefore Noah came out together with his sons, his wife, and his sons' wives. 19 Every animal, every crawling creature, and every bird, everything that moves on the earth, came out of the ark by their families.

20 Noah built an altar to the LORD, took some of every kind of clean animal and every kind of clean bird, and made a burnt offering on the altar. 21 When the LORD smelled the soothing aroma, the LORD told Himself: "I shall not curse the ground again because of human beings. For what human beings think in their hearts is evil from their youth. Never again shall I kill every living thing, as I have done. 22 As long as the earth continues to exist, sowing and harvesting, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night will not cease.'

9

Gn 9

God's Covenant with Noah and His Sons

1 God blessed Noah and his sons. He told them: "Be fruitful and increase in number, and fill the earth! 2 All the animals on the earth, all the birds of the sky, everything else that moves on the ground, and all the fish in the sea will be afraid of you and be terrified by you. You have been given control over them. 3 You may eat any moving thing that has life. As I have given you the green plants, I have given you them all. 4 However, you shall not eat any meat that contains its life, that is, its blood! 5 I shall certainly demand an accounting for your lifeblood. I shall demand it from every animal and from human beings. I shall demand an accounting for the life of a human being from his fellowman. 6 If anyone sheds the blood of a human being, his blood should be shed by a human being! For God made human beings in His own image. 7 As for you, be fruitful and increase in number! Abound on the earth and become numerous on it!"

8 Then God told Noah and his sons with him: 9 "Look! I Myself am establishing My Covenant with you and with your descendants after you, 10 and with every living being that has been with you, the birds, the domestic animals, and all the wild animals together with you. It is for all those that have come out of the ark, yes, for every living being on the earth. 11 I shall establish My Covenant with you: Never again will the water of a flood cut off every living being. Never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth."

12 God also said: "This is the sign of the Covenant that I am giving between Me and you, and every living being that is with you, for all generations to come. 13 I have put My rainbow in the clouds that it may be a sign of the Covenant between Me and the earth. 14 Whenever I bring clouds over the earth and the rainbow appears in the clouds, 15 I shall remember My Covenant, which is between Me and you and every living being with every kind of flesh. Never again will the water become a flood to destroy all flesh. 16 When the rainbow is in the clouds, I shall see it and remember the everlasting Covenant between God and every living being of every kind of flesh that is on the earth."

17 God told Noah, "That is the sign of the Covenant that I have established between Me and all living beings that are on the earth."

Noah's Curse on Canaan and His Blessing on Shem and Japheth

18 Noah's sons, who had come out of the ark, were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Ham was the father of Canaan. 19 These were the three sons of Noah, and from them the people came who spread out all over the earth.

20 Noah began to farm the soil and planted a vineyard. 21 He drank some of the wine, became drunk, and exposed himself inside his tent. 22 When Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father naked, he told his two brothers outside. 23 However, Shem and Japheth took his garment, and the two of them laid it over their shoulders, walked backwards, and covered their naked father. Because they faced the other way, they did not see their naked father. 24 When Noah woke up from his wine and found out what his youngest son had done to him, 25 Noah said, "Cursed be Canaan! He will be the lowest of slaves to his brothers."

26 He also said: "Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem! May Canaan be the slave of Shem! 27 May God provide ample space for Japheth! May Japheth live in the tents of Shem, and may Canaan be his slave!"

28 Noah lived for three hundred and fifty years after the flood. 29 Altogether, Noah lived for nine hundred and fifty years, and he died.

10

Gn 10

1 This is the family history of Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Children were born to them after the flood.

The Account of the Nations Descended from Japheth, Ham, and Shem (10:2-11:10)

The Descendants of Japheth — 1 Chronicles 1:4-7

2 The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3 The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4 The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, the people of Cyprus, and the Dodanim.*5 5 From these the maritime nations branched off in their countries, each with its own language, by their clans inside their nations.

The Descendants of Ham — 1 Chronicles 1:8-16

6 The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. 7 The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.

8 Cush became the father of Nimrod. Nimrod began to be a despot on the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter before the LORD. That is why people say, "Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the LORD."

10 Nimrod began his kingdom with Babylon, Erech, Akkad, and Calneh, in the country of Shinar. 11 From that country, he went out to Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, 12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and Calah. That is the greatest city.

13 Mizraim was the father of the people of Lud, Anam, Lehab, Naphtuh, 14 Pathrus, Casluh (from whom the Philistines originated), and the people of Caphtor. 15 Canaan was the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and then he had Heth, 16 and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18 the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Later the Canaanite clans dispersed. 19 The boundary of the Canaanites extended from Sidon towards Gerar as far as Gaza, and then towards Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. 20 These were the sons of Ham by their clans and languages, in their countries and their nations.

The Descendants of Shem — Genesis 11:10-27, 1 Chronicles 1:17-27

21 Shem, Japheth's elder brother, also had children. He was the ancestor of all the sons of Eber.*6 22 The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. 23 The sons of Aram were Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24 Arphaxad was the father of Shelah, and Shelah was the father of Eber. 25 Eber had two sons. One had the name "Peleg,"*7 because in his time the earth was divided. His brother's name was "Joktan." 26 Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan. 30 The region where they lived extended from Mesha towards Sephar, in the eastern hill-country. 31 These were the sons of Shem by their clans and their languages, in their countries according to their nations. 32 These were the clans of Noah's sons, according to their lines of descent, inside their nations. From these the nations branched out in the world after the flood.

11

Gn 11

The Confusion of Languages at Babel

1 The whole earth had one language with a common vocabulary. 2 As people journeyed from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. 3 They told one another, "Come! Let us make bricks, and bake them thoroughly!"

They had bricks for stones and tar for mortar. 4 Then they said: "Come! Let us build a city for ourselves and a tower with its top in the sky, so that we may make a name for ourselves, so that we may not be scattered over the surface of the whole earth!"

5 The LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the sons of men had built. 6 The LORD said: "Look! They are one people. They all have one language, and this is what they are beginning to do. Now nothing that they plan to do will be impossible for them. 7 Come! Let us go down there and confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another's speech!"

8 So the LORD scattered them from there all over the earth and they ceased building the city. 9 This is why it was named "Babel,"*8 because there the LORD confused the language of all the earth. From there, the LORD scattered them all over the surface of the whole earth.

10 This is the family history of Shem.

The History of the Family-Line from Shem to Terah and Abram (11:10-11:26) — 1 Chronicles 1:17-23; Luke 3:34-36

10b Shem was one hundred when he became the father of Arphaxad, two years after the flood. 11 After Shem became the father of Arphaxad, he lived for five hundred years and had other sons and daughters.

12 When Arphaxad had lived for thirty-five years, he became the father of Shelah. 13 After Arphaxad became the father of Shelah, he lived for four hundred and three years and had other sons and daughters.

14 When Shelah had lived for thirty years, he became the father of Eber. 15 After Shelah became the father of Eber, he lived for four hundred and three years and had other sons and daughters.

16 When Eber had lived thirty-four years, he became the father of Peleg. 17 After Eber became the father of Peleg, he lived for four hundred and thirty years and had other sons and daughters.

18 When Peleg had lived for thirty years, he became the father of Reu. 19 After Peleg became the father of Reu, he lived for two hundred and nine years and had other sons and daughters.

20 When Reu had lived for thirty-two years, he became the father of Serug. 21 After Reu became the father of Serug, he lived for two hundred and seven years and had other sons and daughters.

22 When Serug had lived for thirty years, he became the father of Nahor. 23 After Serug became the father of Nahor, he lived for two hundred years and had other sons and daughters.

24 When Nahor had lived for twenty-nine years, he became the father of Terah. 25 After Nahor became the father of Terah, he lived for one hundred and nineteen years and had other sons and daughters.

26 After Terah had lived for seventy years, he became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

27 This is the family history of Terah.

The Family-History of Abram, Lot, Hagar and Ishmael, and Isaac (11:27-25:19)

27b Terah was the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Haran was the father of Lot. 28 Haran died while his father Terah was still with him in Ur of the Chaldeans, in his native land. 29 Abram and Nahor married. The name of Abram's wife was Sarai, and the name of Nahor's wife was Milcah. She was the daughter of Haran, who was the father of Milcah and Iscah. 30 Sarai was barren. She had no children.

31 Terah took his son Abram, his grandson Lot, the son of Haran, and his daughter-in-law Sarai, the wife of his son, Abram, and together they left Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the country of Canaan. However, when they came to Haran, they settled there. 32 Terah lived for two hundred and five years. Terah died in Haran.

12

Gn 12

God's First Promise to Abram — Acts 7:2-5

1 The LORD had told Abram: "Leave your land, your relatives, and your father's family, and go to the land that I shall show you! 2 I shall make you into a great nation. I shall bless you. I shall make your name great, and you will be a blessing. 3 I shall bless those who bless you, and I shall curse him who curses you, and in you all the families of the earth will be blessed."

The Arrival of Abram in the Promised Land, and the Second Promise to Abram

4 Therefore Abram left, as the LORD had told him, and Lot went with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran. 5 Abram took his wife Sarai, his brother's son Lot, and all the possessions that they had accumulated, as well as the people whom they had acquired in Haran, and they set out for the land of Canaan. When they arrived in the land of Canaan, 6 Abram travelled through the land to the place at Shechem, to the large tree of Moreh. The Canaanites were then in the land. 7 The LORD appeared to Abram and said, "I shall give this land to your offspring."

Therefore he built an altar there to the LORD, who had appeared to him. 8 He moved on from there to the hill-country east of Bethel, and he put up his tent with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east. There he built an altar to the LORD, and called on the name of the LORD. 9 Then Abram broke camp, and continued to move on toward the Negev.

Abram's Deception of Pharaoh in Egypt — Compare similar incidents in 20:1-18; 26:1-11

10 There was a famine in the land, and Abram went down to Egypt to stay there as a foreigner for a while, because the famine was severe in the land. 11 When Abram came close to Egypt and was about to enter it, he told his wife Sarai: "Please listen! I know that you look beautiful. 12 When the Egyptians see you, they will say, ‘This is his wife.' They will kill me, but let you live. 13 Please say that you are my sister, so that it may go well with me because of you and I may stay alive because of you!"

14 When Abram came into Egypt, the Egyptians saw that the woman was very beautiful. 15 When Pharaoh's officials saw her, they commended her to Pharaoh, and the woman was taken to his palace. 16 He treated Abram well for her sake, and Abram obtained sheep, cattle, male donkeys, menservants, maidservants, female donkeys, and camels.

17 However, the LORD inflicted serious diseases on Pharaoh and his household because of Abram's wife Sarai. 18 Pharaoh summoned Abram, and asked: "What is this that you have done to me? Why have you not told me that she is your wife? 19 Why have you said, ‘She is my sister,' so that I have taken her to be my wife? Now therefore, here is your wife. Take her and go away!"

20 Pharaoh gave some men orders about Abram, and they sent him away, with his wife and everything that he had.

13

Gn 13

The Separation of Lot from Abram

1 Therefore Abram went up from Egypt to the Negev, with his wife and everything that he had, and Lot went with him. 2 Abram had become very rich in livestock, silver, and gold. 3 He often moved camp, and went from the Negev as far as Bethel, to the place between Bethel and Ai where his tent had been the first time, 4 the place where he had first made the altar. Abram called on the name of the LORD there.

5 Lot, who was accompanying Abram, also had flocks, herds, and tents. 6 However, the land could not support them, so that they might live together. For their possessions were too great for them to be able to live together. 7 The men who were minding Abram's herds quarrelled with those who were minding Lot's herds. The Canaanites and Perizzites were also living in the country at that time. 8 Therefore Abram told Lot: "Please, let there be no quarrelling between you and me or between your herdsmen and mine! For we are relatives. 9 Is not the whole land before you? Please separate from me! If you go to the left, I shall go to the right. If you go to the right, I shall go to the left."

10 Lot looked up and saw that the whole wide area of the Jordan was well watered everywhere towards Zoar, like the garden of the LORD, and like the land of Egypt. This was before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah. 11 Then Lot chose for himself the whole wide area of the Jordan and set out to the east. So they separated from each other. 12 Abram lived in the land of Canaan, while Lot lived among the cities of the plain, and moved his tents as far as Sodom. 13 The men of Sodom were wicked and very sinful against the LORD.

The Third Promise to Abram

14 After Lot moved away from Abram, the LORD told Abram: "Lift up your eyes from the place where you are and look to the north, to the south, to the east, and to the west! 15 For I shall give all the land that you see to you and to your offspring for ever. 16 I shall also make your descendants like the dust of the earth, so that, if anyone could count the dust of the earth, your descendants could also be counted. 17 Get up and walk through the length and breadth of the land! For I shall give it to you."

18 Then Abram moved his tents and went to live beside the large trees of Mamre, which are at Hebron. There he built an altar to the LORD.

14

Gn 14

Abram's Rescue of Lot and the People of Sodom

1 At the time when Amraphel was the king of Shinar, Arioch was the king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer was the king of Elam, and Tidal was the king of Goiim, 2 these kings made war against Bera, the king of Sodom, Birsha, the king of Gomorrah, Shinab, the king of Admah, Shemeber, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar). 3 All these latter kings joined their forces in the valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea). 4 They had been subject to Chedorlaomer for twelve years, but in the thirteenth year they rebelled. 5 In the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him had come and defeated the Rephaites at Ashteroth-Karnaim, the Zuzites at Ham, the Emites in the plain of Kiriathaim, 6 and the Horites in their hill-country of Seir, as far as El-Paran, which is near the desert. 7 Then they had turned back and gone to En-Mishpat (that is, Kadesh), and had defeated the whole domain of the Amalekites, as well as the Amorites who were living in Hazazon-Tamar. 8 Then the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) went out and drew up in battle order against them in the Valley of Siddim, 9 against Chedorlaomer, the king of Elam, Tidal, the king of Goiim, Amraphel, the king of Shinar, and Arioch, the king of Ellasar. Four kings were against five. 10 The valley of Siddim had many bitumen pits. When the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, some men fell into them, and the rest fled to the hill-country. 11 The enemy seized all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their food, and went away. 12 They also took Abram's nephew Lot and his goods, and departed. Lot had been living in Sodom. 13 Someone who had escaped came and reported this to Abram, the Hebrew. Abram was living near the large trees of Mamre, who was an Amorite, a brother of Eshcol and Aner. They were allies of Abram. 14 When Abram heard that his relative had been taken captive, he led out his three hundred and eighteen followers, who were slaves born in his household, and went in pursuit as far as Dan. 15 He and his servants split up, attacked them by night, defeated them, and pursued them as far as Hobah, which is north of Damascus. 16 He brought back all the goods and also brought back his relative Lot with his goods, as well as the women and the other people.

17 After Abram had defeated Chedorlaomer and the kings with him, and had come back, the king of Sodom came out to meet him in the Valley of the Plain (that is, the King's Valley).

The Blessing of Abram by Melchizedek — Hebrews 7:1-2

18 Then Melchizedek, the king of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was the priest of God Most High. 19 He blessed Abram, saying: "May Abram be blessed by God Most High, the Creator of heaven and earth! 20 May God Most High, who has delivered your enemies into your hands, also be blessed!"

Then Abram gave him a tenth of everything.

21 The king of Sodom told Abram, "Give me the people, but take the goods for yourself!"

22 However, Abram answered the king of Sodom: "I have raised my hand to the LORD, to God Most High, the Maker of heaven and earth, 23 that I shall certainly not take anything that belongs to you, not even a thread or a sandal-thong, so that you may not say, ‘I have made Abram rich.' 24 The only exceptions are what the young men have eaten and the share of the men who have come with me. As for Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, let them take their share!"

15

Gn 15

God's Fourth Promise to Abram and His Covenant with him — Hebrews 11:8-10

1 After this, the Word of the LORD came to Abram in a vision: "Do not be afraid, Abram! I am your Shield, and your very great Reward."

2 Abram asked: "O Lord GOD, what will You give me? For I continue to be childless, and the one who will become the heir of my household is Eliezer of Damascus."

3 Then Abram also said, "Look! You have given me no offspring, and so a member of my household will be my heir."

4 Then the Word of the LORD came to him: "This man will not be your heir, but one who comes from your own body will be your heir."

5 He took Abram outside and said, "Look up at the sky and count the stars, if you are able to count them!"

He also told him, "Your offspring will be like them!"

6 Abram believed the LORD and He credited it to him as righteousness.

7 God also told Abram, "I am the LORD, and I have brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans, to give you this land to inherit."

8 However, Abram asked, "O Lord GOD, how can I know that I shall inherit it?"

9 He told Abram, "Bring Me a young cow three years old, a three-year-old she-goat, a three-year-old ram, a turtle-dove, and a young pigeon!"

10 Abram brought all these for Him. Then he cut them into halves and laid each half opposite its corresponding piece. However, he did not cut the birds into halves. 11 When birds of prey came down on the carcasses, Abram frightened them away. 12 While the sun was going down, Abram fell into a deep sleep, and then a dreadful, deep darkness came over Abram. 13 God told Abram: "You should know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a country that is not their own, where they will serve them as slaves! They will subdue them for four hundred years. 14 However, I shall also judge the nation whom they serve, and after that they will leave with many possessions. 15 You yourself will go to your fathers in peace. You will be buried at a good old age. 16 The fourth generation will come back here. For the iniquity of the Amorites has not yet reached its full measure."

17 After the sun had gone down and it was dark, a smoking fire-pot and a flaming torch appeared, and they passed between those pieces. 18 On that day, the LORD made a Covenant with Abram. He said: "I have given this land to your descendants, from the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates, 19 where the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, 20 the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaites, 21 the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites and the Jebusites are."

16

Gn 16

The Birth of Abram's Son Ishmael from his Maidservant Hagar

1 Abram's wife Sarai had not borne him any children. However, she had an Egyptian maidservant, whose name was Hagar. 2 So Sarai told Abram, "Look! Since the LORD has prevented me from bearing children, please cohabit with my maid! Perhaps I shall get a child from her."

Abram agreed to what Sarai had told him. 3 Therefore, after Abram had been living in Canaan for ten years, Sarai, Abram's wife, took her Egyptian maidservant Hagar, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife. 4 He cohabited with Hagar, and she became pregnant. When she knew that she was pregnant, she despised her mistress. 5 Then Sarai told Abram: "You are responsible for the wrong that I am suffering. I put my maidservant into your embrace, and now that she has seen that she is pregnant, she despises me. May the LORD judge between you and me!"

6 Abram told Sarai: "‘Look! Your maidservant is under your control. Do to her what you think is best!"

Then Sarai humiliated her, so that she ran away from her. 7 However, the Angel of the LORD found her at a spring of water in the wilderness. It was the spring on the road to Shur. 8 He said, "Hagar, Sarai's maidservant, where have you come from, and where are you going?"

She answered, "I am running away from my mistress Sarai."

9 The Angel of the LORD told her, "Go back to your mistress, and submit yourself to her control!" 10 The Angel of the LORD also told her, "I shall indeed give you so many descendants that they will be too many to be counted."

11 The Angel of the LORD also told her: "Look! You are pregnant. You will have a son, and you shall name him ‘Ishmael'!*9 For the LORD has heard about your affliction. 12 He will be a wild donkey of a man. His hand will be against everyone else, and everyone else's hand will be against him. He will live in opposition to all his relatives."
13 She gave the name "El-Roi"*10 to the LORD, who had been talking to her. For, she said, "Have I, even here, seen the back of Him who is looking after me?"
14 That is why the well has been called, "Beer-Lahai-Roi."*11 It is there, between Kadesh and Bered.

15 Hagar bore Abram a son, and Abram named his son, to whom Hagar had given birth, "Ishmael." 16 Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram.

17

Gn 17

God's Fifth Promise to Abram, Followed by Circumcision — Exodus 12:43-13:2.

1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram, and told him: "I am God Almighty. Live in My presence and be blameless! 2 I shall make My Covenant between Me and you, and I shall give you very many descendants."

3 Abram fell facedown and God spoke to him: 4 "This is My very own Covenant with you. You will be the father of many nations. 5 You will not be called ‘Abram' any more, but your name will be ‘Abraham,'*12 because I have made you a father of many nations. 6 I shall make you extremely fruitful, I shall make nations of you, and kings will come from you. 7 I shall establish My Covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you for generations to come. It will be an everlasting Covenant, that I may be your God and the God of your descendants after you. 8 I shall also give you and your descendants after you the land in which you are living as a stranger, all the land of Canaan, as their property for ever. I shall also be their God."

9 Then God told Abraham: "You shall keep My Covenant, you and your descendants after you in their generations! 10 This is My Covenant, which you shall keep, between Me, your people, and your descendants after you: Every male among you must be circumcised! 11 You shall have yourselves circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and that will be the mark of the Covenant between Me and you! 12 When any boy among you is eight days old, he shall be circumcised, every male in your coming generations, whether he is born in the household or purchased with money from any foreigner who is not one of your descendants! 13 Every boy born in your household or purchased with your money shall certainly be circumcised, so that My Covenant in your flesh may be an everlasting Covenant! 14 If any male is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that person shall be cut off from his people! He has broken My Covenant."

The Promise of Isaac's Birth

15 God also told Abraham: "As for your wife Sarai, you shall not call her ‘Sarai,' but her name shall be ‘Sarah'!*13 16 I shall bless her; and I have also given you a son from her. I shall bless her, and she will become the mother of nations. Kings of peoples will come from her."

17 Abraham fell facedown and laughed. He asked himself. "Will a son be born to a man when he is a hundred years old? Or will Sarah have a child when she is ninety?"

18 Then Abraham told God, "If only Ishmael might live in Your presence!"

19 God said: "On the contrary! Your wife Sarah will bear you a son, and you shall name him ‘Isaac'!*14 I shall establish My Covenant with him as an everlasting Covenant with his descendants after him. 20 I have heard you also concerning Ishmael. Look! I have blessed him and I shall make him fruitful. I shall make him exceedingly many. He will be the father of twelve princes, and I shall make him into a great nation. 21 Nevertheless, I shall establish My Covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you at this fixed time next year."

22 When God had finished speaking to Abraham, He went up from him.

The Circumcision of Abraham's Household

23 Abraham took his son Ishmael, every slave who had been born in his household, and everyone whom he had bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham's household, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskins on that very day, as God had told him. 24 Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 His son Ishmael was thirteen when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 26 On that very same day, Abraham and his son Ishmael were circumcised. 27 All the men of his household, the slaves who had been born in the household, and those who had been bought with money from a foreigner, were circumcised with him.

18

Gn 18

Abraham's Hospitality to Visitors, God's Sixth Promise to Abraham, and the Promise of a Son — Hebrews 13:2

1 The LORD appeared to Abraham beside the large trees of Mamre when he was sitting at the entrance of his tent in the heat of the day. 2 When Abraham looked up, he suddenly saw three men standing near him. When he saw them, he ran from the entrance of his tent to meet them and bowed down to the ground. 3 Abraham said: "My Lord, if I have now found favour in Your sight, please do not pass Your servant by! 4 Please let a little water be brought! Wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree! 5 Let me bring some bread! Then you may refresh yourselves. After that you may go on your way, since this is why you have come to your servant."

They answered, "Do as you have said!"

6 Therefore Abraham hurried to Sarah in the tent. He said, "Quickly, get seven litres of fine flour, knead it, and make some bread-cakes!"

7 Then Abraham ran to the herd, took a calf that was tender and good, and gave it to his servant, who quickly prepared it. 8 He also took curds and milk as well as the calf that he had prepared and set these before them. Then he stood beside them under the tree while they ate.

9 They asked him, "Where is your wife, Sarah?"

He answered, "There, in the tent."

10 Then the LORD said, "I shall surely return to you about this time next year, and, indeed, your wife Sarah will have a son."

Sarah was listening at the entrance to the tent, which was behind Him. 11 Abraham and Sarah were old, and well advanced in years, and Sarah was past the age of childbearing. 12 Sarah laughed to herself, thinking, "Now that I am worn out, shall I have pleasure? What is more, my lord is old."

13 The LORD asked Abraham: "Why has Sarah laughed and asked, ‘Shall I really bear a child now that I am old?' 14 Is anything too difficult for the LORD? When I come back to you about this time next year, Sarah will have a son."

15 Sarah denied it, saying, "I did not laugh."

For she was afraid. However, He said, "Not so, but You did laugh."

God's Disclosure of His Plan to Destroy Sodom

16 When the men stood up to leave, they looked down toward Sodom, and Abraham kept walking along with them to send them on their way. 17 The LORD said: "Should I hide from Abraham what I am going to do, 18 since Abraham will certainly become a great and powerful nation, and all nations of the earth will be blessed in him? 19 For I have chosen him, so that he may command his children and his family after him to keep the way of the LORD by doing what is right and just, so that the LORD may bring about for Abraham what He has promised about him."

20 Then the LORD said: "The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is certainly great and their sin is very serious. 21 I shall go down and see whether everything that they have been doing is entirely as bad as the outcry that has come to Me against them. If not, I shall know it."

22 Then the men turned away from there and went on toward Sodom, but Abraham remained standing before the LORD.

Abraham's Intercession for Sodom

23 Abraham came closer and asked: "Will You really sweep away the innocent person with the guilty person? 24 Suppose there are fifty innocent people in the city. Will You really sweep them away? Will You not spare the place for the sake of the fifty innocent people who are in it? 25 Far be it from You to do such a thing, to kill the innocent person with the guilty person and treat the innocent person and the guilty person alike! Far be it from You! Will not the Judge of the entire earth do what is just?"

26 The LORD said, "If at Sodom I find fifty innocent people in the city, I shall spare the whole place for their sake."

27 Abraham answered: "Indeed now, although I am only dust and ashes, I have taken it on myself to speak to the LORD: 28 Suppose there are five fewer than fifty innocent people? Will You destroy the whole city because of the five?"

He said, "I shall not destroy it if I find forty-five there."

29 Abraham spoke to Him yet again, "Suppose only forty are found there?"

He answered, "I shall not do it for the sake of forty."

30 Then he said, "Please let the Lord not be angry, but let me speak! Suppose thirty are found there?"

He answered, "I shall not do it if I find thirty there."

31 He said, "Indeed now, I have taken it on myself to speak to the Lord. Suppose twenty are found there?"

He answered, "I shall not destroy it for the sake of the twenty."

32 He said, "Please let the Lord not be angry, but let me speak just once more! Suppose only ten are found there?"

He answered, "I shall not destroy it for the sake of the ten."

33 When the LORD had finished speaking to Abraham, He left, and Abraham returned home.

19

Gn 19

The Wickedness of the People of Sodom and Their Assault on Lot's Guests

1 The two angels arrived at Sodom in the evening, while Lot was sitting in the gateway of Sodom. When Lot saw them, he got up to meet them and bowed down with his face toward the ground. 2 He said, "Please, my masters, please turn in at your servant's home and spend the night! Wash your feet! Then you may get up early and go on your way."

However, they said, "No! We shall spend the night in the open square."

3 Nevertheless, he urged them very strongly so that they turned in with him. They went into his home, and he prepared a dinner for them. He baked bread without yeast, and they ate it. 4 Before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, both old and young, all the people to the last man, surrounded the house. 5 They called to Lot and asked him, "Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us so that we may have intercourse with them!"

6 Lot went out to them at the doorway and shut the door behind him. 7 He said: "Please, my friends, do not behave wickedly! 8 Please look! I have two daughters who have never slept with a man. Please let me bring them out to you! Do whatever you like with them! Only do not do anything to these men! For this is the reason why they have come under the protection of my roof."

9 However, they replied, "Stand farther back!" Then they said: "This one man has come here as a foreigner, and he has continually been acting as a judge! We shall treat you more wickedly than those men."

Then they urged Lot very strongly, and moved closer to break down the door. 10 However, the men inside reached out their hands, pulled Lot towards them into the house, and shut the door. 11 They struck the men in front of the door of the house, both young and old, with dazzling light, so that they gave up trying to find the door.

Lot's Rescue from Sodom and the Destruction of the Cities on the Plain — Matthew 11:23-24; Luke 17:28-32

12 Then the men asked Lot: "Have you anyone else here, a son-in-law, your sons, your daughters, or anyone else whom you have in the city? Take them out of the place! 13 For we are about to destroy this place. For their outcry has become so loud in the presence of the LORD that the LORD has sent us to destroy it."

14 Therefore Lot went out and spoke to his sons-in-law, who were to marry his daughters. He said: "Get up! Come out of this place! For the LORD is about to destroy the city!"

However, his sons-in-law thought that he was joking. 15 When the morning dawned, the angels urged Lot. They said: "Get up! Take your wife and your two daughters, who are here, so that you may not be swept away when the city is punished!"

16 He kept delaying. So the men took him by the hand, and took his wife by her hand and his two daughters by their hands, because the LORD was sparing him. Then they brought him out and set him outside of the city. 17 After they had brought them outside, one said: "Get yourselves to safety for the sake of your lives! Do not look behind, and do not stop anywhere in the plain! Get to the hills for safety, that you may not be swept away!"

18 However, Lot told them: "No, my masters, please! 19 Please consider! Your servant has found favour in your sight, and You have been very kind to me by saving my life. However, I cannot get myself safely to the hill-country. Otherwise, the calamity will overtake me, and I shall die. 20 Please look! This city is near enough to flee to, and it is a modest one. Please let me get myself there for safety! Is it not a modest one? Then I shall stay alive."

21 He told him: "See! I have been favourable to you also in this matter. I shall not overthrow the city about which you have spoken. 22 Hurry! Get yourself there safely! For I cannot do anything until you arrive there."

That is why the town was named "Zoar."*15 23 The sun had risen over the country when Lot arrived at Zoar.

24 Then the LORD rained sulphur and fire on Sodom and Gomorrah, from the LORD out of heaven. 25 He overthrew those cities, the whole plain, all who were living in the cities, and what was growing on the ground. 26 However, Lot's wife looked back, and turned into a pillar of salt.

27 Early in the morning Abraham got up and went to the place where he had stood before the LORD. 28 When he looked down towards Sodom and Gomorrah and over the entire land of the plain, he saw that the smoke of the land went up like the smoke of a furnace. 29 In this way, when God destroyed the cities of the plain, He remembered Abraham and brought Lot out of the destruction when He overthrew the cities where Lot had been living.

The Birth of Two Sons of Lot by his own Daughters, the Origin of the Moabites and Ammonites

30 However, Lot went up out of Zoar and settled in the hill-country with his two daughters, because he was afraid to live in Zoar, and he and his two daughters lived in a cave. 31 The firstborn told the younger one: "Our father is old, and there is no man in the country to marry us as is the custom all over the earth. 32 Come! Let us give our father a drink of wine, that we may sleep with him, so that we may preserve descendants from our father!"

33 Therefore that night they gave their father wine to drink, and the elder daughter went in and lay down with her father. He did not know when she lay down or when she got up. 34 The next day the elder daughter told the younger: "Yesterday evening I slept with my father. Let us make him drink wine tonight too! Then you go and sleep with him, so that we may preserve descendants from our father!"

35 Therefore they gave their father wine to drink that night too. The younger daughter went and slept with him. He did not know when she lay down or when she got up. 36 Lot's two daughters became pregnant from their own father. 37 The firstborn gave birth to a son and named him "Moab."*16 He is the ancestor of the Moabites of today. 38 The younger daughter also gave birth to a son, and named him "Ben-Ammi."*17 He is the ancestor of the Ammonites of today.

20

Gn 20

Abraham's Deception of Abimelech — Compare similar incidents, Genesis 12:10-20, 26:1-11

1 Abraham left from there, moved to the country of the Negev, and lived between Kadesh and Shur. He stayed as a foreigner in Gerar. 2 Abraham said about his wife Sarah, "She is my sister."

Then Abimelech, the king of Gerar, sent some men, and took Sarah away. 3 However, God came to Abimelech in a dream during the night, and told him, "Look! You are as good as dead because of the woman whom you have taken. She is a man's wife."

4 However, Abimelech had not yet come near her. He asked: "LORD, will You kill a nation even if it is innocent? 5 Did he not tell me himself, ‘She is my sister,' and did not she herself say, ‘He is my brother'? I have done this in good faith and with innocent hands."

6 Then God told him in the dream: "Yes, I know that you have done this in good faith. I Myself have also held you back from sinning against Me. That is why I have not allowed you to touch her. 7 Now therefore, give the man's wife back to him, because he is a prophet, so that he may pray for you! So save your life! However, if you do not give her back, be aware that you and all who belong to you will certainly die!"

8 So Abimelech got up early in the morning, and summoned all his officials. When the men heard him tell them all about this, they were very afraid. 9 Then Abimelech summoned Abraham. He asked him: "What have you done to us? How have I sinned against you, that you have brought a serious sin on me and on my kingdom? You have done things to me that should not be done."

10 Abimelech also asked Abraham, "What did you have in mind when you did this?"

11 Abraham said: "I did it because I thought, ‘Nobody fears God at all in this place, and they will kill me because of my wife.' 12 Besides, she truly is my sister, the daughter of my father, although not of my mother; and she became my wife. 13 When God made me wander from my father's home, I told her, ‘This is the favour that you should do to me: Whenever we come to any place, say about me, "He is my brother!"'"

14 Then Abimelech took sheep, cattle, men-servants, and maidservants, and gave them to Abraham, and he gave his wife Sarah back to him. 15 Abimelech said: "Look! My country is open to you. Live wherever you please!"

16 Then he told Sarah: "Look! I have given your brother a thousand shekels of silver. See! That is a declaration to all who are with you and to everyone else that your honour is unblemished, and before everyone you will be completely in the right."

17 Then Abraham prayed to God, and God healed Abimelech, his wife, and his maidservants, so that they could have children. 18 For the LORD had closed up every womb in Abimelech's household because of Sarah, Abraham's wife.

21

Gn 21

The Birth of Isaac — Hebrews 11:11

1 The LORD came to help Sarah as He had said, and the LORD did for Sarah what He had promised. 2 Sarah became pregnant, and gave birth to a son for Abraham in his old age at the exact time that God had promised him. 3 Abraham named his new-born son, whom Sarah had borne to him, "Isaac."*18 4 Abraham circumcised his son Isaac on the eighth day, as God had commanded him. 5 Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him. 6 Sarah said, "God has brought me laughter, and everyone who hears about this will laugh with me." 7 She also said: "Who would ever have told Abraham, ‘Sarah has suckled children'? Yet I have borne him a son in his old age."

The Sending away of Hagar and Ishmael and God's Protection of them — Galatians 4:21-30

8 The child grew and was weaned. On the day when Isaac was weaned, Abraham made a big feast. 9 Sarah saw that the son of the Egyptian Hagar, whom she had borne to Abraham, was mocking. 10 She told Abraham, "Get rid of this slave-woman and her son! For this slave-woman's son will not share the inheritance with my son Isaac."

11 Abraham was very distressed about this, because his son was involved. 12 However, God told Abraham: "Do not be distressed about the boy or about your slave-woman! Comply with everything that Sarah is telling you! For it is through Isaac that your offspring will be named. 13 I shall also make the slave-woman's son into a nation, because he is your offspring."

14 Abraham got up early the next morning, took some bread and a skin containing water, and gave them to Hagar. He put them on her shoulder, gave the boy to her, and sent her away. So she left, and wandered around in the Wilderness of Beer-Sheba. 15 When the water in the container was used up, she put the boy under one of the bushes. 16 Then she went a good way off, about as far away as an arrow can be shot, and sat down by herself. For she thought, "I do not want to watch the boy die."

So she sat down opposite him and wept aloud. 17 God heard the boy's voice, and the Angel of God called to Hagar from heaven. He asked her: "What is the matter, Hagar? Do not be afraid! For God has heard the boy's voice from where he is lying. 18 Get up! Lift the boy up, and take hold of him with your hand! For I shall make him into a great nation."

19 Then God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water. She went and filled the container with water and gave the boy a drink. 20 God was with the boy. He grew up, lived in the wilderness, and became an archer. 21 He lived in the Wilderness of Paran, and his mother got a wife for him from the land of Egypt.

Abraham's Treaty with Abimelech

22 At that time Abimelech and Phicol, the general of his army, told Abraham: "God is with you in everything that you are doing. 23 Now therefore, swear to me here by God that you will not deal falsely with me, with my children, or with my descendants, but that you will treat me and the country in which you have been residing as a foreigner as kindly as I have been treating you!"

24 Abraham said, "I swear it."

25 Then Abraham began to rebuke Abimelech about a well of water that Abimelech's servants had seized.

26 Abimelech answered, "I do not know who has done this. You have neither told me about it, nor have I heard about it until today."

27 Abraham took some sheep and cattle and gave them to Abimelech, and the two of them made a treaty. 28 Then Abraham put seven young ewe-lambs of the flock to one side by themselves.

29 Abimelech asked Abraham, "What is the meaning of these seven ewe-lambs, which you have put to one side by themselves?"

30 He replied, "You will accept these seven ewe-lambs from my hand, in order that you may be my witness that I have dug this well."

31 Therefore he called that place "Beer-Sheba,"*19 because the two of them swore an oath there. 32 After they had made a treaty at Beer-Sheba, Abimelech and Phicol, the general of his army, left to go back to the land of the Philistines. 33 Abraham planted a tamarisk tree at Beer-Sheba, and there he called on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God. 34 Abraham resided for a long time as a foreigner in the land of the Philistines.

22

Gn 22

God's Testing of Abraham's Faith — Hebrews 11:17-19

1 After these things, God tested Abraham. God said to him, "Abraham!"

He replied, "Here I am."

2 God said: "Take your son, your only son, Isaac, whom you love, and go to the region of Moriah! Sacrifice him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains that I shall point out to you!"

3 So Abraham got up early the next morning and saddled his donkey. He took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac. He cut the wood for the burnt offering. Then he got up and started out for the place about which God had told him. 4 On the third day Abraham looked up and saw the place in the distance. 5 Then Abraham told his servants: "Stay here with the donkey and let the lad and me go over there, so that we may worship! Then we shall come back to you."

6 Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and laid it on his son Isaac, and he himself carried the burning coals and the knife. So the two of them went on together. 7 Then Isaac said to his father Abraham, "Father!"

Abraham said, "Here I am, my son."

Then Isaac said, "Look! We have the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?"

8 Abraham answered, "God will provide Himself with a lamb for the burnt offering, my son."

So the two of them went on together. 9 When they reached the place about which God had told him, Abraham built the altar there and arranged the wood on it. Then he tied up his son Isaac and laid him on the altar, on top of the wood. 10 Abraham reached out his hand and took the knife to slay his son. 11 However, the Angel of the LORD called to him from heaven and said: "Abraham! Abraham!"

He replied, "Here I am."

12 He said: "Do not lay your hand on the boy! Do not do anything to him! For now I know that you fear God. You have not withheld your son, your only son, from Me."

13 When Abraham looked up, he saw behind him a ram caught by his horns in the thicket. So Abraham went, took the ram, and sacrificed it as a burnt offering instead of his son. 14 Abraham named that place "The-LORD-Will-Provide." It is still said today, "On the mountain of the LORD it will be provided."

God's Seventh Promise to Abraham

15 The Angel of the LORD called to Abraham from heaven a second time. 16 He said: "‘I have sworn an oath by Myself,' declares the LORD, ‘that, because you have done this, and have not withheld your son, your only son, 17 I shall certainly bless you. I shall certainly also make your descendants as many as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will possess the city-gates of their enemies. 18 In your Descendant all the nations of the earth will be blessed, because you have listened to what I have said.'"

19 Abraham went back to his men-servants, and they set out and went together to Beer-Sheba. Then Abraham lived at Beer-Sheba.

The Family of Nahor

20 After this, Abraham was told: "Milcah has also given birth to children to your brother Nahor: 21 his firstborn Uz, his brother Buz, Kemuel (the father of Aram), 22 Kesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel."

23 Bethuel became the father of Rebekah. Milcah bore these eight sons to Nahor, Abraham's brother. 24 Nahor's concubine, whose name was Reumah, also gave birth to Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maacah.

23

Gn 23

The Death and Burial of Sarah

1 Sarah lived for one hundred and twenty-seven years. That was the length of Sarah's life. 2 Sarah died at Kiriath-Arba, which is Hebron, in the land of Canaan, and Abraham went in to mourn for Sarah and to weep over her. 3 Then Abraham left the side of his dead wife and spoke to the Hittites. He said, 4 "I am a sojourner and a foreigner among you. Sell me property for a burial place in your country, that I may take my dead wife away and bury her!"

5 The Hittites answered Abraham, 6 "Listen to us, my master! You are a prince of God among us. Bury your dead wife in the best of our burial places! None of us will refuse to let you bury your dead wife in his burial place."

7 Abraham stood up and then bowed down before the people of the land, the Hittites. 8 He told them: "If you are willing to let me take my dead wife away and bury her, then listen to me! Intercede with Ephron, the son of Zohar, on my behalf, 9 that he may let me have the cave of Machpelah, which belongs to him! It is at the edge of his field. Let him give it to me in your presence for its full price as a property for a burial place in your country!"

10 Ephron was sitting among the Hittites. Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham while all the Hittites who had come to the gate of his city were listening: 11 "No, my master! Listen to me! I am herewith giving you the field, and I am giving you the cave that is in it. I am giving it to you in the presence of my kinsmen. Bury your dead wife!"

12 Abraham bowed down before the people of the land. 13 He told Ephron, while the people of the country were listening: "However, if you are willing, if only you might listen to me! I am herewith paying you the price of the field. Accept it from me! Then I shall bury my dead wife there."

14 Ephron answered Abraham, 15 "My master, listen to me! The land is worth four kilograms and eight hundred grams of silver. What is that between you and me? So bury your dead wife!"

16 Abraham agreed to Ephron's terms. Abraham weighed out for Ephron the price that he had stated while the Hittites were listening: four kilograms and eight hundred grams of silver, at the current weight among the merchants. 17 So the field of Ephron, which was at Machpelah near Mamre, the field with the cave in it and all the trees that were in the field inside its entire boundary were purchased 18 by Abraham. They became his property in the presence of all the Hittites who had come to the gate of Ephron's city.

19 After this, Abraham buried his wife Sarah in the cave in the field of Machpelah, near Mamre, which is Hebron, in the land of Canaan. 20 So the field and the cave in it, which had once belonged to the Hittites, were deeded to Abraham as his property for a burial place.

24

Gn 24

Abraham's Instructions to his Servant about a Wife for Isaac

1 Abraham was old and well advanced in age, and the LORD had blessed Abraham in every way. 2 Abraham told the oldest servant of his household, who was managing everything that he owned: "Please put your hand under my thigh, 3 that I may make you swear by the LORD, the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that you will not get a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites among whom I am living! 4 Rather, swear that you will go to my country and my own relatives and get a wife for my son Isaac!"

5 The servant asked him: "What if the woman is not willing to come away with me to this country? Should I without fail take your son back to the country from which you have come?"

6 Abraham told him: "Be careful that you do not take my son back there! 7 The LORD, the God of heaven, who has taken me from my father's home and the land of my relatives, who has spoken to me, and who has sworn to me, ‘I shall give this land to your descendants,' will send His angel ahead of you, and you shall get a wife for my son from there! 8 However, if the woman is not willing to come back with you, you will not be bound any more by what you swear to me here. You shall simply not take my son back there!"

Abraham's Servant's Journey to Haran to Find a Wife for Isaac

9 The servant put his hand under the thigh of his master Abraham and swore an oath to him about this matter. 10 Then the servant took ten of his masters' camels and left. He also took all kinds of his masters' valuable articles with him. He set out and went to the city of Nahor in Mesopotamia. 11 He made the camels kneel down outside of the city near a well. It was in the evening, at the time when women go out to draw water. 12 Then he said: "O LORD, the God of my master Abraham, please give me success today, and be kind to my master Abraham! 13 See! I am standing beside this spring of water, and the daughters of the men of the city are coming out to draw water. 14 Let it be so that the girl is the one, who, when I ask her, ‘Please tilt your jar for me, that I may have a drink,' replies, ‘Drink, and I shall also give your camels a drink!' Let her be the one whom You have assigned for Your servant Isaac! This is how I shall know that You have been kind to my master."

15 Before he had finished speaking, there was Rebekah coming out. She was the daughter of Bethuel, the son of Milcah, who was the wife of Nahor, Abraham's brother. She had her jar on her shoulder. 16 The young woman had a very beautiful figure. She was a virgin. No man had slept with her. She went down to the spring, filled her jar, and came up again. 17 Then the servant ran to meet her and asked her: "Please, let me sip a little water from your jar!"

18 She said, "Drink, my master!"

She quickly lowered her jar to her hand, and gave him a drink. 19 After she had finished giving him a drink, she said, "I shall also keep drawing water for your camels, until they have finished drinking."

20 She quickly emptied out her jar into the watering-trough, ran back to the well to draw more water, and drew enough for all his camels. 21 The man was standing gazing at her silently, to find out whether the LORD had made his journey successful or not. 22 When the camels had finished drinking, the man took out a golden nose-ring weighing six grams and two golden bracelets weighing one hundred and twenty grams for her wrists. 23 Then he asked, "Whose daughter are you? Please tell me! Is there room in your father's house for us to spend the night?"

24 She answered him: "I am the daughter of Bethuel, who is the son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor."

25 She also told him, "We have plenty of straw and other fodder, and also a place to spend the night."

26 The man knelt down and worshipped the LORD. 27 He said: "Blessed be the LORD, the God of my master Abraham! He has not failed to be merciful and faithful to my master. As for me, the LORD has led me on the journey to the home of my master's relatives."

28 The young woman ran and told her mother's household about these things. 29 Rebekah had a brother whose name was Laban. Laban ran outside to the man at the spring. 30 When he had seen the nose-ring and the bracelets on his sister's wrists, and had heard his sister Rebekah tell what the man had told her, he went to the man. There he was, standing with the camels beside the spring. 31 He said: "Come in, you whom the LORD has blessed! Why are you standing outside? I have made room in the house and cleared up a place for the camels."

32 So the man went to the house, unsaddled the camels, gave them straw and other fodder, and gave him water to wash his feet and for the feet of the men who were with him. 33 However, when food was set before him, he said, "I shall not eat until I have told you what I have to say."

Laban said, "Speak on!"

34 He said: "I am Abraham's servant. 35 The LORD has richly blessed my master, and he has become wealthy. He has given him sheep and cattle, silver and gold, men-servants and women-servants, and camels and donkeys. 36 Sarah, my master's wife, bore a son to my master after she had grown old, and my master has given him everything that he owns. 37 My master has made me swear, ‘You shall not get a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose country I am living! 38 Instead, you shall go to my father's family and my relatives and get a wife for my son!' 39 I asked my master, ‘What if the woman will not come with me?' 40 He answered me, ‘The LORD, before whom I have been living, will send His angel with you. He will make your journey successful, and you shall get my son a wife from my relatives and from my father's family! 41 Then you will be released from the obligation of my oath. After you go to my relatives, even if they do not give anyone to you, you will be free from the obligation of your oath to me.' 42 When I came to the spring today, I prayed: ‘LORD, God of my master Abraham, please, if You are really granting success to my errand, on which I am coming, 43 look! I am standing beside the spring of water. When the virgin comes out to draw water and I tell her, "Please give me a little water to drink from your jar!" 44 and she tells me, "Not only may you have a drink, but I shall also draw water for your camels," let her be the woman whom the LORD has assigned for my master's son!' 45 I had not yet finished saying this in my heart when there was Rebekah coming out with her jar on her shoulder. She went down to the spring and drew water. I asked her, ‘Please, give me a drink!' 46 She quickly let down her jar from her shoulder and said, ‘Have a drink! I shall also give your camels a drink.' Therefore I had a drink, and she also gave the camels a drink. 47 Then I asked her, ‘Whose daughter are you?' She answered, ‘The daughter of Bethuel, the son of Nahor, whom Milcah bore to him.' Then I put the ring in her nose and the bracelets on her wrists. 48 I knelt down and worshipped the LORD. I blessed the LORD, the God of my master Abraham, who led me on the right way to get the daughter of my master's relative for his son. 49 So now tell me whether you intend to treat my master with true kindness; and if not, tell me, so that I may turn to the right hand or to the left!"

50 Laban and Bethuel answered: "The thing has come from the LORD. We cannot say anything bad or anything good to you. 51 Here before you is Rebekah. Take her and go, and let her be the wife of your master's son, as the LORD has said!"

52 When Abraham's servant heard what they said, he bowed down to the ground before the LORD. 53 Then the servant took out silver and gold jewellery and garments and gave them to Rebekah. He also gave expensive gifts to her brother and to her mother. 54 Then he and the men who were with him ate, drank, and stayed overnight. When they got up in the morning, he said, "Send me on my way to my master!"

55 Her brother and her mother said, "Let the young woman stay with us ten days or so! After that she may go."

56 He told them, "Do not delay me! Now that the LORD has made my errand successful, send me on my way, that I may go to my master!"

57 They said, "We shall call the young woman, that we may ask her personally."

58 They called Rebekah, and asked her, "Will you go with this man?"

She said, "I shall go."

59 Therefore they sent their sister Rebekah on her way, along with her nurse, Abraham's servant, and his men. 60 They blessed Rebekah, saying to her: "Our sister, may you become the mother of ten million! May your descendants also take possession of the city-gates of those who hate them!"

61 Rebekah and her maids started out. They rode on the camels and followed the man. So the servant took Rebekah with him and left.

The Marriage of Isaac and Rebekah

62 Isaac had arrived back after he had come from Beer-Lahai-Roi, and was living in the Negev. 63 Isaac had gone out into the field toward evening to meditate. When he looked up, there he saw camels approaching. 64 Rebekah also looked up, and, when she saw Isaac, she dismounted from her camel. 65 She asked the servant, "Who is the man over there coming through the field to meet us?"

The servant answered, "That is my master."

Then she took her veil and covered herself. 66 The servant reported to Isaac everything that he had done. 67 Isaac brought her into the tent of his mother Sarah. He married Rebekah. So she became his wife, and he loved her. So Isaac was comforted after his mother's death.

25

Gn 25

Abraham's Marriage to Keturah — 1 Chronicles 1:32-33

1 Abraham married again and his wife's name was Keturah. 2 She bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. 3 Jokshan became the father of Sheba and Dedan. The descendants of Dedan were the Asshurites, the Letushites, and the Leummites. 4 The descendants of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were descendants of Keturah. 5 Abraham gave Isaac everything that he owned. 6 However, Abraham gave presents to the sons of the concubines that he had, and while he was still living sent them away from his son Isaac to a land in the east.

The Death of Abraham

7 This was the span of the years of Abraham's life. He lived for one hundred and seventy-five years. 8 Abraham breathed his last and died at a good old age. After a long and full life he was gathered to his people. 9 His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, which is near Mamre, in the field of Ephron, the son of Zohar the Hittite. 10 It was the field that Abraham had bought from the Hittites. Abraham was buried there with his wife Sarah. 11 After Abraham died, God blessed his son Isaac. Isaac lived at Beer-Lahai-Roi.

12 This is the family record of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, whom Hagar, Sarah's Egyptian maidservant, bore to Abraham.

Ishmael's Descendants – 1 Chronicles 1:29-31

13 These are the names of the sons of Ishmael, listed in the order of their birth: The firstborn of Ishmael was Nebaioth, then Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 14 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, 15 Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. 16 These were the sons of Ishmael, and these were their names according to their settlements and camps. There were twelve leaders of their tribes. 17 Altogether, Ishmael lived for one hundred and thirty-seven years. He breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his people. 18 His descendants lived in the area from Havilah to Shur, which is opposite Egypt, in the direction of Asshur. He settled over against all his relatives.

19 This is the family-history of Isaac, Abraham's son.

The Family-History of Isaac 25:19-26:34

The Birth of the Twins Esau and Jacob — Romans 9:10-12

19b Abraham became the father of Isaac. 20 Isaac was forty years old when he married Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel, the Aramean from Paddan-Aram, and the sister of Laban the Aramean. 21 Isaac pleaded with the LORD for his wife, because she was childless. The LORD granted his plea, and his wife Rebekah became pregnant. 22 When the babies inside her were pushing each other around, she said, "If it is like this, why am I like this?"

Therefore she went to inquire of the LORD. 23 The LORD told her: "Two nations are in your womb. Two peoples will go their separate ways from your body. One people will be stronger than the other, and the older one will serve the younger one."

24 When her time was due for her to give birth, it was apparent that there were twins in her womb. 25 The first came out red. His whole body was like a hairy coat, and so they named him "Esau."*20 26 After that, his brother came out, with his hand holding Esau's heel, and so he was named "Jacob."*21 Isaac was sixty years old when Rebekah gave birth to them.

Esau's Contempt for his Rights as the Firstborn — Hebrews 12:16

27 When the boys grew up, Esau was an expert hunter, a man of the outdoors. However, Jacob was an orderly man, living in tents. 28 Isaac loved Esau because he liked to eat wild game, but Rebekah loved Jacob. 29 Once, when Jacob was boiling some food, Esau came in from the field, feeling exhausted. 30 Esau told Jacob, "Please let me gulp down some of the red food — this red food! For I am exhausted."

That is why he was called "Edom."

31 Jacob answered, "First sell me your rights as the elder son!"

32 Esau said, "Look! I am about to die. Then what good is a birthright to me?"

33 However, Jacob said, "Swear an oath to me first!"

Esau swore an oath to him, and he sold his rights as the firstborn to Jacob. 34 Then Jacob gave Esau some bread and lentils that he had cooked. Esau ate and drank, and then got up and went away. In this way Esau showed contempt for his rights as the firstborn.

26

Gn 26

God's First Promise to Isaac

1 There was a famine in the land in addition to the earlier famine that had occurred in the time of Abraham, and Isaac went to Abimelech, the king of the Philistines at Gerar. 2 The LORD appeared to Isaac. He said: "Do not go down to Egypt! Live in the land where I am telling you to live! 3 Live as a foreigner in this country! I shall be with you and bless you. For I shall give all these lands to you and your descendants, and I shall carry out the oath that I have sworn to your father Abraham. 4 I shall make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky. I shall give all these lands to your descendants, and in your Descendant all the nations of the earth will be blessed. 5 For Abraham listened to My voice, and kept what I obligated him to do, My Commandments, My Prescriptions, and My Laws."

Isaac's Deception of Abimelech at Gerar — Compare similar incidents Genesis 12:10-20, 20:1-18

6 So Isaac continued to live in Gerar. 7 When the men of the place asked him about his wife, he answered, "She is my sister." For he was afraid to say, "She is my wife." For he thought, "Otherwise the men of this place might kill me for the sake of Rebekah, because she has a beautiful figure."

8 When Isaac had been there for a long time, Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, looked down out of the window, and saw Isaac fondling his wife Rebekah. 9 Abimelech summoned Isaac and said, "So she is your wife! How then could you say, ‘She is my sister'?"

Isaac answered, "I thought, ‘Otherwise I might die because of her.'"

10 Abimelech said: "What is this you have done to us? One of the people might easily have slept with your wife. Then you would have made us guilty of a wrong."

11 Abimelech gave orders to all the people: "Anyone who touches this man or his wife will certainly be put to death."

Isaac's Struggle for Peace and Prosperity

12 Isaac sowed a seed in that country, and that year he harvested a hundred measures of grain, because the LORD had been blessing him. 13 The man became rich, and he kept on progressing and becoming richer, until he had become very wealthy. 14 He owned flocks and herds, and had many servants, so that the Philistines envied him. 15 The Philistines had stopped up all the wells that his father's servants had dug while Abraham was alive, and had filled them with soil. 16 Abimelech told Isaac, "Move away from us! For you have become much mightier than we are."

17 So Isaac moved away from there, camped in the Valley of Gerar, and lived there. 18 Isaac dug out again the wells of water that they had dug during his father Abraham's lifetime, because the Philistines had stopped them up after Abraham died. He gave them the same names as his father had given them. 19 Isaac's servants dug in the valley and found a spring-fed well there. 20 However, the herdsmen of Gerar had a dispute with Isaac's herdsmen, saying, "This water is ours!" So Isaac named the well "Esek,"*22 because they had quarrelled with him. 21 Then they dug another well, but they had a dispute over that one also. So Isaac named it "Sitnah,"*23 22 He moved on from there, and dug another well. When they did not have a dispute over that well, he named it "Rehoboth,"*24 saying, "Surely now the LORD has provided wide room for us, so that we may be fruitful in the land."

God's Second Promise to Isaac

23 Then Isaac went up from there to Beer-Sheba. 24 The same night the LORD appeared to him, and said: "I am the God of your father Abraham. Do not be afraid! For I am with you and I shall bless you and give you many descendants because of My servant Abraham."

25 Isaac built an altar there and called on the name of the LORD. Then Isaac pitched his tent there, and his servants dug a well there.

Isaac's Treaty with Abimelech

26 Then Abimelech came to him from Gerar with his close friend Ahuzzath, and Phicol, the commander of his army. 27 Isaac asked them, "Why have you come to me, since you hate me and have sent me away from you?"

28 However, they said: "We have clearly seen that the LORD has been with you. So we said, ‘There ought to be an obligation by an oath between you and us, which puts a curse on a transgressor.' Therefore let us make a treaty with you, 29 that you will not do any harm to us, as we on our part have not touched you and as we have been doing nothing but good to you! We have let you go away in peace. You are now blessed by the LORD."

30 Isaac made a feast for them, and they ate and drank. 31 Early the next morning the men swore an oath to one another. Then Isaac sent them on their way, and they parted from him in peace. 32 On that day Isaac's servants came and informed him about the well that they had dug. They told him, "We have found water."

33 He called it "Shibah." That is why the city is called "Beer-Sheba" to this day.

Esau's Marriages to Hittite Wives

34 When Esau was forty years old, he married Judith, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite. He also married Basemath, the daughter of Elon the Hittite. 35 These women were a source of bitter grief to Isaac and Rebekah.

27

Gn 27

The Family-History of Jacob 27:1-37:2

Jacob's Deception of Isaac to Obtain his Blessing

1 When Isaac was old, his eyesight became so dim that he could not see. He called Esau, his elder son, and said to him, "My son!"

He answered him, "Yes, I am here."

2 Isaac said: "You see that I am old, and I do not know when I am going to die. 3 Now then, please get your weapons, your quiver and your bow, and go out to the open country and hunt some game for me! 4 Then prepare for me the kind of delicious meal that I like! Bring it to me to eat, so that I myself may give you my blessing before I die!"

5 Rebekah was listening while Isaac was speaking to his son Esau. When Esau went to the open country to hunt some game and bring it back, 6 Rebekah told her son Jacob: "Look! I have just heard your father speaking to your brother Esau. He said, 7 ‘Fetch me some game, and prepare a delicious meal for me to eat! Then I shall give you my blessing in the presence of the LORD before I die.' 8 Now therefore, my son, obey me in what I am telling you to do! 9 Please, go to the flock and get me two choice young goats from there, so that I may use them to prepare for your father the kind of delicious meal that he likes! 10 Then you shall take it to your father to eat, in order that he may give you his blessing before he dies!"

11 However, Jacob answered his mother Rebekah: "Look! My brother Esau is a hairy man, and I am a man with a smooth skin. 12 What if my father feels me? He will think that I am mocking him. Then I shall bring a curse on myself instead of a blessing."

13 However, his mother told him, "Let your curse be on me, my son! Just do as I say! Go and get them for me!"

14 He went and got them, and brought them to his mother. His mother prepared the kind of delicious meal that his father liked. 15 Rebekah took her elder son Esau's favourite clothes, which she had with her in the house, and put them on her younger son Jacob. 16 She also covered his hands and the hairless parts of his neck with pieces of skin from the young goats. 17 Then she put the delicious meat and the bread that she had prepared in the hands of her son Jacob. 18 He went in to his father and said, "My father!"

He said, "Yes, I am here. Who are you, my son?"

19 Jacob told his father: "I am Esau, your firstborn son. I have done as you told me. Please get up, take a seat, and eat some of my game, in order that you may give me your blessing in person!"

20 Isaac asked his son, "How did you find anything as quickly as this, my son?"

He answered, "Because the LORD, your God, ordained it for me."

21 Isaac told Jacob, "Please come closer, that I may feel you, my son, to see whether you really are my son Esau or not!"

22 Jacob went closer to his father Isaac. He felt him, and said, "The voice is Jacob's, but the hands are Esau's."

However, he did not recognise him, because his hands were hairy like the hands of his brother Esau. That is why he blessed him.

24 However, he asked, "Are you really my son Esau?"

He answered, "I am."

25 He said, "Bring it closer to me, that I may eat some of my son's game, so that I may give you my blessing in person!"

Jacob took it closer to Isaac, and Isaac ate it. Jacob also passed him some wine, and he drank it. 26 Then his father Isaac told him, "Please come here and kiss me, my son!"

27 He went closer and kissed him. When Isaac had caught the smell of his clothes, he gave him his blessing. He said: "See! The smell of my son is like the smell of an open field that the LORD has blessed. 28 Therefore may God give you the dew from the sky and fertile tracts of the earth, with plenty of grain and wine! 29 May nations serve you and peoples bow down before you! Be a master over your brothers! May your mother's sons bow down before you! Cursed be those who curse you, and blessed be those who bless you!"

Esau's Reception of an Inferior Blessing, and his Hatred of Jacob — Hebrews 12:17

30 When Isaac had finished blessing Jacob and Jacob had scarcely left the presence of his father Isaac, his brother Esau came in from his hunting. 31 He also had prepared a delicious meal, and he took it to his father. He told his father, "Let my father please sit up and eat some of his son's game, in order that you may give me your blessing in person!"

32 His father Isaac asked him, "Who are you?"

He answered, "I am your son, your firstborn, Esau."

33 Isaac shook very violently, and asked: "Who was it then who hunted game and brought it to me, so that I ate all of it just before you came in, and so that I gave him my blessing? Yes, and he must stay blessed!"

34 When Esau heard what his father said, he cried out very loudly and very bitterly. He told his father, "Bless me, me also, my father!"

35 Isaac said, "Your brother has come in deceitfully, and has taken away your blessing."

36 Esau said: "Is he not rightly named ‘Jacob'?*25 He has cheated me these two times. He has taken away my rights as the firstborn son. Look! Now he has also taken away my blessing."

Then he asked, "Have you not reserved a blessing for me?"

37 Isaac answered Esau: "Look! I have made him your master, and I have made all his relatives his servants. I have supported him with grain and wine. What, then, am I to do for you, my son?"

38 Esau asked his father, "Do you have only one blessing, my father? Bless me, me too, my father!"

Then Esau wept aloud. 39 His father Isaac answered him: "Your dwelling will be fertile tracts of the earth, but away from the dew of the sky above. 40 You will use your sword to live and you will serve your brother. However, the time will come when you roam about and pull his yoke away from the back of your neck."

41 Esau harboured animosity towards Jacob because of the blessing that his father had given him. Esau said to himself, "The time to mourn for my father is coming closer. Then I shall kill my brother Jacob."

42 When Rebekah was told what her elder son Esau was saying, she sent a message and summoned her younger son Jacob. She told him: "Watch out! Your brother Esau is planning revenge against you, intending to kill you. 43 So now, my son, do what I say! Flee at once for your safety to my brother Laban at Haran! 44 Stay with him for a few days until your brother's fury subsides, 45 until your brother is not angry with you any more, and forgets what you have done to him! Then I shall send word and get you from there. Why should I have to mourn the loss of both of you in one day?"

46 Then Rebekah told Isaac: "I am disgusted with living because of the Hittite women. If Jacob marries a Hittite woman like these, one of the women of this country, why should I go on living?"

28

Gn 28

Jacob's Journey to his Mother's Relatives

1 Isaac called Jacob, blessed him, and gave him a command. He told him: "You shall not marry one of the women of Canaan! 2 Go at once to Paddan-Aram, to the home of Bethuel, your mother's father, and get yourself a wife there from the daughters of Laban, your mother's brother! 3 May God Almighty bless you, make you fruitful, and make you many, so that you may become a company of peoples! 4 May He give the blessing given to Abraham to you and to your descendants with you, so that you may inherit the land where you are living as a foreigner, the land that God gave to Abraham!"

5 Then Isaac sent Jacob away, and he went to Paddan Aram, to Laban, the son of Bethuel, the Aramean, the brother of Rebekah, who was the mother of Jacob and Esau.

Esau's Marriage to an Ishmaelite

6 Esau learned that Isaac had blessed Jacob and had sent him to Paddan-Aram to get a wife from there. He learned that Isaac had blessed Jacob and had commanded him, "You shall not marry a Canaanite woman!" 7 He also saw that Jacob had obeyed his father and mother and had gone to Paddan-Aram. 8 When Esau realised that his father Isaac considered that the women of Canaan were evil, 9 Esau went to Ishmael and married Mahalath, who was the daughter of Abraham's son Ishmael, and who was the sister of Nebaioth, in addition to the wives whom he already had.

God's Promise to Jacob in a Dream at Bethel

10 Then Jacob left Beer-Sheba and travelled towards Haran. 11 When he came to a certain place, he spent the night there because the sun had gone down. He took one of the stones of the place, put it under his head as a pillow, and lay down there. 12 He had a dream in which he saw a stairway set up on the earth. Its top reached up to heaven, and he saw the angels of God going up and coming down on it. 13 He saw the LORD standing above it, and He said: "I am the LORD, the God of your father Abraham, and the God of Isaac. I shall give the land on which you are lying to you and to your descendants. 14 Your descendants will be like the dust on the earth, and you will spread out to the west and to the east, to the north and to the south. In you and in your Descendant all the families of the earth will be blessed. 15 Moreover, look! I shall be with you, and shall watch over you everywhere you go. I shall bring you back to this land. For I shall not leave you until I have done what I have promised you."

16 When Jacob awoke from his sleep, he exclaimed, "Surely the LORD is in this place, and I was not aware of it." 17 He was afraid and said: "How awe-inspiring this place is! This is nothing less than the house of God! This is the gate of heaven!"

18 Jacob got up early in the morning, took the stone he had put under his head, set it up as an upright memorial stone, and poured olive-oil on top of it. 19 He named that place "Bethel."*26 However, previously that city used to be called "Luz."

20 Then Jacob made a vow, saying: "If God is with me, if He keeps me on this journey that I am making, if He gives me food to eat and clothes to wear, 21 and if I return to my father's house in safety, then the LORD will be my God. 22 In addition, this stone, which I have set as a marker, will be ‘the House of God.' I shall also surely give to You a tenth of all that You give to me."

29

Gn 29

Jacob's Arrival at Haran and his Meeting with Rachel

1 Jacob departed and came to the land of the people in the east. 2 When he looked, he saw a well in the field and also saw three flocks of sheep there lying near it, because shepherds watered the flocks at that well. The stone over the mouth of the well was large. 3 After all the flocks had gathered there, the shepherds used to roll the stone away from the mouth of the well, water the sheep, and put the stone back in its place over the mouth of the well. 4 Jacob asked the shepherds, "My friends, where are you from?"

They said, ‘We are from Haran."

5 He asked them, "Do you know Laban, Nahor's grandson?"

They answered, "We know him."

6 Jacob asked them, "Is he well?"

They answered, "He is well. Look! Here his daughter Rachel is coming with his sheep."

7 He said: "Look! It is still broad daylight. It is not time yet for the livestock to be rounded up. Water the sheep, and go and pasture them!"

8 They said: "We cannot, until all the flocks gather together and the shepherds roll the stone away from the mouth of the well. Then we water the sheep."

9 While he was still talking to them Rachel came with her father's sheep. For she was a shepherdess. 10 When Jacob saw Rachel, the daughter of Laban, his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban, his mother's brother, he went nearer, rolled the stone away from the mouth of the well, and watered the flock of Laban, his mother's brother. 11 Then Jacob kissed Rachel and wept aloud. 12 Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's relative, and that he was Rebekah's son. So she ran and told her father. 13 When Laban heard the news about his sister's son Jacob, he ran to meet him. He hugged and kissed him and took him to his home. Then Jacob told Laban all these things. 14 Laban told him, "You really are my own bone and flesh!"

Jacob's Marriage to Both Daughters of Laban, Leah and Rachel

14b After Jacob had stayed with him for a whole month, 15 Laban asked Jacob, "Should you work for me for nothing because you are my relative? Tell me what your wages should be!"

16 Laban had two daughters. The name of the elder one was Leah, and the name of the younger one was Rachel. 17 Leah's eyes were delicate, but Rachel was beautiful in form and looks. 18 Jacob loved Rachel. So he said, "I shall work for you for seven years in return for Rachel, your younger daughter."

19 Laban said, "It is better that I should give her to you than that I should give her to any other man. Stay here with me!"

20 Jacob worked for seven years in return for Rachel, and they seemed like only a few days to him because he loved her.

21 Then Jacob told Laban, "Give me my wife! My time is up. I want to marry her."

22 So Laban gathered all the people of the place and gave a feast. 23 However, in the evening he took his daughter Leah and brought her to Jacob. Jacob slept with her. 24 (Laban had given his servant-girl Zilpah to his daughter Leah to be her servant-girl.) 25 In the morning, Jacob saw that she was Leah. Jacob asked Laban, "What is this you have done to me? Have I not been working with you in return for Rachel? Why then have you deceived me?"

26 Laban answered: "Things are not done like that in our country, that the younger daughter should be given in marriage before the firstborn. 27 Finish the bridal week of this woman! Then this other one will also be given to you, in return for working seven more years with me."

28 That is what Jacob did. He finished the week with Leah. Then Laban gave his daughter Rachel to Jacob to be his wife. 29 (Laban had given his maidservant Bilhah to his daughter Rachel as her maidservant.) 30 So Jacob married Rachel too. He also loved Rachel more than Leah, and he worked for Laban for still another seven years.

Leah and Rachel's Competition for Jacob's Love, and Jacob's Eleven Children

31 When the LORD saw that Leah was slighted, He opened her womb, whereas Rachel was barren. 32 Leah became pregnant and gave birth to a son. She named him "Reuben."*27 For she said, "It is because the LORD has seen my misery. Surely now my husband will love me."
33 She became pregnant again, and, when she had given birth to a son, she said, "Because the LORD has heard that I am being slighted, He has also given me this one." So she named him "Simeon."*28
34 She became pregnant again, and, when she had given birth to a son, she said: "Now at last my husband will attach himself to me, because I have borne him three sons." Therefore he was named "Levi."*29
35 She became pregnant again, and, when she had given birth to a son, she said, "This time I shall praise the LORD." Therefore she named him "Judah."*30 Then she stopped having children.

30

Gn 30

1 When Rachel saw she had given Jacob no children, she became jealous of her sister. She told Jacob, "Give me children! If I do not have any, I am going to die."

2 Jacob became angry with Rachel. He asked, "Am I in the place of God? He has kept you from having children."

3 She said: "There is my maidservant Bilhah. Sleep with her, so that she may give birth to a child on my knees, so that I also may get a child from her!"

4 So she gave him her maidservant Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob slept with her. 5 Bilhah became pregnant, and bore a son to Jacob. 6 Rachel said: "God has judged in my favour. He has also heard my request, and has given me a son." Because of this, she named him "Dan."*31
7 Then Bilhah, Rachel's maidservant became pregnant again and bore Jacob a second son. 8 Rachel said, "I have wrestled mightily with my sister. I have even won." So she named him "Naphtali."*32
9 When Leah saw that she had ceased bearing children, she took her maidservant Zilpah and gave her to Jacob as his wife. 10 Then Zilpah, Leah's maidservant, bore Jacob a son. 11 Leah said. "Good fortune has come." So she named him "Gad."*33
12 When Zilpah, Leah's maidservant, bore Jacob a second son, 13 Leah said, "How happy I am! Women will call me happy." So she named him "Asher."*34

14 During the wheat harvest Reuben went out and found some mandrakes in the field, and brought them to his mother Leah. Rachel asked Leah, "Please give me some of your son's mandrakes!"

15 Leah asked her, "Has it not been enough for you to take away my husband? So will you also take my son's mandrakes?"

Rachel said, "Very well. He will sleep with you tonight in return for your son's mandrakes."

16 So when Jacob came in from the field that evening, Leah went out to meet him. She told him: "You must sleep with me! For I have unquestionably hired you with my son's mandrakes."

So he slept with her that night. 17 God heard Leah, and she became pregnant and bore Jacob a fifth son. 18 Leah said, "God has given me my wages, because I have given my maidservant to my husband." So she named him "Issachar."*35
19 Leah became pregnant again and bore Jacob a sixth son. 20 Leah said: "God has made me a fine gift. Now my husband will make me a lawful wife, because I have borne him six sons." So she named him "Zebulon."*36

21 Later she gave birth to a daughter and named her "Dinah."

22 God also remembered Rachel. God listened to her and opened her womb. 23 She became pregnant and gave birth to a son and said, "God has taken away my disgrace." 24 She named him "Joseph,"*37 and said, "May the LORD add to me another son!"

Jacob's Struggle with Laban for Prosperity

25 After Rachel had given birth to Joseph, Jacob told Laban: "Send me on my way, that I may go to my own home and my own country! 26 Give me my wives and my children, for whom I have been serving you, that I may leave! For you know the service that I have been doing for you."

27 However, Laban answered him: "Please do not leave! If you are kind to me, I have learned through divination that the LORD has been blessing me because of you."

28 Laban added, "Specify the wages I should pay you, and I shall pay them!"

29 Jacob answered him: "You yourself know the work that I have been doing for you, and what has happened to your livestock under my care. 30 For, before I came, you had only a little, but now it has increased greatly. The LORD has been blessing you because I am here. Now, however, when am I to do something for my own family as well?"

31Laban asked, "What should I pay you?"

Jacob answered: "Do not pay me anything! If you do this one thing for me, I shall feed and watch your flock again. 32 I shall go through your whole flock today and take out of it every speckled or spotted sheep, every lamb that is neither black nor white, and any of the goats that are spotted and speckled. These will be my wages. 33 My honesty will testify for me in time to come when you come to check on my wages. If I have any goat that is not speckled or spotted, or any lamb that is neither black nor white, it will be considered as stolen."

34 Laban answered, "Yes. Please let it be as you have said!"

35 However, that day Laban removed the striped and spotted he-goats and all the speckled and spotted she-goats, every animal that had only some white on it, and every lamb that was neither white nor black, and placed them in the care of his sons. 36 Then he put a distance of a three-days' journey between himself and Jacob, and Jacob continued to be the shepherd of the rest of Laban's flock. 37 Jacob chose fresh rods of storax trees, almond trees, and plane trees, and peeled off bark to make white stripes in them, to expose the white that was in the rods. 38 Then he placed the rods that he had peeled in the troughs at the watering places where the flocks used to come to drink, directly in front of the flocks, so that they were in heat when they came to drink. 39 The flocks were in heat in front of the rods, and the flocks gave birth to young that had twisted tails, or were speckled or spotted. 40 Jacob separated the young rams, and set them in front of the ones in the flock that had twisted tails and all the ones that were neither white nor black in Laban's flock. Then he put his own flocks by themselves, and did not put them with Laban's flocks. 41 Whenever the stronger ewes were in heat, Jacob used to place the rods in the troughs where the flock could see them, so that they might breed near the rods. 42 However, when the animals were weaker, he did not put out the rods. Consequently, the weaker animals belonged to Laban, but the stronger ones belonged to Jacob. 43 In this way, the man became exceedingly prosperous and he had large flocks, as well as maidservants, male servants, camels, and donkeys.

31

Gn 31

1 Jacob heard that Laban's sons were saying, "Jacob has taken everything that our father owned, and he has acquired all this wealth out of what used to belong to our father."

2 Jacob also saw that Laban's attitude towards him was indeed not as friendly as it had been before.

God's Repetition of His Promise to Jacob

3 Then the LORD told Jacob, "Go back to the country of your fathers and your relatives! I shall be with you."

Jacob's Departure from Haran with his Family and Possessions

4 So Jacob sent someone to call Rachel and Leah to come to the field where his flock was. 5 He told them: "I see that your father's attitude toward me is not as it has been until now, but that the God of my father has been with me. 6 However, you know that I have been serving your father with all my strength. 7 Nevertheless, your father has been cheating me, and has changed my wages ten times. However, God has not allowed him to harm me. 8 If he said, ‘The speckled animals will be your wages,' then the whole flock gave birth to speckled young. If he said, ‘The animals with twisted tails will be your wages,' the whole flock gave birth to young with twisted tails. 9 So God has taken away your father's livestock and has given them to me. 10 Once, when the flocks were mating, I had a dream in which I looked up and saw that the male-goats that were mating with the flock had twisted tails, or were speckled or multi-coloured. 11 In the dream the Angel of God said to me, ‘Jacob!' I answered, ‘Here I am.' 12 He said, ‘Look up! Notice that all the male goats that are mating with the flock have twisted tails, or are speckled, or multi-coloured! For I have been watching everything that Laban has been doing to you. 13 I am the God whom you saw at Bethel, where you poured oil on the upright stone marker, and where you made a vow to me. Now leave this land at once, and go back to the land of your relatives!'"

14 Rachel and Leah answered him: "Do we still have any share in property or inheritance in our father's household? 15 Has he not been regarding us as foreigners? For he sold us and has completely consumed our money. 16 Surely all the wealth that God has taken away from our father belongs to us and to our children. Now then, do everything that God has told you!"

17 Jacob took action. He put his children and his wives on camels. 18 He drove away all his livestock and all his property, which he had earned, the livestock that was his property, which he had acquired in Paddan-Aram, to go to his father Isaac in the land of Canaan. 19 When Laban had gone to shear his sheep, Rachel stole the household gods that belonged to Laban. 20 Jacob tricked the Aramean Laban by not telling him that he was running away. 21 He fled with all that he had. He set off, crossed the Euphrates, and headed for the hill-country of Gilead.

Laban's Pursuit of Jacob

22 On the third day Laban was told, "Jacob has fled."

23 Laban took his relatives with him, pursued Jacob for seven days, and caught up with him in the hill-country of Gilead. 24 However, God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream at night and told him, "Be careful not to say anything to Jacob, either good or bad!"

25 When Laban overtook Jacob, Jacob had pitched his tent in the hill-country. Laban and his relatives also pitched their tents in the hill-country of Gilead. 26 Laban asked Jacob: "What have you done? You have both deceived me and led away my daughters like captives taken with the sword. 27 Why have you run away secretly, and deceived me, without telling me? Otherwise, I might have sent you away with joy and songs, with tambourine and lyre. 28 You did not give me the opportunity to kiss my grandchildren and my daughters. Now you have done a foolish thing. 29 I have the power to harm you all, but yesterday evening the God of your father told me, ‘Be careful not to say anything to Jacob, either good or bad!' 30 So now, although you have evidently left because you have been longing deeply for the home of your father, why have you stolen my gods?"

31 Jacob answered Laban: "I left because I was afraid. For I thought that otherwise you would take your daughters away from me by force. 32 No person with whom you find your gods shall live! In the presence of our relatives investigate for yourself what is here with me, and take what is yours with you!"

However, Jacob did not know Rachel had stolen them. 33 Then Laban went into Jacob's tent, into Leah's tent, and into the tents of the two maidservants. However, he found nothing. After he had come out of Leah's tent, he went into Rachel's tent. 34 Rachel had taken the household gods, had put them in her camel's saddlebag, and had sat on them. Laban rummaged through the whole tent, but found nothing.

35 Rachel told her father, "Do not be angry, my master, that I cannot stand up in your presence! For I am having my period."

So he searched for the household gods but did not find them. 36 Then Jacob became angry and scolded Laban. Jacob demanded of Laban: "What offence have I committed? What is my sin, so that you have come in hot pursuit after me? 37 For, although you have been rummaging through all my goods, what have you found of all your household goods? Put it here in front of your relatives and mine, and let them judge between the two of us! 38 For twenty years now I have been with you. Your ewes and your she-goats have not miscarried, and I have not eaten any rams of your flock. 39 I did not bring anything torn by wild animals to you. I stood the loss of it myself. You used to require from me anything that had been stolen by day or stolen by night. 40 There I was! In the day the heat consumed me, and the frost by night, and my sleep fled from my eyes. 41 I was in your home like this for twenty years. I worked for you for fourteen years for your two daughters, and for six years for your flock, and you changed my wages ten times. 42 If the God of my father, the God of Abraham, the Awesome One of Isaac, had not been on my side, you would surely by now have sent me away empty-handed. God has seen my misery and the toil of my hands, and yesterday evening He gave judgment."

43 Laban answered Jacob: "These women are my daughters, these children are my children, and this is my flock. Everything that you see is mine. Yet what can I do today for these daughters of mine or for their children, whom they have borne? 44 Come then, let us, you and me, make a covenant, and let it stand as a witness between you and me!"

The Covenant between Laban and Jacob

45 So Jacob took a stone and set it up as a marker. 46 Jacob told his relatives, "Gather some stones!"

So they took some stones and made a pile of them. Then they ate there on the pile of stones. 47 Laban called it "Jegar-Sahadutha," but Jacob called it "Galeed."*38 48 Laban said, "This pile of stones is a witness between you and me today."
This is why it was called "Galeed." 49 It was also called "Mizpah,"*39 because he said: "May the LORD keep guard between you and me while we are away from each other! 50 If you mistreat my daughters or marry other women in addition to my daughters, even though no one is with us, then you should see that God is a witness between you and me!"

51 Laban also told Jacob: "Here is this pile of stones, and here is the marker that I have raised between you and me. 52 This pile of stones is a witness and the pillar is a witness that I shall not go past this pile of stones to your side to harm you, and that you will not go past this pile of stones and this pillar to my side to harm me. 53 Let the God of Abraham and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge between us!"

Jacob made an oath by the Awesome One of his father Isaac. 54 Jacob offered a sacrifice in the hill-country and invited his relatives to eat a meal. After they had eaten a meal, they spent the night in the hill-country. 55 Early the next morning Laban got up, kissed his grandchildren and his daughters, and blessed them. Then Laban left and went back home.

32

Gn 32

Jacob's Plans to Win Esau's Favour with Gifts

1 Jacob also went on his way, and the angels of God met him. 2 When Jacob saw them, he said, "This is the camp of God!" He named that place "Mahanaim."*40

3 Then Jacob sent messengers ahead of him to his brother Esau in the land of Seir, the country of Edom. 4 He gave them orders: "This is what you are to tell my master Esau: ‘This is what Jacob your servant has said: "I have been living with Laban and have been staying away until now. 5 I have cattle and donkeys, sheep and goats, and male and female servants. I have sent this message to my master that he may be kind to me."'"

6 When the messengers came back to Jacob, they said: "We went to your brother Esau. He is also coming to meet you. There are four hundred men with him."

7 Jacob was very afraid and distressed. He divided the people who were with him, as well as the flocks, cattle, and camels, into two groups. 8 He said: "If Esau comes to the first group and attacks it, then the group that is left may escape."

9 Then Jacob prayed: "O God of my grandfather Abraham and of my father Isaac! O LORD, You told me: ‘Go back to your country and your relatives and I shall treat you well.' 10 I am not worthy of any of the loving treatment or any of the faithfulness that You have shown to Your servant. For I crossed this Jordan with only my shepherd's staff, and now I have become two groups. 11 Please save me from the hand of my brother Esau! For I am afraid of him, that he will come and attack me, as well as the mothers and their children. 12 However, You have promised, ‘I shall certainly treat you well, and make your descendants like the sand of the sea, which is too much to count.'"

13 He stayed there that night and then selected a present for his brother Esau from what he had with him: 14 two hundred female-goats, twenty male-goats, two hundred ewes, twenty rams, 15 thirty milking camels with their young, forty cows, ten bulls, twenty female donkeys, and ten male donkeys. 16 He placed them in the care of his servants, each herd by itself. He told his servants, "Go on ahead of me, and keep an interval between each herd and the next!"

17 He ordered the one in the lead: "When my brother Esau meets you and asks you, ‘To whom do you belong? Where are you going? Besides, who owns these animals in front of you?' 18 then you shall say, ‘They belong to your servant Jacob! They are a gift sent to my master Esau, and, you should know, he also is behind us.'"

19 He gave the same orders to the second man, the third man, and all the others who were driving the herds. He said: "That is how you should speak to Esau when you meet him! 20 You should also say, ‘Realise that your servant Jacob is behind us!'" For he thought: "I shall appease him with the gift that is going ahead of me. Perhaps he will be friendly to me when I see his face after that."

21 So the gift went on ahead of Jacob, but he himself spent that night in the camp.

Jacob's Wrestling with God

22 During that night he got up, gathered his two wives, his two maidservants, and his eleven children, and crossed the ford of the Jabbok. 23 He took them, sent them across the stream, and sent over his possessions. 24 When Jacob was left alone, a Man wrestled with him until daybreak. 25 When the Man saw that He could not overpower him, He touched the socket of Jacob's hip and the socket of Jacob's hip was dislocated as the Man wrestled with him. 26 Then the Man said: "Let Me go! For it is daybreak."

However, Jacob answered, "I shall not let You go unless You bless me."

27 Therefore He asked him, "What is your name?"

He answered, "Jacob."

28 In addition, He said: "Your name will no longer be "Jacob," but "Israel,"*41 because you have struggled with God and with men, and you have overcome."

29 Then Jacob asked, "Please tell me Your name!"

He answered, "Why is it that you ask for My name?"

Then He blessed Jacob there. 30 So Jacob named that place "Peniel,"*42 saying, "It is because I have seen God face to face, and yet my life has been preserved."

31 The sun rose on him as he passed Penuel, and he was limping because of his hip. 32 That is the reason why to this day the Israelites do not eat the sinew attached to the socket of the upper thigh, because He touched the socket of Jacob's hip at the sinew of the upper thigh.

33

Gn 33

Jacob's Meeting with Esau

1 Jacob looked up and saw Esau coming with four hundred men. Jacob divided his children among Leah, Rachel, and the two maidservants. 2 He put the maidservants with their children in front, Leah and her children after them, and Rachel and Joseph in the rear. 3 He himself went on ahead of them and bowed down to the ground seven times until he came close to his brother. 4 However, Esau ran to meet Jacob and embraced him. He threw his arms around his neck and kissed him. Then they wept. 5 When Esau looked up and saw the women and the children, he asked, "Who are these with you?"

Jacob answered, "They are the children whom God has graciously given to your servant."

6 Then the maidservants and their children came closer and bowed down. 7 Then Leah and her children also approached and bowed down. Finally, Joseph and Rachel approached and bowed down. 8 Esau asked, "What do you mean by this whole drove that I have met?"

He answered, "In order that my master may be kindly disposed to me."

9 However, Esau said, "I have plenty, my brother. Keep what you have for yourself!"

10 Jacob said: "No, please. If I have found that you are kindly disposed to me, please accept my gift from my hand! The reason is that for me to have seen your face is like seeing the face of God. You have been favourable to me. 11 Please take the gift that I have brought you! God has been kind to me, and I have everything."

When Jacob urged him strongly, he accepted it. 12 Esau said, "Let us get ready to go, and let me accompany you!"

13 However, Jacob told him: "My master knows that the children are tender, and that I am caring for flocks and herds that are nursing their young. If anyone drives them too hard for just one day, all the animals will die. 14 My master should please go on ahead of his servant, that I may move along as slowly as is suitable for the pace of the expedition ahead of me, and for the pace of the children, until I come to my master in Seir!"

15 Esau said, "Please let me leave some of my men with you!"

However, Jacob asked. "Why do that? Let my master just have a friendly attitude towards me!"

16 So that day Esau left on his way back to Seir. 17 Jacob journeyed to Succoth, where he built a home for himself and shelters for his livestock. This is why the place was named "Succoth."*43

Jacob's Arrival at Shechem

18 When Jacob returned from Paddan-Aram, he arrived safely at the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, and he camped in sight of the city. 19 He bought a piece of land for one hundred pieces of currency from the sons of Hamor, Shechem's father, and there he pitched his tent. 20 He set up an altar there and called it "El-Elohe-Israel."*44

34

Gn 34

The Rape of Dinah by Shechem and her Brothers' Revenge

1 Dinah, the daughter of Leah, whom Leah had borne to Jacob, went out to visit some women of the land. 2 Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite, the local ruler, saw Dinah, seized her, lay with her, and violated her. 3 However, he became very fond of Dinah, the daughter of Jacob. He loved the young woman, and spoke affectionately to her. 4 Shechem told his father Hamor, "Get me this girl to be my wife!"

5 When Jacob heard that Shechem had defiled Dinah his daughter, his sons were with his livestock in the open country. So Jacob kept quiet about it until they came in. 6 Hamor, the father of Shechem, came out to talk with Jacob. 7 Jacob's sons came in from the field when they heard what had happened. The men were indignant and very angry because Shechem had done a disgraceful thing to Israel's family by lying with Jacob's daughter. That kind of thing should not have happened. 8 Hamor told them: "My son Shechem deeply loves your daughter. Please give her to him as his wife! 9 Become related to us by marriage! Give us your daughters, and take ours for yourselves! 10 Then you will live among us, and the country will be open to you. Live and move about freely in it, and settle down in it!"

11 Shechem also told Dinah's father and her brothers: "Let me find that you are kindly disposed towards me! Then I shall give you whatever you ask of me. 12 Set the money to be paid to the bride's family and the gift that I should give as high as you want! I shall pay whatever you tell me. Only give me the young woman as my wife!"

13 Jacob's sons answered Shechem and his father Hamor deceitfully because Shechem had defiled their sister Dinah. 14 They told them: "We cannot do this. We cannot give our sister to an uncircumcised man. For to us that would be disgraceful. 15 We are ready to do this for you on only one condition: that every male among you lets himself be circumcised, so that you become like us. 16 Then we shall give you our daughters and we shall take your daughters for ourselves. We shall settle among you and become one people. 17 However, if you do not listen to us and have yourselves circumcised, we shall take our daughter and go."

18 Hamor and his son Shechem liked their proposal. 19 The young man, who was the most honoured person in all his father's family, did what they said immediately, because he took such pleasure in Jacob's daughter. 20 Hamor and his son Shechem went to the gate of their city and spoke with the men of their city: 21 "These men are peaceable towards us. They should settle in the country and move about in it! You see that the land has plenty of room for them. We shall marry their daughters and let them marry our daughters. 22 The men are ready to live with us and become one people on only this one condition: that every one of our males lets himself be circumcised, just as they are circumcised. 23 Will not their livestock, their property, and all their animals become ours? Let us agree to do only this for them, that they may settle among us!"

24 All the men who went out to the gate of Hamor's city agreed with Hamor and his son Shechem, and every male who went out to the gate of his city had himself circumcised. 25 On the third day, when the men of the city were in pain, Simeon and Levi, two of Jacob's sons, Dinah's brothers, each took his sword, and attacked the city while they felt secure, and killed every male. 26 They killed Hamor and his son Shechem with the sword. Then they took Dinah from Shechem's house and left. 27 Then the sons of Jacob came upon the dead bodies, and plundered the city where their sister had been defiled. 28 They took their flocks, their herds, their donkeys, whatever was in the city and in the open country, 29 and all their wealth. They also took all their children and their wives captive, and also plundered whatever was in the houses. 30 Jacob told Simeon and Levi: "You have made me a social outcast. You have made the inhabitants of the country, the Canaanites and the Perizzites, hate me. My people are few in numbers. If they join forces against me and attack me, my family and I shall be destroyed."

31 However, they replied, "Should he treat our sister like a prostitute?"

35

Gn 35

God's Blessing on Jacob at Bethel

1 God told Jacob: "Get ready! Go up to Bethel, and stay there! Build an altar there to God, who appeared to you when you were fleeing from your brother Esau."

2 Then Jacob told his family and all who were with him: "Get rid of the foreign gods that you have with you! Purify yourselves, and change your clothes! 3 Then let us get ready, that we may go up to Bethel! I shall build an altar there to God, who answered me at the time when I was in trouble, and who has been with me wherever I have been going."

4 Therefore they handed over to Jacob all the foreign gods that they had and the rings in their ears, and Jacob buried them under the big tree that was near Shechem. 5 When they set out, God terrified the people in the cities all around them, and so they did not pursue the sons of Jacob. 6 Jacob and all the people who were with him arrived at Luz (that is, Bethel) in the land of Canaan. 7 He built an altar there, and called the place "El-Bethel," because God had revealed Himself to him there when he was fleeing from his brother. 8 Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, died, and was buried under the tall tree below Bethel. It was given the name "Allon-Bacuth."*45

The Change of Jacob's Name to "Israel" and the Repetition of the Promise to him

9 After Jacob had come back from Paddan-Aram God appeared to him again, and blessed him. 10 God told him, "Although your name has been ‘Jacob,' you will no longer be named ‘Jacob,' but your name will be ‘Israel.'"*46 So He named him "Israel."

11 God told him: "I am God Almighty. Be fruitful and increase in number! A nation, yes, a group of nations will come from you, and you will be the father of kings. 12 I shall give to you the land that I gave to Abraham and Isaac. I shall give the land to your descendants after you."

13 God went up from Jacob at the place where He had been speaking to him. 14 Jacob set up a stone memorial to mark the place where God had been talking to him. He poured out a wine offering on it. He also poured olive-oil on it. 15 Jacob had named the place where God had been speaking to him "Bethel."*47

The Birth of Benjamin and the Death of Rachel

16 Then they moved away from Bethel and were still some distance on the way to Ephrath when Rachel began giving birth to a child, and she was having a difficult labour. 17 When she was having great difficulty in childbirth, the midwife told her, "Do not be afraid! For you are having another son."

18 Rachel was dying, and, while her life was departing, she named him "Ben-Oni."*48 However, his father called him "Ben-Jamin."*49 19 So Rachel died and was buried on the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. 20 Jacob set up a memorial stone over her grave. That is the memorial stone that is still at Rachel's grave today.

21 Israel moved on and pitched his tent beyond Migdal-Eder. 22 While Israel was living in that region, Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father's concubine, and Israel heard about it.

Jacob's [Israel's] Twelve Sons — 1 Chronicles 2:1-2

22b Jacob had twelve sons. 23 Leah's sons were Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. 24 Rachel's sons were Joseph and Benjamin. 25 The sons of Bilhah, Rachel's maidservant, were Dan and Naphtali. 26 The sons of Zilpah, Leah's maidservant, were Gad and Asher. These were Jacob's sons, who were born in Paddan-Aram.

The Death of Isaac

27 Jacob went to his father Isaac at Mamre, at Kiriath-Arba, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac had lived as foreigners. 28 Isaac was a hundred and eighty years old 29 when he took his last breath and died. He was gathered to his people, old, and having had a full life. His sons Esau and Jacob buried him.

36

Gn 36

The Family-History of Esau and the First Edomites (36:1-40) — 1 Chronicles 1:35-54

1 This is the family history of Esau, who is Edom. 2 Esau chose his wives from the women of Canaan: Adah, the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah and granddaughter of Zibeon, the Hivite. 3 He also married Basemath, the daughter of Ishmael and the sister of Nebaioth. 4 Adah gave birth to Eliphaz for Esau, Basemath gave birth to Reuel, 5 and Oholibamah gave birth to Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau, who were born to him in the land of Canaan.

6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, all the other persons in his household, his cattle, all his other animals, and all the property that he had acquired in Canaan, and went to another land away from his brother Jacob. 7 He did this because they had too many possessions for them to remain together. The land where they were living as foreigners could not support them both, because of their livestock. 8 So Esau lived in the hill-country of Seir. Esau is Edom. 9 This is the family history of Esau, the father of the Edomites in the hill-country of Seir.

10 These were the names of Esau's sons: Eliphaz, the son of Esau's wife Adah, and Reuel, the son of Esau's wife Basemath. 11 The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz. 12 Timna was a concubine of Esau's son Eliphaz. She gave birth to Amalek for Eliphaz. These were the descendants of Esau's wife Adah. 13 These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the descendants of Esau's wife Basemath. 14 These were the sons of Esau's wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah and the granddaughter of Zibeon. She gave birth to Jeush, Jalam, and Korah for Esau.

Clans and Kings of Edom

15 These were the tribal chiefs among Esau's descendants: the sons of Eliphaz, Esau's first son: Chief Teman, Chief Omar, Chief Zepho, Chief Kenaz, 16 Chief Korah, Chief Gatam, and Chief Amalek. These were the chiefs descended from Eliphaz in the country of Edom. They were the descendants of Adah.

17 These were descendants of Esau's son Reuel: Chief Nahath, Chief Zerah. Chief Shammah, and Chief Mizzah. These were the chiefs of Reuel in the country of Edom. They were the descendants of Esau's wife Basemath.

18 These were the descendants from Esau's wife Oholibamah: Chief Jeush, Chief Jalam, and Chief Korah. These were the chiefs that descended from Esau's wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.

19 These were the descendants of Esau who were their tribal chiefs. Esau is Edom.

20 These were the sons of Seir the Horite, who lived in that region: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the Horite tribal chiefs, the sons of Seir, in the land of Edom. 22 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Hemam. Timna was Lotan's sister. 23 These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam. 24 These were the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah. He was the Anah who found the hot springs in the wilderness while he was minding the donkeys of his father Zibeon. 25 These were the children of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah. 26 These were the sons of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran. 27 These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan. 28 These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran. 29 These were the Horite chiefs: Chief Lotan, Chief Shobal, Chief Zibeon, Chief Anah, 30 Chief Dishon, Chief Ezer, and Chief Dishan. These were the Horite tribal chiefs in the land of Seir, chief by chief.

31 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelites: 32 Bela, the son of Beor, reigned in Edom. His city was named "Dinhabah." 32 After Bela died, Jobab, the son of Zera from Bozrah, succeeded him as king. 34 After Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites succeeded him as king. 35 After Husham died, Hadad, the son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the open country of Moab, succeeded him as king. The name of his city was "Avith." 36 After Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah succeeded him as king. 37 After Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth on the Euphrates succeeded him as king. 38 After Shaul died, Baal-Hanan, the son of Acbor, succeeded him as king. 39 After Baal-Hanan, the son of Acbor, died, Hadar succeeded him as king. The name of his city was "Pau." His wife's name was "Mehetabel," the daughter of Matred and the granddaughter of Mezahab.

40 These were the names of the tribal chiefs who descended from Esau, according to their families, their places, and by their names: Chief Timna, Chief Alvah, Chief Jetheth, 41 Chief Oholibamah, Chief Elah, Chief Pinon, 42 Chief Kenaz, Chief Teman, Chief Mibzar, 43 Chief Magdiel, and Chief Iram. These were the tribal chiefs of Edom, according to the areas where they lived and by the property that they owned. Edom was Esau, the father of the Edomites.

37

Gn 37

1 Jacob continued to live in the land of Canaan, the country where his father had been living as a foreigner.

2 This is the family-history of Jacob.

The Story of Joseph, Ending with Jacob's Arrival in Egypt, Jacob's Death, and Joseph's Death (37:3-50:26)

Joseph's Dreams

2b When Joseph was seventeen years old, he was taking care of the flock with his brothers. While he was a lad he was with the sons of his father's wives Bilhah and Zilpah, and Joseph told his father about the bad things that his brothers were doing. 3 Israel loved Joseph more than all his other sons because he was born when Israel was old. He made Joseph a tunic reaching to the ankles. 4 When his brothers saw that their father loved Joseph more than he loved any of Joseph's brothers, they hated him and could not speak to him in a friendly way.

5 Joseph had a dream and, when he told it to his brothers, they hated him even more. 6 He told them: "Please listen to this dream, which I have had! 7 I saw us tying up sheaves out in the field, and suddenly my sheaf got up, and even stood upright, while your sheaves actually gathered around and bowed down to my sheaf."

8 His brothers asked him: "Will you really be a king over us? Or will you really rule over us?"

Therefore they hated him even more because of his dreams and because of what he had said.

9 Then he had another dream and he told his brothers about it. He said: "Listen! I have had another dream. I saw the sun, the moon, and eleven stars bowing down to me."

10 When he told his father as well as his brothers about it, his father rebuked him. He asked him: "What is this dream that you have had? Shall we, I, your mother, and your brothers, really come and bow down to the ground in front of you?"

11 Joseph's brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept thinking about what he had said.

The Sale of Joseph into Slavery by his Brothers

12 Joseph's brothers went to Shechem to graze their father's flock there. 13 Israel asked Joseph, "Are your brothers not grazing the flock at Shechem? Come! I shall send you to them."

Joseph answered him, "Very well."

14 Jacob told him, "Please go and see if all is well with your brothers and well with the flock, and bring me a report!"

Therefore he sent him from the Valley of Hebron. When Joseph arrived at Shechem, 15 a man found him wandering around in the open country. The man asked him, "What are you looking for?"

16 He said, "I am looking for my brothers. Please tell me where they are grazing the flock!"

17 The man said, "They have moved away from here. For I heard them say, ‘Let us go to Dothan!'"

So Joseph went after his brothers and found them at Dothan. 18 They saw him from a distance, but, before he reached them, they plotted against him to kill him. 19 They said to one another: "Look! Here comes that master-dreamer! 20 So come now! Let us kill him, throw him into one of the pits, and say, ‘A wild animal has devoured him!' Then we shall see what will become of his dreams."

21 However, when Reuben heard this, he tried to save him from their hands. He said, "Let us not take his life!"

22 Reuben also told them: "Do not shed blood! Throw him into this cistern in the wilderness, but do not lay a hand on him!"

Reuben said this to rescue him from their hands, to take him back to his father.

23 When Joseph came to his brothers, they stripped off Joseph's tunic, the tunic reaching to the ankles, which he was wearing. 24 Then they took him and threw him into the cistern. It was an empty cistern, without water in it. 25 When they sat down to eat a meal, they looked up, and saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead. Their camels were carrying resinous gum, balm, and myrrh. They were on their way to take them down to Egypt. 26 Judah asked his brothers: "What shall we gain if we kill our brother and cover up his death? 27 Come! Let us sell him to the Ishmaelites! Let us not lay our hands on him! For he is our brother, our own flesh."

His brothers agreed. 28 When the Midianite traders were going past, the brothers pulled Joseph up and lifted him out of the cistern. They sold Joseph for twenty shekels of silver to the Ishmaelites, who took Joseph to Egypt.

29 When Reuben returned to the cistern and saw that Joseph was not in the cistern, he tore his clothes. 30 He went back to his brothers and said, "The boy is not there! So where do I myself go from here?"

31 Then they took Joseph's tunic, slaughtered a male goat, and dipped the tunic in the blood. 32 Then they sent the tunic, which reached to the ankles, back to their father. They said, "We have found this. Find out whether that is your son's tunic or not!"

33 Jacob recognised it and said: "It is my son's tunic! A wild animal has devoured him. Joseph has certainly been torn in pieces."

34 Jacob tore his clothes, put sackcloth around his waist, and mourned for his son for a long time. 35 All his other sons and daughters came to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted. He said, "No! I shall still be mourning when I go down to my son in the grave."

So his father wept for him.

36 In Egypt the Midianites sold Joseph to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, and a captain of the bodyguards.

38

Gn 38

Judah's Sin with Tamar

1 At that time Judah left his brothers and went down to a man at Adullam whose name was Hirah. 2 There Judah saw the daughter of a Canaanite whose name was Shua. He married her and lay with her. 3 She became pregnant and gave birth to a son, who was named "Er." 4 She conceived again and gave birth to a son, and named him "Onan." 5 She gave birth to still another son and named him "Shelah." It was at Chezib that she gave birth to him.

6 Judah chose a wife for his firstborn son Er, and her name was "Tamar." 7 However, the LORD regarded Er, Judah's firstborn, as a wicked person, and the LORD killed him. 8 Then Judah told Onan: "Marry your brother's widow, and fulfil your duty to her as a brother-in-law! Have a child who will belong to your brother!"

9 However, Onan knew that the child would not belong to him. So whenever he had intercourse with his brother's widow, he spilled his semen on the ground, to avoid producing a child for his brother. 10 The LORD regarded what he had done as wicked and He killed him also. 11 Then Judah told Tamar, his daughter-in-law, "Stay as a widow in your father's home, until my son Shelah grows up!" For he thought, "I do not want him to die too, like his brothers."

So Tamar went to live in her father's home.

12 After a long time, Judah's wife, Shua's daughter, died. When Judah recovered from his grief, he and his friend Hirah from Adullam went up to Timnah to the men who were shearing Judah's sheep. 13 Tamar was told: "Look! Your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his sheep."

14 She took off her widow's clothes, covered herself with a shawl, wrapped herself up, and sat at the entrance to Enaim on the road to Timnah. For she had seen that, although Shelah had grown up, she had not been given to him as his wife. 15 When Judah saw her, he thought that she was a prostitute, because she had covered her face. 16 He went over to her by the roadside. He said, "Come now, let me sleep with you!" For he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law.

She asked, "What will you give me, to let you sleep with me?"

17 He answered, "I shall send a young goat from the flock."

She said, "Would you give me a pledge until you send it?"

18 He asked, "What pledge should I give you?"

She answered, "Your seal and cord, and the shepherd's staff that is in your hand."

He gave her these, and slept with her, and she became pregnant by him. 19 After she got up and left, she took off her shawl, and put on her widow's clothes again. 20 Judah sent his friend the Adullamite to take the young goat and get the pledge from the woman, but he could not find her. 21 He asked the men who lived where she had been, "Where is the cult prostitute, the one by the roadside at Enaim?"

They answered, "There has not been any cult prostitute in this place."

22 He went back to Judah and told him: "I could not find her, and the men at the place also said, ‘There has not been any cult prostitute in this place.'"

23 Judah said: "Let her keep them! Otherwise we shall become a laughingstock. Look! I did send this young goat, but you could not find her."

24 About three months afterwards Judah was told: "Your daughter-in-law Tamar has been a prostitute, and, what is more, by being a prostitute she has become pregnant."

Judah said, "Bring her out! She must be burnt!"

25 When she was being brought out, she sent a message to her father-in-law: "I am pregnant by the man to whom these things belong." She also said: "Please recognise to whom this signet ring, this cord, and this shepherd's staff belong!"

26 Judah recognised them and said, "She has been more righteous than I have been, because I did not let her marry my son Shelah."

However, he did not sleep with her again.

27 When the time came for her to give birth, it became evident that there were twins in her womb. 28 When she was giving birth, one of them put out his hand, and the midwife took a crimson thread and tied it on his wrist. She said, "This one came out first."

29 However, when he pulled back his hand, his brother came out unexpectedly. She said: "How have you managed to break through? That is why he was named "Perez."*50 30 After that, his brother, who had the crimson thread on his wrist, came out, and he was named "Zerah."*51

39

Gn 39

Joseph's Life as a Slave in Potiphar's House

1 Joseph was taken down to Egypt. Potiphar, an Egyptian, an official of Pharaoh, and captain of the bodyguards, bought him from the Ishmaelites who had taken him down there. 2 However, the LORD was with Joseph, and he became a successful man. He was in the home of his Egyptian master. 3 His master saw that the LORD was with him and that the LORD used to give him success in everything that he undertook. 4 Joseph's master was kind to him and Joseph became his servant. His master put him in charge of his household, and entrusted everything that he owned to him. 5 After the Egyptian appointed Joseph over his household and over everything that he owned, the LORD blessed his household because of Joseph. The blessing of the LORD was on everything that his master had, both in the household and in the field. 6 He left everything that he had in Joseph's charge. Because he had him, he did not concern himself with anything except the food that he was eating.

Joseph was well built and good-looking. 7 After these things, his master's wife took notice of Joseph and said, "Come to bed with me!"

8 He refused. He told his master's wife: "Look! Because I am here, my master does not concern himself with anything in the house. He has entrusted everything that he has to me. 9 In this house my master is no greater than I am. He has not withheld anything from me except yourself, because you are his wife. How then could I do this very wicked thing and sin against God?"

10 Although she kept talking to Joseph day after day, he refused her requests to lie beside her and even to be with her. 11 One day he went into the house to do his work, when none of the household servants was there in the house. 12 She caught him by his cloak and said, "Come to bed with me!" However, he left his cloak in her hand, ran away, and went outside. 13 When she saw that he had left his cloak in her hand and had run outside, 14 she called her household servants. She told them: "Look! He has brought us a Hebrew man to play around with us. He came to me to sleep with me, but I screamed. 15 As soon as he heard me scream for help, he left his cloak beside me, ran away, and went outside."

16 She kept Joseph's cloak with her until his master came home. 17 Then she told him a similar story. She said: "The Hebrew slave whom you brought to us came to me to play around with me. 18 However, when I screamed for help, he left his cloak beside me and ran outside."

Joseph's Imprisonment

19 When his master heard the story that his wife told him, "This is what your slave did to me," he burned with anger. 20 Joseph's master arrested him, and put him in prison, in the place where the king's prisoners were held. So Joseph was there in the prison. 21 Nevertheless, the LORD was with Joseph, and extended His mercy to him. He made the superintendent of the prison kind to him. 22 The superintendent of the prison put Joseph in charge of all the others who were held in that prison. He was responsible for everything that they were doing there. 23 The superintendent of the prison paid no attention to anything entrusted to Joseph, because the LORD was with Joseph, and because the LORD kept making whatever Joseph was doing successful.

40

Gn 40

Joseph's Interpretation of the Cup-bearer's and the Baker's Dreams in Prison

1 Some time later, the cup-bearer and the baker of the king of Egypt offended their master, the king of Egypt. 2 Pharaoh became angry with his two officers, the chief cup-bearer and the chief baker. 3 He put them under guard at the house of the captain of the bodyguards, in the same prison as where Joseph was being held. 4 The captain of the bodyguards assigned them to Joseph, who waited on them. After they had been under guard for some time, 5 each of the two men, the cup-bearer and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were being held in the prison, had a dream during the same night. Each had his own dream, which fitted its interpretation. 6 When Joseph went to them in the morning and looked at them, he saw that they were unhappy. 7 He asked Pharaoh's officials, who were with him under guard in his master's house, "Why are your faces so worried today?"

8 They answered him, "We have each had a dream, but there is no one to explain what each one means."

Joseph asked them. "Do not interpretations belong to God? Please tell me your dreams!"

9 So the chief cup-bearer told Joseph his dream. He told him: "In my dream I saw a grapevine in front of me. 10 There were three branches on the vine. It looked as if it was budding. Its cluster of blossoms sprang up, and its clusters ripened into grapes. 11 Pharaoh's cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes, squeezed them out into Pharaoh's cup, and put the cup in Pharaoh's hand."

12 Joseph told him: "This is the interpretation of it. The three branches are three days. 13 In three days Pharaoh will restore you to honour and put you back in your position. You will put Pharaoh's cup in his hand as you used to do when you were his cup-bearer. 14 However, I want you to remember me when all is well with you. Please be kind to me, and mention me to Pharaoh! Get me out of this building! 15 For I have indeed been stolen away from the country of the Hebrews, and here too I have not done anything to justify my being put into this dungeon."

16 When the chief baker saw that Joseph had given a favourable interpretation, he told Joseph: "I also have had a dream. I saw three baskets of cakes made with fine flour on my head. 17 In the top basket there were all kinds of baked food for Pharaoh, but the birds were eating them out of the basket on my head."

18 Joseph answered: "This is the interpretation of it: The three baskets are three days. 19 In three days Pharaoh will lift up your head from you and hang you on a tree, and the birds will eat your flesh from you."

20 On the third day, which was Pharaoh's birthday, Pharaoh arranged a feast for all his officials. He gave special attention to the chief cup-bearer and the chief baker among his officials. 21 He put the chief cup-bearer back in his position, so that his cup-bearer again put the cup in Pharaoh's hand, 22 but he hanged the chief baker, as Joseph had told them in his interpretation. 23 Nevertheless, the chief cup-bearer did not remember Joseph, but forgot him.

41

Gn 41

Joseph's Interpretation of the Pharaoh's Dreams

1 After two whole years, Pharaoh dreamed that he was standing beside the River Nile. 2 He saw seven fine-looking fat cows coming up out of the river, and they grazed among the reeds. 3 Then he saw seven other cows, ugly and lean, coming up out of the river after them. They stood beside the other cows on the riverbank. 4 The ugly, lean cows ate up the seven fine-looking fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up.

5 He fell asleep and had a second dream. He saw seven heads of grain, plump and healthy, sprouting up on a single stalk. 6 Then he saw seven scanty heads of grain scorched by the east wind sprouting up after them. 7 The scanty heads of grain swallowed up the seven plump and full heads. Then Pharaoh woke up, and realised that it had been a dream. 8 In the morning his spirit was disturbed, and he sent some men to call all the soothsayer-priests of Egypt and all its wise men. Pharaoh told them his dreams, but no one could interpret them for Pharaoh.

9 Then the chief cup-bearer spoke up to Pharaoh. He said: "Today I must mention my faults. 10 When Pharaoh was angry with his officials, he placed me in custody at the house of the captain of the bodyguards, together with the chief baker. 11 He and I each had dreams in the same night. Each of us had a dream that matched its own interpretation. 12 A young Hebrew was there with us, a slave belonging to the captain of the bodyguards. We told him our dreams, and he interpreted them for us. He told each of us the interpretation of his dream. 13 Our dreams turned out as he had interpreted them: Pharaoh restored me to my position, and hanged the other man."

14 Then Pharaoh sent some men to call Joseph, and they quickly brought him out of the dungeon. He shaved, changed his clothes, and came to Pharaoh. 15 Pharaoh told Joseph: "I have had a dream, but no one can interpret it. However, I have heard that, when you hear a dream, you can interpret it."

16 Joseph answered Pharaoh: "I cannot do it. However, God will give Pharaoh an answer that indicates his welfare."

17 Pharaoh told Joseph: "In my dream I was standing beside the bank of the Nile. 18 I saw seven fat fine-looking cows coming up out of the river and they grazed among the reeds. 19 Then I saw seven other cows coming up after them. They were thin, very ugly, and skinny. I have never seen anything as ugly as they were in all the land of Egypt. 20 The skinny, ugly cows ate up the first seven fat cows. 21 Although these went into their bodies, no one would have known that they had gone into their bodies. They looked as ugly as they had at the beginning. Then I woke up.

22 "Then I suddenly saw in my dream seven heads of grain, full and good, sprouting up on a single stalk. 23 Next I saw seven barren, thin heads scorched by the east wind sprouting up after them. 24 The thin heads swallowed up the seven good heads. I told this to the soothsayer-priests, but no one could explain it to me."

25 Joseph told Pharaoh: "The dreams of Pharaoh mean the same. God has told Pharaoh what He is about to do. 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads are seven years. The dreams are the same. 27 The seven skinny ugly cows coming up after them are seven years, and the seven empty heads of grain scorched by the east wind will be seven years of famine. 28 It is just as I have told Pharaoh. God has shown Pharaoh what He is about to do. 29 Look! Seven years are coming when there will be great plenty throughout the land of Egypt. 30 Seven years of famine will follow them, during which a famine will exhaust the land, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt. 31 The plenty will no longer be remembered in the land because of the famine that follows. For it will be very severe. 32 The reason why the dream has been given to Pharaoh in two forms is that the matter has been firmly decided by God, and God will make it happen soon.

Joseph's Advice to the Pharaoh

33 "Now therefore, Pharaoh should choose an intelligent and wise man and put him in charge of the land of Egypt! 34 Pharaoh should do this, and should appoint overseers over the land and collect one-fifth of what the land of Egypt produces during the seven plentiful years! 35 They should collect all the food of these good years that are coming, and, under Pharaoh's authority, heap up grain for food in the cities, and store it there! 36 This food should be a reserve supply for the land for the seven years of famine that will occur in the land of Egypt, so that the country may not be ruined by the famine!"

The Elevation of Joseph to High Office

37 Pharaoh and all his officials approved the advice. 38 Pharaoh asked his officials, "Can we find anyone like this, a man who has the Spirit of God in him?"

39 Then Pharaoh told Joseph: "Since God has made all this known to you, there is no one as perceptive and wise as you are. 40 You shall be in charge of my palace, and all my people shall obey your instructions! Only in regard to the throne shall I be superior to you."

41 Pharaoh told Joseph, "See! I have hereby put you in charge of the entire land of Egypt."

42 Pharaoh removed his signet ring from his finger and put it on Joseph's finger. He dressed him in fine linen and put a golden chain around his neck. 43 He had Joseph ride in his second chariot of state. People called out ahead of him, "Bow down!" So Pharaoh put Joseph in charge of the entire land of Egypt.

44 Pharaoh told Joseph, "Although I am Pharaoh, no one throughout the land of Egypt will raise his hand or his foot without your permission."

45 Pharaoh gave Joseph the name "Zaphenath-Paneah"*52 and gave him Asenath as his wife. She was the daughter of Potiphera, the priest of On. Then Joseph travelled over the land of Egypt.

Joseph's Supervision of Storage of Grain

46 Joseph was thirty years old when he began to work for Pharaoh, the king of Egypt. Joseph went out from Pharaoh's presence and travelled through the entire land of Egypt. 47 During the seven plentiful years the land produced abundantly. 48 Joseph collected all the food produced during the seven plentiful years that ensued in the land of Egypt. He stored the food in the cities. Inside each city he deposited the food from the fields around it. 49 The grain that Joseph heaped up was like the sand by the sea. It was so plentiful that he stopped keeping records, because it could not be recorded.

50 Two sons were born to Joseph by Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, the priest of On, before the first year of famine came. 51 Joseph named his firstborn "Manasseh."*53 For he said, "God has made me forget all my trouble and all my father's household." 52 He named the second son "Ephraim."*54 For he said, "God has made me fruitful in the land of my suffering."

Joseph's Distribution of Relief during the Famine

53 The seven plentiful years that occurred in the land of Egypt ended. 54 Then the seven years of famine began, as Joseph had said they would, and there was a famine in all the other countries. However, there was food in the entire land of Egypt. 55 When the whole land of Egypt was suffering from hunger, the people cried to Pharaoh for food. Then Pharaoh told all the Egyptians, "Go to Joseph! Do what he tells you!"

56 When the famine had spread all over the land, Joseph opened all the stores that were among the Egyptians and sold grain to them. The famine was severe throughout the land of Egypt. 57 Because the famine was severe all over the world, the whole world came to Joseph in Egypt to buy grain.

42

Gn 42

The Arrival of Jacob's Sons in Egypt

1 When Jacob found out that there was grain for sale in Egypt, he asked his sons, "Why do you keep looking at one another?" 2 He added: "Look! I have heard there is grain for sale in Egypt. Go down there and buy some grain for us from there, so that we may live and not die!"

3 So ten of Joseph's brothers went down to buy grain in Egypt. 4 However, Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph's brother, with the other brothers. For he said, "I am afraid that some fatal accident may happen to him."

5 So Israel's sons went to buy grain along with the other people who were going, because there was famine in the land of Canaan also. 6 Joseph, as the ruler of the country, was selling grain to all the people of the country. So when Joseph's brothers arrived, they bowed down to him with their faces on the ground. 7 When Joseph saw his brothers, he recognised them. However, he kept his identity from them and spoke harshly to them. He asked them, "From where have you come?"

They answered, "From the land of Canaan, to buy food."

8 Although Joseph recognised his brothers, they did not recognise him. 9 Joseph remembered the dreams that he had had about them. He told them: "You are spies. You have come to find out where the country is undefended."

10 They answered him: "No, my master! Your servants have come to buy grain for food. 11 We are all the sons of one man. We are honest men. Your servants have never been spies."

12 However, he told them, "No! You have come to find out where the country is undefended."

13 They answered him: "Your servants are twelve brothers, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan. In fact, the youngest is now with our father and one is no more."

14 However, Joseph told them: "It is just as I have told you. You are spies. 15 This is how you will be tested: As surely as Pharaoh lives, you will not leave this place unless your youngest brother comes here. 16 Send one of you to fetch your brother. The rest of you shall be kept in prison, in order that what you are saying may be tested, to see whether you are telling the truth! If not, as surely as Pharaoh lives, you are spies."

17 So he put them in prison for three days. 18 On the third day Joseph told them: "Do this and live! I too fear God. 19 If you are honest men, let one of your brothers remain confined where you are in custody! The rest of you, go and take grain for your hungry families! 20 You shall also fetch me your youngest brother, in order that what you are saying may be confirmed! Then you will not die."

The Return of Nine Brothers to Canaan

So that is what they did. 21 Then they told one another: "Surely we are bearing the consequences of our guilt concerning our brother. We saw how distressed he was when he was pleading with us for pity and we would not listen. This is why this distress has come on us."

22 Reuben answered them: "Did I not tell you, ‘Do not sin against the boy!'? However, you would not listen. Yes, you see, we are being called to account for his blood."

23 However, they were not aware that Joseph understood them. For he had been speaking to them through an interpreter. 24 Joseph turned away from them and wept. When he came back, he spoke to them. Then he took Simeon from them and had him arrested while they were watching. 25 Then Joseph gave an order to fill their sacks with grain, to return each man's money to his sack, and to give them provisions for their journey. This was done for them. 26 They loaded their grain on their donkeys and left. 27 When one of them opened his sack to give fodder to his donkey at the place where they camped for the night, he saw his money. There it was in the mouth of his sack! 28 He told his brothers: "My money has been put back! Look! Here it is, in the mouth of my sack."

Their hearts sank, and they trembled as they looked at each other. They asked, "What is this that God has done to us?"

The Report of the Nine Brothers to Jacob in Canaan

29 When they came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan, they told him everything that had happened to them. They said, 30 "The ruler of the land spoke harshly to us and treated us as though we were spying on the land. 31 We told him, ‘We are honest men. We have never been spies. 32 We are twelve brothers, the sons of our father. One is no more, and the youngest is still with our father in the land of Canaan.' 33 The man who is ruler of the land told us, ‘This is how I shall know that you are honest men: Leave one of your brothers with me! Take food for your hungry families, and go! 34 Then bring your youngest brother to me, so that I may know you are no spies but honest men! Then I shall give your brother back to you, and you may move about in this country.'"

35 While they were emptying their sacks, they saw each one's bag of money in his sack. When they saw their bags of money, they and their father were afraid. 36 Their father Jacob told them: "You have deprived me of my children. Joseph is no more, Simeon is no more, and you are going to take Benjamin. All these things have come against me!"

37 Reuben told his father: "You may put both of my sons to death if I do not bring him back to you. Entrust him to my care! I shall bring him back to you."

38 However, Jacob replied: "My son shall not go down with you! His brother is dead, and he is the only one left. If a fatal accident should happen to him on the journey that you would make, you would bring this grey-haired old man down to his grave in sorrow."

43

Gn 43

The Second Journey to Egypt for Food together with Benjamin

1 The famine continued to be severe in the land. 2 After they had finished eating all the grain that they had brought from Egypt, their father told them, "Go back and buy us a little food!"

3 However, Judah told him: "The man warned us solemnly, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.' 4 If you are going to send our brother along with us, we shall go down to buy food for you. 5 However, if you are not going to send him, we shall not go down, because the man told us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.'"

6 Israel asked, "Why did you cause trouble for me by telling the man whether you had another brother?"

7 They replied: "The man questioned us closely about ourselves and our relatives. He asked, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?' We told him exactly what he was asking. Could we in any way know that he would say, ‘Fetch your brother down here!'?"

8 Then Judah told his father Israel: "Send the lad with me, and let us go at once, so that both you, we, and our families may live and not die! 9 I shall myself stand surety for him. You may hold me personally responsible for him. If I fail to produce him before you, then you may blame me for it all my life. 10 For, if we had not been delaying so long, we could surely have returned twice by now."

11 Their father Israel told them: "If it must be so, then do this: Put in your sacks some of the best produce of the land, and take a gift down to the man, a little mastic, a little honey, resin, gum, some pistachio nuts, and almonds! 12 Take a double amount of money with you, and take back with you the money that was put back into the mouths of your sacks! Perhaps there was an oversight. 13 Take your brother also, and go back to the man at once! 14 May God Almighty make the man merciful to you, so that he may release your other brother to you and send Benjamin back! As for me, if I have lost my children, I have lost them."

Joseph's Dinner for his Brothers at his House

15 So the men took that gift. They also took twice as much money with them, as well as Benjamin. They got ready, went down to Egypt, and stood before Joseph. 16 When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he told the man in charge of his house: "Take these men to my house, butcher an animal, and make preparations! For the men will have dinner with me at noon."

17 The man did as Joseph had told him and took the men to Joseph's home. 18 The men were afraid because they had been brought into Joseph's home. They said: "We are being brought here because of the money that was put back into our sacks the first time. He wants to fall upon us, attack us, take us as slaves, and seize our donkeys."

19 Therefore they approached the man in charge of Joseph's house and spoke to him at the entrance to the house. 20 They said: "With your permission, sir, we indeed came down the first time to buy food. 21 However, when we came to the place where we spent the night, we opened our sacks, and saw that each man's money was in the mouth of his sack, the full amount of our money. So we have brought it back with us. 22 We have also brought down additional money with us to buy food. We do not know who put our money in our sacks."

23 However, he said: "You have nothing to worry about. Do not be afraid! Your God and the God of your father has put treasure in your sacks for you. I received your money."

Then he brought Simeon out to them. 24 The steward took the brothers into Joseph's home. He gave them water, and they washed their feet. He also provided fodder for their donkeys. 25 The men prepared their gift for when Joseph came at noon, because they had heard that they were going to eat there. 26 When Joseph came home, they presented to him the gift that they had brought into the house, and they bowed down to the ground before him. 27 He inquired of them how they were, and then he asked, "How is your aged father, about whom you told me? Is he still alive?"

28 They answered, "Your servant, our father, is well. He is still alive."

Then they knelt down and prostrated themselves. 29 When he looked around, he saw his brother Benjamin, his own mother's son. He asked, "Is this your youngest brother, about whom you told me?" He said, "May God be gracious to you, my son!"

30 Then Joseph hurried out and looked for a place to weep, because his loving feelings towards his brother were aroused. He went into his private room and wept there. 31 Then he washed his face, came out, and controlled himself. He said, "Serve the food!"

32 They served Joseph by himself and the brothers by themselves, and they served the Egyptians who were eating with him separately. For the Egyptians could not share their food with the Hebrews, because that is detestable to Egyptians. 33 When the brothers sat down facing Joseph, the firstborn was in the firstborn's place, and the youngest was in the youngest one's place, and the men looked at one another in astonishment. 34 Joseph took up servings for them from his own table, but Benjamin's portion of honour was five times larger than the portions of all the others. So they feasted and drank wine with him.

44

Gn 44

Joseph's Plan to Test his Brothers again

1 Joseph gave these orders to the man in charge of his house: "Fill the men's sacks with as much food as they can carry, and put each man's money in the mouth of his sack! 2 Then put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the youngest one's sack, together with the money for his grain!"

He did as Joseph had told him. 3 At daybreak the men were sent on their way with their donkeys. 4 They had left the city but had not gone far when Joseph told the man in charge of his house: "Follow the men at once, and, when you catch up with them, ask them, ‘Why have you repaid good with evil? 5 Is this not the thing from which my master drinks, and which he uses to seek omens and to give them? This is a wicked thing that you have done!'"

6 When he had caught up with them, he repeated these words to them. 7 They answered him: "Why should my master say such things? Your servants would never do anything like that. 8 Look! We brought back to you from the land of Canaan the money that we found in the mouths of our sacks. How, then, would we steal silver or gold from your master's house? 9 If it is found with any one of your servants, he will die, and the rest of us will become my master's slaves."

10 He said: "Yes, now let it be as you say! The one with whom it is found will be my slave, but the rest of you will be innocent."

11 Each one quickly took his sack down to the ground, and each one opened his sack. 12 So the steward searched for it. He began with the eldest and ended with the youngest, and the cup was found in Benjamin's sack. 13 Then they tore their clothes. After each one loaded his donkey, they returned to the city.

14 Joseph was still in the house when Judah and his brothers came. They fell down to the ground before him. 15 Joseph asked them: "What is this that you have done? Do you not know that a man like me searches for omens and issues them?"

16 Then Judah said: "What can we answer my master? What can we say? How can we prove that we are innocent? God has found out the guilt of your servants. Here we are. We are my master's slaves, we ourselves in addition to the one in whose possession the cup has been found."

17 He said: "I would never do that! The man in whose possession the cup has been found will become my slave, but the rest of you may go unharmed to your father."

Judah's Intercession for Benjamin

18 Then Judah went closer to Joseph. He said: "With your permission, my master, please let your servant say something for my master to hear, and do not become angry with your servant, even though you are equal to Pharaoh! 19 My master asked his servants, ‘Do you have a father or a brother?' 20 We told my master, ‘We have an old father, and a young brother who was born when our father was old. His brother is dead, and he is the only one of his mother's sons left, and his father loves him.' 21 Then you told your servants, ‘Bring him down to me, so that I may see him for myself!'

22 "We told my master, ‘The lad cannot leave his father. If the lad left his father, his father would die.' 23 Nevertheless, you told your servants, ‘If your youngest brother does not come down with you, you will not see my face again.' 24 When we went up to your servant, my father, we told him what my master had said. 25 Then our father said, ‘Go back and buy us a little food!' 26 However, we replied, ‘We cannot go down. If our youngest brother is with us, we shall go down. For we cannot see the man's face unless our youngest brother is with us.' 27 Your servant, my father, told us, ‘You know that my wife bore me two sons. 28 One went away from me, and I said: "He has certainly been torn in pieces. I have not seen him since." 29 If you take this one away from me too and he meets with a fatal accident, you will bring my grey hair down to the grave in misery.' 30 Now therefore, when I come to your servant, my father, and the lad is not with us, since his father's life is wrapped up with the lad's life, 31 when he sees that the lad is not there, he will die. Your servants will bring the grey hair of your servant, our father, down to the grave in sorrow. 32 For your servant stood surety for the lad to my father, and said, ‘If I do not bring him back to you, then, my father, you may blame me for it for the rest of my life.' 33 Now therefore, please let your servant remain here as my master's slave instead of the lad, but let the lad go back up with his brothers! 34 For how could I go back up to my father if the lad were not with me? I would not wish to see the misery that would come on my father."

45

Gn 45

Joseph's Revelation of his Identity to his Brothers

1 Then Joseph could no longer hold back his emotions before all who were standing near him, and he called out, "Make everyone leave my presence!"

So there was no one else standing with Joseph when he told his brothers who he was. 2 He wept so loudly that the Egyptians heard him, and the household of Pharaoh heard him. 3 Then Joseph told his brothers, "I am Joseph! Is my father still alive?"

However, his brothers could not answer him because they were terrified at his presence. 4 Joseph told his brothers, "Please come closer to me!"

Therefore they went closer. He said: "I am your brother Joseph, whom you sold into Egypt. 5 Now, however, do not be sad or angry with yourselves for selling me here! For it was to save lives that God has sent me ahead of you. 6 For two years now there has been a famine in the land, and there are five more years when there will be no ploughing or harvesting. 7 God has sent me ahead of you to preserve for you a remnant on the earth and to save your lives by a great deliverance. 8 So now, it has not been you who have sent me here, but God. He has also made me a father to Pharaoh, master over his entire household, and ruler over all the land of Egypt. 9 Go up to my father quickly, and tell him, ‘This is what your son Joseph has said: "God has made me master of all Egypt. Come down to me immediately! 10 You shall live in the region of Goshen, and you yourself, your children, and your grandchildren will be near me, with your flocks, your herds, and everything else that you have! 11 I shall provide for you there. For there will be five more years of famine. Otherwise you, your family, and all who belong to you will lose your property."' 12 Look! Your own eyes and the eyes of my brother Benjamin can see that it is my mouth that is speaking to you. 13 Tell my father about all the honour given to me in Egypt, and about everything that you have seen, and bring my father down here quickly!"

14 Then he fell on his brother Benjamin's neck and wept and Benjamin wept on his neck. 15 Joseph kissed all his brothers and wept over them. After that, his brothers talked with him.

Pharaoh's Invitation to Israel's Family to Live in Egypt

16 When the news reached Pharaoh's palace: "Joseph's brothers have come," Pharaoh and his officials were pleased. 17 Pharaoh told Joseph, "Tell your brothers, ‘Do this: Load your animals, leave, and go to the land of Canaan! 18 Fetch your father and your families, and come to me, that I may give you the best of the land of Egypt! Then eat the finest things in the land!' 19 You yourself are commanded to say, ‘Do this: Take some carts from the land of Egypt for your children and your wives! Bring your father and come! 20 Do not begrudge seeing your belongings left behind! For the best of all the land of Egypt is yours.'"

21 This is what the sons of Israel did. As Pharaoh had ordered, Joseph gave them carts, and he also gave them provisions for their journey. 22 He gave festive garments to all of them individually, but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver and five festive garments. 23 This is what he sent to his father: ten male donkeys loaded with the best things of Egypt, and ten female donkeys loaded with grain, bread, and other food for his father on the journey. 24 As Joseph dismissed his brothers and they were leaving, he told them, "Do not be upset on the way!"

25 They left Egypt and went up to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan. 26 When they told him, "Joseph is still alive, and he is ruler over all the land of Egypt," his heart became numb, because he did not believe them. 27 However, when they had told him everything that Joseph had told them, and when he saw the carts that Joseph had sent to fetch him, the spirit of their father Jacob revived. 28 Israel said, "Enough! My son Joseph is still alive. Let me go that I may see him before I die!"

46

Gn 46

The Departure of Jacob's Whole Family for Egypt

1 Israel set out with all that he had. When he arrived at Beer-Sheba, he offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac.

God's Revelation to Jacob about his Descendants' Return to Canaan

2 God spoke to Israel in a vision at night. He said, "Jacob, Jacob!"

He answered, "Here I am."

3 He said: "I am God, the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt! For I shall make you into a great nation there. 4 I Myself shall go down to Egypt with you, and I shall surely bring you back up again. Joseph's hand will also close your eyes."

Jacob's Journey to Egypt with his Family

5 Then Jacob set out from Beer-Sheba. Israel's sons carried their father Jacob, their children, and their wives in the carts that Pharaoh had sent to transport them. 6 They also took their livestock and the other possessions that they had acquired in the land of Canaan. So Jacob went to Egypt together with all his descendants. 7 He took with him to Egypt his sons, his grandsons, his daughters, and his granddaughters — all his descendants.

Israel's Descendants (Compare Exodus 6:14-16; 1 Chronicles 2:3-5)

8 These are the names of Israel's descendants who came into Egypt: Jacob and his sons. Jacob's firstborn son was Reuben. 9 The sons of Reuben were Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. 10 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. 11 The sons of Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. 12 The sons of Judah were Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah (but Er and Onan had died in the land of Canaan). The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul. 13 The sons of Issachar were Tola, Puvah, Yob, and Shimron. 14 The sons of Zebulun were Sered, Elon, and Jahleel. 15 These were the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan-Aram, together with his daughter Dinah. All these persons, his sons and his daughters, numbered thirty-three.

16 The sons of Gad were Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, and Areli. 17 The sons of Asher were Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, and Beriah, and their sister was Serah. The sons of Beriah were Heber and Malchiel. 18 These were the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban had given to his daughter Leah. She bore these to Jacob, and they numbered sixteen persons.

19 The sons of Jacob's wife Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin. 20 In Egypt, Manasseh and Ephraim were born to Joseph. Asenath the daughter of Potiphera, the priest of On, bore them to him. 21 The sons of Benjamin were Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim, and Ard. 22 These were the descendants of Rachel, who were born to Jacob, fourteen persons in all.

23 The son of Dan was Hushim. 24 The sons of Naphtali were Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem. 25 These were the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban had given to his daughter Rachel, and she bore these to Jacob, seven persons in all.

26 All the persons who went to Egypt with Jacob, those who were his direct descendants, not counting the wives of Jacob's sons, numbered sixty-six persons in all. 27 With the sons of Joseph who were born to him in Egypt, numbering two persons, the grand total of the members of Jacob's family who went to Egypt was seventy.

28 Jacob sent Judah in front of him to Joseph to show the way ahead to Goshen. So they arrived in the region of Goshen.

Israel's Reunion with Joseph

29 Joseph hitched up his chariot and went up to Goshen to meet his father Israel. When Joseph appeared before him, he put his arms around his father's neck and wept on his shoulder continuously. 30 Israel told Joseph, "Let me die at last, since I have seen your face! For you are still alive."

Israel's Audience with Pharaoh

31 Joseph told his brothers and his father's family: "I shall go up that I may make a report to Pharaoh. I shall tell him, ‘My brothers and my father's family, who were in the land of Canaan, have come to me. 32 The men are shepherds. For they have been looking after livestock. They have brought along their flocks and herds and everything that they have.' 33 When Pharaoh calls you in and asks, ‘What is your occupation?' 34 you should answer, ‘Your servants, like their fathers, have been minding livestock from their youth until now,' in order that you may live in the region of Goshen! For all shepherds are disgusting to Egyptians."

47

Gn 47

The Re-location of Jacob's Family to Goshen

1 Joseph went and told Pharaoh: "My father and my brothers have come from the land of Canaan with their flocks, herds, and everything that they have, and they are now in the region of Goshen."

2 He selected five from the full number of his brothers, and presented them before Pharaoh. 3 Pharaoh asked his brothers, "What is your occupation?"

They answered Pharaoh: "Your servants are shepherds, as our fathers have also been."

4 They told Pharaoh: "We have come to stay as foreigners in this country, because your servants have no pasture for their flocks. For the famine is severe in the land of Canaan. Now therefore, please let your servants live in the region of Goshen!"

5 Then Pharaoh told Joseph: "Your father and your brothers have come to you. 6 The land of Egypt lies before you. Settle your father and your brothers in the best part of the land! Let them live in the region of Goshen! If you know of any among them who have special ability, make them the chief herdsmen over my own livestock!"

Jacob's Presentation to the Pharaoh

7 Then Joseph brought his father Jacob and presented him before Pharaoh, and Jacob blessed Pharaoh. 8 Pharaoh asked Jacob, "How old are you?"

9 Jacob told Pharaoh: "I have been living as a foreigner for a hundred and thirty years. The days of the years of my life have been few and disagreeable. They have not reached the amount of time that my fathers lived during their lives as foreigners."

10 Then Jacob blessed Pharaoh and went out from his presence.

11 Joseph gave his father and his brothers a place to live, and gave them property in the land of Egypt, in the best part of the land, in the district of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. 12 Joseph provided his father, his brothers, and his father's entire household with food according to the size of their families.

The Famine in Egypt, and Joseph's Acquisition of Most of the Land in Egypt for the Pharaoh

13 There was no food anywhere in the country, because the famine was very severe, and the countries of Egypt and Canaan were languishing because of the famine. 14 Joseph collected all the money that could be found in the countries of Egypt and in Canaan as payment for the grain that people were buying, and Joseph deposited the money at Pharaoh's palace. 15 When the money from the countries of Egypt and Canaan had all been spent, all the Egyptians came to Joseph and said, "Give us food! Why should we die here in front of you? For our money has been used up."

16 Joseph said: "Hand over your livestock! I shall sell you food in exchange for your livestock if all your money has been spent."

17 So they brought their livestock to Joseph, and Joseph gave them food in exchange for their horses, for their livestock from their flocks and herds, and for their donkeys. So he supplied them with food during that year in exchange for all their livestock.

The Enslavement of the People in Egypt to the Pharaoh in Return for Food

18 So that year elapsed. When they came to him the next year, they told him: "We shall not hide from my master that, since all our money has been spent, our property in animals has also gone to my master, and there is nothing left to bring to my master except ourselves and our land. 19 Why should both we and our land perish before your eyes? Buy us and our land in exchange for food! Then we shall be Pharaoh's slaves and our land will be transferred to Pharaoh. However, give us grain, so that we may live and not die, and so that the land may not be deserted!"

20 So Joseph bought all the land in Egypt for Pharaoh. The Egyptians, one and all, sold their fields, because the famine was severe on them. Therefore the land became Pharaoh's. 21 Joseph moved the people to the cities, from one end of the territory of Egypt to the other. 22 However, he did not buy the land of the priests, because the priests received an income from Pharaoh. They had their food from the allowance that Pharaoh gave them. That is why they did not sell their land. 23 Joseph told the people: "Look! Because I have bought you and your land for Pharaoh today, here is seed for you, that you may sow the ground. 24 At the harvest you shall give a fifth to Pharaoh, and four-fifths shall be your own to sow the fields, and to feed yourselves, those in your households, and your children!"

25 They answered: "You have saved our lives. May our master be kind to us, that we may be Pharaoh's slaves!"

26 So Joseph established it as a rule that is still in force today for property in Egypt, that Pharaoh must receive one fifth. Only the property of the priests did not become Pharaoh's.

Israel's [Jacob's] Last Days in Egypt

27 So the Israelites lived in the district of Goshen in Egypt. They settled there, had many children, and became very numerous. 28 Jacob lived in the land of Egypt for seventeen years. So the length of Jacob's life was one hundred and forty-seven years. 29 The time came near for Israel to die. He called his son Joseph and told him: "If you are kindly disposed to me, please put your hand under my thigh to promise that you will treat me kindly and faithfully! Please do not bury me in Egypt! 30 Let me lie with my fathers! You shall carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their burial place!"

Joseph answered, "I shall do as you have asked."

31 Israel said, "Swear to me!"

So Joseph swore to him. Then Israel bowed down on the head of his bed.

48

Gn 48

Jacob's [Israel's] Blessing of Joseph's Sons, Ephraim and Manasseh — Hebrews 11:21

1 Later someone told Joseph: "Look! Your father is ill."

So he took his two sons Manasseh and Ephraim with him. 2 When someone told Jacob, "Look! Your son Joseph is coming to you," Israel rallied his strength and sat up on the bed.

3 Jacob told Joseph: "God Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan, and blessed me. 4 He told me, ‘Look! I shall make you fruitful and increase your numbers. I shall make you a community of peoples, and give this land to your descendants after you for an everlasting possession.' 5 Now therefore, your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, are mine. Ephraim and Manasseh shall belong to me as Reuben and Simeon do! 6 Any other children whom you father after them shall belong to you! These shall be reckoned among their brothers' names in the territory that they inherit! 7 When I was coming from Paddan, to my loss, Rachel died in the land of Canaan while we were travelling and I was still a little distance from Ephrath. I buried her there on the road to Ephrath (which is Bethlehem)."

8 When Israel saw Joseph's sons, he asked, "Who are these?"

9 Joseph told his father, "They are my sons, whom God has given me here."

Israel answered, "Please bring them here to me, that I may bless them!"

10 Israel's eyesight was poor because he was old, so that he could not see well. When Joseph brought his sons closer to him, he kissed them and embraced them. 11 Israel told Joseph: "I had not expected to see your face again; but look! God has let me see your children as well."

12 Joseph removed them from Jacob's knees and bowed with his face to the ground. 13 Then Joseph took both of them, Ephraim with his right hand, at Israel's left, and Manasseh with his left hand, at Israel's right, and brought them close to him. 14 However, Israel stretched out his right hand and put it on Ephraim's head, although he was the younger. He placed his hands crosswise, and put his left hand on Manasseh's head, although Manasseh was the firstborn. 15 Then Jacob blessed Joseph and said: "May God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, may God, who has been my Shepherd all my life long to this day, 16 may the Angel, who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the young men! Let my name be carried on in them together with the names of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac! May they have very many descendants in the middle of the earth!"

17 When Joseph saw that his father had placed his right hand on Ephraim's head, he was displeased. He took hold of his father's hand to move it from Ephraim's head to Manasseh's head. 18 Joseph told his father: "Not that way, my father! For this one is the firstborn. Put your right hand on his head!"

19 However, his father refused. He said: "I know, my son, I know. He too will become a people, and he too will be great. Nevertheless, his younger brother will be greater than he, and his descendants will become a full number of nations."

20 So he blessed them that day saying: "Joseph, Israel will pronounce blessings through you: ‘May God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh!'" In this way he put Ephraim ahead of Manasseh.

21 Israel told Joseph: "See, I am about to die, but God will be with you people and bring you people back to the land of your fathers. 22 Moreover, I myself have given one mountain-ridge to you rather than to your brothers, the one that I took from the Amorites with my sword and my bow."

49

Gn 49

Jacob's Prophecies about his Twelve Sons – Compare Deuteronomy 33:1-20

1 Then Jacob called for his sons and said:

"Gather around, that I may tell you what will happen to you in the future! 2 Gather and listen, you sons of Jacob! Listen to your father Israel!

3 "Reuben, you are my firstborn, my strength and the first child of my generative power, excellent in dignity and excellent in strength. 4 Undisciplined like water, you will not have the first place, because you went up on your father's bed. Then you defiled it. He went up on my couch!

5 "Simeon and Levi are brothers. Their plans are violent weapons. 6 Let me not enter their circle of confidants! My honour, do not join their assembly! For they have murdered men in their anger, and arbitrarily cut the leg-tendons of oxen. 7 A curse on their anger! For it was fierce. A curse on their fury! For it was harsh. I shall divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel.

8 "Judah, your brothers will praise you. Your hand will be on the necks of your enemies. Your father's sons will bow down to you. 9 You are a lion's cub, Judah. You have come up from the prey, my son. He has been crouching and lying down like a lion, and, like a lioness, who will rouse him? 10 The sceptre will not pass away from Judah or a ruler's staff from between his feet until the Man of Peace comes, and the nations will obey Him. 11 He ties his donkey up to a vine, his donkey's colt to a vine with choice grapes. He will wash his clothes in wine, and his garment in the blood of grapes. 12 His eyes are more sparkling than wine and his teeth are whiter than milk.

13 "Zebulun will live by the seashore and will become a harbour for ships. His rear will adjoin Sidon.

14 "Issachar is a bony donkey, lying down between its two saddlebags. 15 He has seen that his resting-place is good and that the land is pleasant. So he has bent his shoulder down to carry loads, and has become completely enslaved.

16 "Dan will provide justice for his people as one of the tribes of Israel. 17 Dan will be a snake on a road, a horned snake on a path, which bites a horse's heels, so that its rider falls off backwards.

18 "I have been eagerly waiting for Your salvation, LORD.

19 "A raiding party will attack Gad, but he will attack them at their heels.

20 "From Asher will come rich food. He will provide delicacies for a king.

21 "Naphtali is the doe of a fallow deer, which has been set free, and produced lovely young animals.

22 "Joseph is a son of a plant that bears fruit, a son of a plant that bears fruit near a spring. With its branches as daughters it has grown over a wall. 23 Archers have provoked him and shot arrows at him with hostility. 24 However, his bow has remained steady, and his arms and hands have moved nimbly because of the hands of the Mighty God of Jacob, because He is the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel. 25 It has remained steady because of the God of your father, who supports you, and with the help of the Almighty, who blesses you with blessings of the heavens above, blessings of the deep that lies below, and blessings of breasts and the womb. 26 These blessings of your father have been greater than the blessings of my parents, and greater than the desirable things on the everlasting hills. May these be on Joseph's head, on the crown of the head of the consecrated prince among his brothers!

27 "Benjamin, like a wolf, tears his prey in pieces. In the morning he devours the prey, and in the evening he divides the plunder."

28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father told them when he blessed them. He gave each of them the blessing that was appropriate to him.

Jacob's Request to be Buried with his Fathers

29 Then he gave them these instructions: "I shall soon be gathered to my people. Bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, 30 in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is near Mamre in the land of Canaan! Abraham bought it together with the field from Ephron the Hittite as property for a burial place. 31 People buried Abraham and his wife Sarah there. People buried Isaac and his wife Rebekah there, and there I buried Leah. 32 The field and the cave that is in it were bought from the Hittites."

33 When Jacob had finished his instructions to his sons, he drew his feet up into the bed, breathed his last, and was gathered to his people.

50

Gn 50

Joseph's Burial of his Father Jacob in Canaan

1 Then Joseph fell on his father's face, wept over him, and kissed him. 2 Joseph ordered the doctors in his service to embalm his father. So the doctors embalmed Israel. 3 They required a full forty days for it. That is how many days are required for the embalming. The Egyptians also mourned for him for seventy days. 4 When the time of mourning for him was over, Joseph told Pharaoh's court: "Please, if you are kindly disposed to me, speak to Pharaoh and tell him, 5 ‘My father made me swear an oath, saying, "You see, I am about to die. Bury me in the grave that I cut out for myself in the land of Canaan!" Now therefore, please let me go up that I may bury my father! Then I shall come back.'"

6 Pharaoh said, "Go up, and bury your father, as he made you swear!"

7 So Joseph went up to bury his father. All Pharaoh's officials, the elders of his palace, and all the elders of the land of Egypt went up with him. 8 All of Joseph's household, his brothers, and his father's household also went up. They left only their children, their flocks, and their herds in the district of Goshen. 9 Chariots and horsemen also went up with him. It was a very numerous company. 10 When they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is alongside the Jordan, they made a very loud and sorrowful lamentation. Joseph observed seven days of mourning for his father. 11 When the inhabitants of the land of Canaan saw the mourning on the threshing floor of Atad, they said, "The Egyptians are having a sorrowful mourning," and so the place was named "Abel-Mizraim".*55 It is along the Jordan. 12 Therefore Jacob's sons did for him as he had commanded them. 13 His sons carried him to the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave in the field at Machpelah. Abraham had bought the field as a property for a burial place from Ephron the Hittite. It is near Mamre. 14 After Joseph had buried his father, he, his brothers, and all who had gone up with him to bury his father returned to Egypt.

Joseph's Forgiveness of his Brothers

15 When Joseph's brothers realised that their father was dead, they asked, "What if Joseph holds a grudge against us and actually pays us back for all the evil that we have done to him?"

16 So they sent a messenger to Joseph to say: "Before your father died, he left these instructions, 17 ‘This is what you are to tell Joseph: "We are begging you, please forgive the crime and the sin that your brothers committed against you, because they did evil to you!"' So now, please, forgive the crime of the servants of the God of your father!"

Joseph wept when their message came to him. 18 Then his brothers themselves came and threw themselves down before him. They said, "See! We are your slaves."

19 However, Joseph told them: "Do not be afraid! For am I in the place of God? 20 Although you planned evil against me, God has planned good to come from it, in order to accomplish what is so this day, the preservation of the lives of many people. 21 So now, do not be afraid! I shall provide for you and your little ones."

He reassured them with words that touched their hearts.

The Death of Joseph — Hebrews 11:22

22 So Joseph and his father's family lived in Egypt. Joseph lived for a hundred and ten years. 23 Joseph saw the third generation of Ephraim's children, and also the children of Machir, the son of Manasseh. They were placed at birth on Joseph's lap.

24 Joseph told his brothers: "I am about to die, but God will surely visit you and take you up out of this land to the land that He promised with an oath to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."

25 Joseph made Israel's sons swear an oath, saying, "When God surely visits you, you shall carry my bones up from here!"

26 Joseph died when he was one hundred and ten years old. They embalmed him and put him in his coffin in Egypt.

 

Index

 

EXODUS

1

Ex 1

The Arrival of Israel in Egypt

1 These are the names of the sons of Israel (that is, Jacob), who came with him to Egypt with his family: 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, 3 Issachar, Zebulun, Benjamin, 4 Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. 5 The total number of Jacob's descendants was seventy persons. Joseph was already in Egypt.

6 Joseph, all his brothers, and all the rest of that generation died. 7 The people of Israel had many children. They became very numerous. They became exceedingly strong, so that the land was filled with them.

The Enslavement of the Israelites

8 Then a new king, who knew nothing of Joseph, began to rule over Egypt. 9 He told his people: "Look! The people of Israel are too many and too strong for us. 10 Come! Let us show ourselves wise in dealing with them, or they will become more numerous! Then, when a war breaks out, they will even join those who hate us, fight against us, and leave the country."

11 Therefore they appointed overseers of forced labour to make their lives miserable with their forced labour. They built Pithom and Rameses as supply-depots for Pharaoh. 12 However, the more they oppressed the Israelites, the more they grew and spread out. The Egyptians began to dread the Israelites. 13 The Egyptians forced the Israelites to work brutally hard as slaves. 14 They made their lives bitter with hard work in mortar and bricks and every kind of labour in the fields. All the work that the Israelites did for the Egyptians was brutally hard.

Pharaoh's Instruction to Kill All Hebrew Boys

15 Then the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives. The name of one of them was Shiprah and the name of the other one was Puah. 16 He said: "When you help the Hebrew women in childbirth, and see them on the birth-stools, if it is a boy, kill him! If it is a girl, she may live."

17 However, the midwives feared God and did not do what the king of Egypt had told them. They let the boys live. 18 Therefore the king of Egypt summoned the midwives. He asked them, "Why have you done this? Why have you let the boys live?"

19 The midwives answered Pharaoh: "Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, but they are vigorous. They give birth before a midwife comes to them."

20 God was good to the midwives. So the people increased in number and became very strong. 21 Because the midwives feared God, He gave them families of their own. 22 Then Pharaoh gave this order to all his people, "You must throw every Hebrew boy that is born into the Nile, but let every girl live!"

2

Ex 2

The Birth of Moses — Hebrews 11:23

1 A man from Levi's family proceeded to marry a Levite woman. 2 The woman became pregnant and had a son. She saw that he was a fine boy, and hid him for three months. 3 When she could not hide him any longer, she got for him a basket made of papyrus reeds, and sealed it with tar and pitch. She laid the boy in it and put it among the reeds along the bank of the Nile. 4 The child's sister stood at a distance to find out what would happen to him.

The Adoption of Moses by Pharaoh's Daughter

5 Pharaoh's daughter came down to bathe at the Nile, while her maids walked along the bank of the Nile. She noticed the basket among the reeds, and sent her maid, and she brought it out.

6 When Pharaoh's daughter opened the basket, she looked at the baby, and saw that it was a boy. He was crying, and she felt sorry for him. She said, "This is one of the Hebrews' babies."

7 Then his sister asked Pharaoh's daughter, "Should I go and call a nurse for you from the Hebrew women, to suckle the baby for you?"

8 Pharaoh's daughter told her, "Go!"

So the maiden went and called the baby's mother. 9 Pharaoh's daughter told the woman: "Take this baby! Suckle him for me! I shall pay you for it myself."

So the woman took the baby and fed him. 10 When the child had become old enough, she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son. Pharaoh's daughter named him "Moses,"*56 saying, "It is because I pulled him out of the water."

Moses' Murder of an Egyptian and his Flight from Egypt — Hebrews 11:24-25

11 One day, after Moses had grown up, he went out to his own people and watched their forced labour. He saw an Egyptian man striking a Hebrew man, one of his own people. 12 He looked this way and that and, when he saw no one else present, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. 13 When he went out the next day, he saw two Hebrew men quarrelling. He asked the man who was in the wrong, "Why are you hitting your comrade?"

14 The man replied: "Who made you a ruler and judge over us? Do you intend to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?"

Moses was alarmed and thought, "This thing has certainly become known."

15 When Pharaoh heard about this, he tried to kill Moses. However, Moses fled from Pharaoh and went to live in the land of Midian. There he sat down beside a well.

Moses' Marriage to Zipporah

16 The priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came to draw water and fill the watering troughs, to give their father's flock a drink. 17 However, some shepherds came and drove them away. Then Moses got up and came to the girls' rescue and gave their flock a drink. 18 When the girls returned to their father, Reuel, he asked them, "Why have you returned so soon today?"

19 They answered: "An Egyptian rescued us from the shepherds. He even drew water for us and gave the flock a drink."

20 He asked his daughters: "Where is he? Why is it that you have left the man there? Invite him to eat a meal!"

21 Moses agreed to stay with the man. He gave Moses his daughter Zipporah to be his wife. 22 She gave birth to a son and Moses named him "Gershom."*57 For he said, "I have become a stranger in a foreign land."

The Israelites' Prayer to God because of their Suffering

23 During that long period, the king of Egypt died. The Israelites continued to groan because of their slavery. They cried out, and their cry for help because of their slavery went up to God. 24 God heard their groaning, and remembered His Covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 25 God saw the Israelites, and God cared about them.

3

Ex 3

God's Meeting with Moses at the Burning Bush

1 Moses was looking after the sheep of his father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian. He led the flock to the far side of the wilderness, and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. 2 The Angel of the LORD appeared to him in a flame of fire out of a bush. He noticed that, although the bush was on fire, it was not being burnt up. 3 Then Moses said, "I shall go over there and see this great sight, why the bush does not burn up."

4 When the LORD saw that Moses had turned aside to look, God called to him from inside the bush. He said: "Moses, Moses!"

Moses answered, "Here I am!"

5 God said: "Do not come close to here! Take your sandals off your feet! For the place where you are standing is holy ground." 6 Then God said, "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob."

Then Moses covered his face, because he was afraid to look at God. 7 The LORD said: "I have certainly seen the misery of My people, who are in Egypt. I have heard their cry because of their slave-drivers. Yes, I know about their suffering. 8 So I have come down to rescue them from the power of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from that land to a fine, spacious land. It is a land flowing with milk and honey, the home of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. 9 Now, you see, the cry of the people of Israel has reached Me, and I have seen how the Egyptians are oppressing them. 10 Therefore go now! I am sending you to Pharaoh, so that you may bring My people, the Israelites, out of Egypt."

11 However, Moses asked God, "Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring the people of Israel out of Egypt?"

12 God said: "I shall certainly be with you, and this will be the sign to you that I have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you will all worship God here on this mountain."

God's Revelation to Moses as "I AM" — John 5:58

13 Moses said to God: "Look! Suppose I have gone to the people of Israel, and I have told them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they ask me, ‘What is His name?' what shall I tell them?"

14 God answered Moses: "I AM WHO I AM." He also said: "This is what you shall tell the people of Israel, ‘I AM has sent me to you!'"*58 15 God also instructed Moses: "This is what you shall tell the people of Israel: ‘The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you!' This is My name for ever, by which I am to be remembered from generation to generation. 16 Go and gather the elders of Israel together! Tell them: ‘The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, has appeared to me! He said: "I have certainly taken up your cause and have looked at what has been done to you in Egypt. 17 I have also promised that I shall take you up away from your misery in Egypt to the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, a land flowing with milk and honey."'

18 "The elders of Israel will listen to you. Then you and the elders of Israel shall go to the king of Egypt and tell him: ‘The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us! Now, please, we should like to go on a three-day journey into the wilderness to sacrifice to the LORD, our God!' 19 Nevertheless, I know that the king of Egypt will not permit you to go unless a strong hand compels him. 20 Therefore I shall stretch out My hand and strike Egypt with all My wonders, which I shall perform among them. After that he will let you go. 21 I shall move the Egyptians to be kind to this people, so that, when you leave, you will not leave empty-handed. 22 Each Hebrew woman shall ask her Egyptian neighbour and any woman who lives at her house for silver and gold jewellery and for clothes! You shall put them on your sons and daughters! In this way you will strip the Egyptians of their wealth."

4

Ex 4

God's Use of Miraculous Signs with Moses and Moses' Reluctance to Go to Egypt

1 Moses answered, "What if they do not believe Me or listen to me, but say, ‘The LORD has not appeared to you'?"

2 The LORD asked him, "What is that in your hand?"

Moses answered, "A shepherd's staff."

3 He said, "Throw it down on the ground!"

He threw it down on the ground, and it became a snake. Moses ran away from it. 4 However, the LORD told Moses, "Put your hand out and take hold of it by its tail!"

He reached out his hand and took hold of it, and it turned back into a staff in his hand. 5 He said: "This is to convince them to believe that the LORD, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you."

6 The LORD spoke to him again, "Now, put your hand inside your cloak!"

Moses put his hand inside, and, when he drew it back out, he saw that his hand was infected by a skin-disease, as white as snow. 7 God said, "Put your hand back inside your cloak!"

Moses put his hand back inside, and, when he drew it back out of his cloak, he saw that it had been restored, as healthy as the rest of his body. 8 God said: "If they do not believe you or pay attention to the former miraculous sign, they may believe the latter miraculous sign. 9 However, if they do not believe even these two miraculous signs or listen to you, you shall fetch some water from the Nile and pour it out on the dry ground! Then the water that you have taken from the Nile will turn to blood on the dry ground."

10 Nevertheless, Moses said to the LORD: "With your permission, Lord, I am not a good speaker, neither in the past nor since You began to speak to Your servant. For My speech is slow, and my tongue is clumsy."

11 However, the LORD asked him: "Who has made a man's mouth? Who makes a person dumb, or a person deaf, a person who can see, or a person who is blind? Do not I, the LORD? 12 Now, therefore, go! I shall help your speech, and I shall teach you what to say."

13 However, Moses said, "With your permission, Lord, please send Your Message through some other messenger!"

14 Then the anger of the LORD flared against Moses. He asked: "Is not Aaron the Levite your brother? I know that he can certainly speak well. Look! He is already coming out to meet you. He will certainly be glad to see you. 15 You shall speak to him and put in his mouth what he is to say! I shall also help both of you to speak, and I shall instruct both of you what you must do. 16 So he will be your spokesman to the people. He himself will become your mouthpiece, and you will become like God to him. 17 You must take that staff in your hand, so that you may perform the miraculous signs with it!"

The Return of Moses to Egypt

18 Moses went back to Jethro his father-in-law. He told him, "I should like to go back to my relatives, who are in Egypt, that I may see if they are still alive."

Jethro told Moses, "Go! I wish you well."

19 The LORD had told Moses in Midian: "Go back to Egypt! For all the men who tried to kill you are dead."

20 So Moses took his wife and his sons, put them on a donkey, and returned to the land of Egypt. Moses also took the staff of God in his hand. 21 The LORD told Moses: "When you go back to Egypt, see that you perform in Pharaoh's presence all the wonders that I have given you the power to do! Nevertheless, I shall make him stubborn, so that he will not let the people go. 22 You shall tell Pharaoh: ‘This is what the LORD has said: "Israel is My firstborn son! 23 Therefore I have told you: ‘Let My son go that he may worship Me! However, if you refuse to let him go, I shall certainly kill your firstborn son.'"'"

24 On the way, while they were at a camping-ground for the night, the LORD met Moses and tried to kill him. 25 Then Zipporah took a flint knife, cut off her son's foreskin, and threw it at Moses' feet. She said, "Surely you are a bridegroom of blood to me!"

26 So God withdrew from him. At that time she said, "A bridegroom of blood" with reference to circumcision.

Moses and Aaron's Report to the People about what God had Said

27 ‘The LORD had told Aaron, "Go into the wilderness to meet Moses!"

Aaron went and met Moses at the mountain of God and kissed him. 28 Moses told Aaron everything that the LORD, who had sent him, had said, and about all the miraculous signs that He had commanded him to perform. 29 Then Moses and Aaron went and gathered all the elders of the Israelites. 30 Aaron told them everything that the LORD had told Moses, and he performed the miraculous signs before the people. 31 The people believed, and, when they heard that the LORD had shown His concern for Israel, and that He had seen their misery, they knelt down and worshipped.

5

Ex 5

Moses and Aaron's First Confrontation with Pharaoh

1 After this, Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said: "The LORD, the God of Israel, has said this: ‘Let My people go, so that they may celebrate a festival in My honour in the wilderness!"'

2 However, Pharaoh asked: "Who is the LORD, that I should obey Him and let Israel go? I do not know the LORD, and I shall also not let Israel go."

3 They said: "The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please let us go a three-day journey into the wilderness to sacrifice to the LORD, our God, so that He may not attack us with a plague or a sword!"

4 However, the king of Egypt asked: "Moses and Aaron, why are you letting the people neglect their work? Go back and carry your burdens!" 5 Pharaoh added: "Look! Although the people of the land are now numerous, you are stopping them from working at their burdens."

The Increase in the Israelites' Labour

6 The same day Pharaoh ordered the slave-drivers of the people and their foremen: 7 "You shall no longer supply the people with straw to make bricks, as you have been doing in the past! They must go and gather their own straw! 8 You shall require them to make the same number of bricks as they were making before! You shall not reduce the quota! For they are lazy. That is why they are clamouring: ‘Let us go! Let us sacrifice to our God!' 9 Let the forced labour required of the men be harsh, and let them attend to that! They should take no notice of deceptive words!"

10 The slave-drivers of the people and their foremen went out and told the people: "This is what Pharaoh has said: ‘I am not going to supply you with straw. 11 Go yourselves and get your own straw wherever you can find it! Nevertheless, your output must not be reduced at all!'"

12 So the people scattered all over Egypt to gather stubble for straw. 13 The slave-drivers kept urging them. They said, "Complete the work required of you for each day, the same quota as when the straw was supplied!"

14 Then the Israelite foremen whom Pharaoh's slave-drivers had appointed over the Israelites were flogged. The slave-drivers asked, "Why have you not met your quota of bricks both yesterday and today, as in the past?"

15 The Israelite foremen went and appealed to Pharaoh. They asked: "Why are you treating your servants like this? 16 Your servants are not being supplied with any straw, and yet they keep telling us, ‘Make bricks!' Look! Your servants are being flogged, although your own people are at fault."

17 However, Pharaoh told them: "You are lazy! Lazy! That is why you are saying, ‘Let us go! Let us sacrifice to the LORD!' 18 Now, therefore, get to work! No straw will be supplied to you, but you shall deliver the same number of bricks!"

19 The Israelite foremen saw that they were in trouble when they were told, "You shall not reduce the number of bricks required of you for each day!"

20 They met Moses and Aaron, who were standing there to meet them when they came out from Pharaoh's presence. 21 The foremen told them: "May the LORD look on you and judge! For you have made Pharaoh and his officials regard us as a stench, and you have put a sword in their hands to kill us."

22 Moses went back to the LORD and asked: "O Lord, why have You treated this people so badly? Just why have You sent me? 23 Since I first went to Pharaoh to speak in Your name, he has been mistreating this people, and You have not delivered Your people at all!"

6

Ex 6

1 The LORD told Moses: "Now you will see what I shall do to Pharaoh. For because of My strong hand he will let them go, and because of My strong hand he will drive them out of his land."

God's Instruction to Speak to Pharaoh again

2 God spoke to Moses and told him: "I am the LORD. 3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, in the character of God Almighty, but I did not make My character known to them by My name, the LORD.*59 4 I also established My Covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land where they lived for a time as foreigners. 5 I have also heard the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are keeping as slaves, and I have remembered My Covenant. 6 Therefore tell the Israelites, ‘I am the LORD. I shall bring you out from under the heavy labours imposed by the Egyptians, and I shall rescue you from being slaves to them. I shall redeem you with an outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment. 7 Then I shall take you as My people, and I shall be your God. You will know that I am the LORD, your God, and that I have brought you out from under the heavy labours imposed by the Egyptians. 8 I shall bring you into the land that I swore with my raised hand to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. I shall give it to you as your possession. I am the LORD."

9 Moses repeated this Message to the Israelites, but they did not listen to him. They had become despondent, because of their difficult forced labour. 10 Then the LORD spoke to Moses. He said, 11 "Go, and tell Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, to let the Israelites leave his land!"

12 Moses said before the LORD: "Look! The Israelites have not listened to me. How, then, will Pharaoh listen to me when I am such an unskilled speaker?"

13 However, the LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron and gave them their commission concerning the Israelites and Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, namely, that they should bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt.

The Genealogy of Moses and Aaron — Genesis 46:8-27

14 These were the heads of their fathers' families: The sons of Reuben, the firstborn son of Israel, were Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. These were the clans of Reuben. 15 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, who was the son of a Canaanite woman. These were the clans of Simeon. 16 These were the names of the sons of Levi according to their family records: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. Levi lived for one hundred and thirty-seven years. 17 The sons of Gershon, by their clans, were Libni and Shimei. 18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. Kohath lived for one hundred and thirty-three years. 19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi according to their family records. 20 Amram married his father's sister Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron and Moses. Amram lived for one hundred and thirty-seven years. 21 The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg, and Zichri. 22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri. 23 Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab and the sister of Nahshon. She bore him Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. 24 The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the clans descended from Korah. 25 Aaron's son Eleazar married one of the daughters of Putiel, and she bore him Phinehas. These were the heads of the Levite families, clan by clan. 26 It was this Aaron and this Moses to whom the LORD said: "Bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt according to their military divisions!"

27 These were the men who told Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, to let the Israelites leave Egypt. These were the same Moses and Aaron.

28 On the day when the LORD had spoken to Moses in the land of Egypt, 29 the LORD told Moses: "I am the LORD. Tell Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, everything that I tell you!"

30 However, Moses had said before the LORD: "You see, I am an unskilful speaker. How, then, would Pharaoh listen to me?"

7

Ex 7

1 The LORD answered Moses: "See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet! 2 You shall say everything that I command you, and your brother Aaron shall tell Pharaoh that he should let the Israelites leave his land! 3 Nevertheless, I shall make Pharaoh stubborn. I shall cause My miraculous signs and wonders to be numerous in the land of Egypt. 4 However, Pharaoh will refuse to listen to you. Then I shall lay My hand on Egypt and bring My army, My people, the Israelites, out of the land of Egypt by mighty acts of judgment. 5 The Egyptians will know that I am the LORD when I stretch out My hand against Egypt, and bring the Israelites out from among them."

6 Moses and Aaron did just as the LORD had commanded them to do. 7 Moses was eighty years old and Aaron was eighty-three when they spoke to Pharaoh.

The Miraculous Turning of Aaron's Rod into a Snake — Exodus 4:1-5

8 The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron: 9 "When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Provide a sign for yourselves!' then, Moses, you shall tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down in front of Pharaoh,' that it may become a large snake!"

10 When Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, they did just as the LORD had commanded. Aaron threw his staff down in front of Pharaoh and his officials, and it became a large snake. 11 Pharaoh also called his wise men and sorcerers, and these soothsayer-priests of Egypt also did the same thing by their secret arts. 12 Each of them threw his staff down, and each of their staffs changed into large snakes. However, Aaron's staff swallowed their staffs. 13 Nevertheless, Pharaoh became stubborn and would not listen to them, as the LORD had foretold.

The First Plague, the Turning of the Nile into Blood

14 The LORD told Moses: "Pharaoh is stubborn. He has refused to let the people go. 15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning! Look! He will be going out to the river. You shall stand and wait on the bank of the Nile to meet him! Take in your hand the staff that turned into a snake! 16 You shall tell him: ‘The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you to say: "Let My people go so that they may worship Me in the wilderness! However, until now you have not listened. 17 This is what the LORD has said: ‘By this you will know that I am the LORD. Look! I am going to strike the water in the river with the staff in my hand, and it will turn to blood. 18 The fish in the river will die, the river will stink, and the Egyptians will no longer be able to drink any water from the Nile."'"

19 The LORD instructed Moses: "Tell Aaron: ‘Take your staff and stretch out your arm over the waters of Egypt, over their streams, over their branches and canals, over their reed-pools, and over every reservoir of their water! They will become blood, and there will be blood all over the land of Egypt, even in the wooden buckets and stone jars.'"

20 Moses and Aaron did just as the LORD had commanded. Aaron raised the staff and struck the water in the Nile while Pharaoh and his officials watched, and all the water in the river turned to blood. 21 The fish in the Nile died, and the Nile smelled so bad that the Egyptians could not drink any water from it. There was blood everywhere in the land of Egypt. 22 However, the soothsayer-priests of Egypt used their secret arts to do the same, and so Pharaoh continued to be stubborn, and did not listen to Moses and Aaron, as the LORD had foretold. 23 Rather, Pharaoh turned and went home and dismissed the matter from his mind. 24 All the Egyptians dug along the Nile for water to drink, because they could not drink any water from the Nile. 29 Seven days passed after the LORD had struck the Nile.

8

Ex 8

The Second Plague, Frogs

1 The LORD told Moses: "Go to Pharaoh, and tell him: ‘This is what the LORD has said: "Let My people go in order that they may worship Me! 2 However, if you refuse to let them go, look! I shall bring a plague of frogs on your whole territory. 3 The Nile will teem with frogs. They will come up and get into your palace, into your bedroom, onto your bed, into the houses of your officials, on your people, and into your ovens and your kneading bowls. 4 The frogs will jump up on you, on your people, and on all your officials."'"

5 The LORD instructed Moses: "Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your staff over the streams, over the canals, and over the ponds, to bring up frogs over the land of Egypt!'"

6 Aaron stretched out his arm over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt. 7 However, the soothsayer-priests used their secret powers to do the same. They too made frogs come up over the land of Egypt. 8 Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron. He said: "Plead with the LORD, to take the frogs away from me and from my people! I shall let the people go to sacrifice to the LORD."

9 Moses answered Pharaoh: "Please determine for me when I should intercede for you, for your officials, and for your people, to rid you and your houses of the frogs, except for those that remain in the Nile!"

10 Pharaoh answered, "Tomorrow."

Moses said: "It will be as you say, so that you may know there is no one like the LORD, our God. 11 The frogs will leave you, your houses, your officials, and your people. They will remain only in the Nile."

12 When Moses and Aaron had left Pharaoh, Moses appealed to the LORD about the frogs, which He had brought on Pharaoh. 13 The LORD did what Moses had asked. The frogs died in the houses, the courtyards, and the fields. 14 The people piled them up in many heaps and the land stank. 15 However, when Pharaoh saw that there had been relief, he hardened his heart, and did not listen to Moses and Aaron, as the LORD had foretold.

The Third Plague, Gnats

16 The LORD instructed Moses: "Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your staff and strike the dust of the ground! It will become gnats all over the land of Egypt.'"

17 They did that. Aaron stretched out his hand with the staff and struck the dust of the ground and it became gnats on human beings and on animals. All the dust of the ground became gnats throughout the land of Egypt. 18 However, when the soothsayer-priests tried likewise to produce gnats with their secret arts, they could not do it. The gnats were on human beings and on animals. 19 The soothsayer-priests told Pharaoh, "This is the finger of God!"

Nevertheless, Pharaoh continued to be stubborn and did not listen to Moses and Aaron, as the LORD had foretold.

The Fourth Plague, Flies

20 The LORD told Moses: "Get up early in the morning, and take your position before Pharaoh! He will come out to the river. Tell him: ‘This is what the LORD has said: "Let My people go so that they may worship Me! 21 Otherwise, if you do not let My people go, I shall send swarms of flies on you, on your officials, on your people, and into your houses. The houses of the Egyptians and even the ground where they are standing will be full of flies. 22 On that day I shall treat the region of Goshen, where My people live, differently, so that no swarms of flies will be there. In this way you will know that I, the LORD, am here in the middle of the land. 23 I shall make a liberating exception with My people compared with your people. This miraculous sign will take place tomorrow."'"

24 The LORD did this. Dense swarms of flies came into Pharaoh's palace and the houses of his officials, and over the entire land of Egypt. The land was being ruined because of the swarms of flies. 25 Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and said, "Go, and sacrifice to your God, but here in this land!"

26 However, Moses answered: "It would not be legitimate to do that. For the Egyptians think that our sacrifices to the LORD, our God, are disgusting. Look! If we offered sacrifices that they thought disgusting in their presence, would they not stone us? 27 We must go on a three-day' journey into the wilderness, and we shall sacrifice to the LORD, our God, as He is commanding us."

28 Pharaoh said: "I shall let you go, and you will sacrifice to the LORD, your God, in the wilderness, except that you must not go very far. Now intercede for me!"

29 Moses answered: "Look! I am going out from your presence. I shall plead to the LORD, and tomorrow the swarms of flies will leave Pharaoh, his officials, and his people. Only let Pharaoh not cheat us again by preventing the people from going to sacrifice to the LORD!"

30 Then Moses left Pharaoh and interceded with the LORD. 31 The LORD did what Moses asked. The swarms of flies left Pharaoh, his officials, and his people. Not one was left. 32 However, Pharaoh hardened his heart once again and did not let the people go.

9

Ex 9

The Fifth Plague, Disease in Livestock

1 The LORD told Moses: "Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has said: "Let My people go so that they may worship Me! 2 For if you refuse to let them go and keep your hold on them, 3 be sure that the hand of the LORD will strike your livestock in the fields, the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the cattle, and the sheep! It will be a very severe plague. 4 However, the LORD will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt. No animal belonging to the Israelites will die. 5 The LORD has fixed a definite time, saying, ‘Tomorrow the LORD will do this in the land.'"'"

6 On the next day the LORD did that. All the livestock of Egypt died, but not one animal of the Israelites died. 7 Pharaoh sent some men and they found out that not even one animal of the Israelites had died. However, Pharaoh continued to be stubborn, and did not let the people go.

The Sixth Plague, Boils

8 Then the LORD told Moses and Aaron: "Take both hands full of soot from a furnace for yourselves, and Moses shall scatter it toward the sky while Pharaoh is watching! 9 It will become fine dust over the whole land of Egypt, and it will become boils that break open on human beings and on animals throughout the land of Egypt."

10 They took soot from a furnace, and stood before Pharaoh. Moses scattered it into the air, and it became boils in the form of blisters that kept breaking open on human beings and on animals. 11 The soothsayer-priests could not stand before Moses because of the boils, because the boils affected the soothsayer-priests as well as all the other Egyptians. 12 Nevertheless, the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not listen to them, as the LORD had foretold to Moses.

The Seventh Plague, Hail

13 The LORD told Moses: "Get up early in the morning, take up your positions before Pharaoh, and tell him, ‘This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has said: "Let My people go that they may worship me! 14 For this time I am letting you, all your officials, and all your people suffer from all My plagues, so that you may know that that there is no one like Me in all the earth. 15 For by now I could have stretched out My hand and struck you and your people with the plague, and you would have been destroyed from the earth. 16 However, I have raised you up for this very purpose, to show you My power and to make My name famous in all the earth. 17 You are still behaving haughtily against My people by not letting them go. 18 Therefore tomorrow at this time I shall send a very severe hailstorm, such as has never been in Egypt from the day when it first began until now. 19 Now, therefore, send a Message, and bring under shelter your livestock and everything else that you have in the open fields. All human beings or animals that are found outside and are not gathered in under shelter will die when the hail falls on them."'"

20 Any of Pharaoh's officials who feared the Word of the LORD brought their servants and their livestock to safety indoors. 21 However, those who did not take the Word of the LORD seriously left their slaves and their livestock out in the fields. 22 The LORD told Moses: "Stretch out your hand toward the sky, so that hail may fall all over the land of Egypt, on human beings, on animals, and on every plant in the field throughout the land of Egypt!"

23 Moses stretched out his staff toward the sky, and the LORD sent thunder and hail, with fire flashing down to the ground. So the LORD rained hail down on the land of Egypt. 24 There was hail, and fire kept on flashing here and there in the middle of the hail. It was so very severe that there had been nothing like it in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation. 25 All over the land of Egypt the hail struck everything that was out of doors. It struck human beings and animals and every plant in the field and shattered every tree in the field. 26 Only in the region of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, there was no hail. 27 Pharaoh sent messengers and summoned Moses and Aaron. He told them: "This time I have sinned. The LORD is in the right, and my people and I are in the wrong. 28 Intercede with the LORD! There has been enough of God's thunder and hail. I shall let you go. You need not wait any longer."

29 Moses told him: "As soon as I have gone out of the city, I shall spread out my hands to the LORD. The thunder will stop, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the LORD. 30 However, I know that you and your officials do not yet fear the LORD God."

31 The flax and the barley were destroyed, because the barley had formed heads and the flax was in bud. 32 The wheat and the spelt were not destroyed, because they ripened later. 33 Then Moses left Pharaoh and went out of the city. He spread out his hands to the LORD. The thunder and the hail stopped and no more rain poured down on the ground. 34 When Pharaoh saw that the rain, the hail, and the thunder had stopped, he sinned again, He and his officials hardened their hearts. 35 So Pharaoh's heart remained stubborn, and he did not let the Israelites go, as the LORD had foretold through Moses.

10

Ex 10

The Eighth Plague, Locusts

1 The LORD told Moses, "Go to Pharaoh. For I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his officials, so that I may send these miraculous signs of Mine among them. 2 I have also sent them so that you may personally inform your children and grandchildren about how I made fools of the Egyptians, and what miraculous signs I have sent among them, so that you all may know that I am the LORD."

3 So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and told him: "This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has asked: ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before Me? Let My people go, so that they may worship Me! 4 Otherwise, if you refuse to let My people go, be sure that tomorrow I shall bring locusts into your territory! 5 They will cover the surface of the land so that no one will be able to see the ground. They will eat every last bit of what you have left, which has survived after the hail. They will eat every tree that you have growing in the fields. 6 They will fill your houses, the houses of all your officials, and the houses of all the other Egyptians. Your fathers and forefathers have not seen anything like this since they have been in this land until today.'"

Then Moses turned and left Pharaoh. 7 Pharaoh's officials asked him: "How long will this man be a snare for us? Let their men-folk go and worship the LORD, their God! Do you not know yet that Egypt has been ruined?"

8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh. He told them: "Go, worship the LORD, your God. Precisely who are the ones who will be going?"

9 Moses answered: "We shall go with our young people and our old people. We shall go with our sons and our daughters, and with our flocks and our herds, because we are observing the festival of the LORD."

10 Pharaoh told them: "The LORD would have to be with you if I ever let you and your children go like this! Beware! For there is trouble in store for you. 11 No! Go now, you strong young men, and worship the LORD, since that is what you have been asking for!"

Then Pharaoh drove Moses and Aaron away from his presence.

12 The LORD told Moses: "Stretch your hand out over the land of Egypt, so that the locusts may come over the land of Egypt! Let them eat up every plant in the land, everything that the hail has left!"

13 Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt and the LORD brought a wind roaring in from the east across the land all that day and all that night. When morning came, the east wind had carried in the locusts. 14 The locusts invaded all the land of Egypt, and settled on the whole territory of Egypt. There had never been such a very severe locust plague like that before, and there will never be any like it again. 15 They covered the surface of the whole land until the land was black. They ate up all the plants of the land and all the fruit on the trees that the hail had spared. Nothing green remained on trees or plants in the fields in the whole land of Egypt. 16 Then Pharaoh quickly summoned Moses and Aaron. He said: "I have sinned against the LORD, your God, and against you. 17 Now therefore, please forgive my sin just once more! Intercede with the LORD, your God, that He may only remove this deadly plague from me!"

18 Moses left Pharaoh and interceded with the LORD. 19 The LORD changed the wind to a westerly gale. It caught up the locusts and blew them into the Red Sea. Not a single locust was left anywhere in the territory of Egypt. 20 However, the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the Israelites go.

The Ninth Plague, Darkness

21 The LORD told Moses: "Stretch out your hand towards the sky, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, darkness that people can feel!"

22 So Moses stretched out his hand towards the sky, and there was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days. 23 No one could see anyone else, and no one got up from where he was for three days. However, all the Israelites had light where they lived. 24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses. He said: "Go and worship the LORD! Even your women and children may go with you. Only your flocks and your herds must be left behind!"

25 However, Moses said: "You must also provide us with sacrifices and burnt offerings, so that we may offer them to the LORD, our God! 26 Our livestock must also go with us! Not a hoof must be left behind! For we must take some of them for the worship of the LORD, our God. We do not know what service we must do to the LORD until we arrive there."

27 However, the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he refused to let them go. 28 He told Moses: "Get away from me! Take care that you do not see my face again! For on the day when you see my face again you will die."

29 Moses replied, "Yes, it will be as you have said. I shall never see your face again."

11

Ex 11

A Warning about a Tenth Plague, the Death of All Firstborn — Exodus 3:21-22; 12:35-36

1 The LORD had told Moses: "I shall bring one more plague against Pharaoh and Egypt. After that he will let you all leave from here. When he lets you go he will certainly drive you out from here like one who sends destruction. 2 Now tell the people personally that each man should ask his neighbour and each woman should ask her friend for silver and gold jewellery!"

3 The LORD made the Egyptians favourably disposed to the people. Besides, Moses was very highly respected in the land of Egypt by Pharaoh's officials and by the people. 4 Moses said: "This is what the LORD has said: ‘About midnight I shall go out among the Egyptians. 5 Every firstborn creature in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sits on his throne, to the firstborn of the slave girl who is using her handmill, and also all the firstborn among the animals. 6 There will be loud wailing all over the land of Egypt, such as has never been heard before, or will ever be again. 7 However, among all the Israelites not even a dog will bark at a man or an animal, that you may know that the LORD treats Egyptians and Israelites differently.' 8 Then all these officials of yours will come down to me, bow down before me, and say, ‘Get out, you and all the people who follow you!' After that I shall go out."

Moses left Pharaoh hot with anger.

9 The LORD had told Moses, "Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that I may do My many wonders in the land of Egypt."

10 Although Moses and Aaron had performed all these wonders before Pharaoh, the LORD had hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he had not let the Israelites go out of his land.

12

Ex 12

The Institution of the Passover — Leviticus 23:4-8; Numbers 9:1-14; 28:16-25; Deuteronomy 16:1-8; Ezekiel 45:21-25

1 The LORD told Moses and Aaron in Egypt, 2 "This month shall be the first month for you, the first month of your year! 3 Tell the whole congregation of Israel, ‘On the tenth day of this month each man shall take a lamb or kid for himself, according to the household of his father, one lamb for each household! 4 However, if any household is too small for one lamb or one kid, he and the neighbour next to his house shall take one between them, depending on the number of people! You shall determine your count for the lamb by how much each person eats! 5 The lamb or kid shall be a one-year-old male without defect! You may take it from the sheep or the goats. 6 Take care of it until the fourteenth day of this month! Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall slaughter it at twilight! 7 They shall take some of the blood and put it on the two sides and the tops of the doorframes of the houses where they eat the lambs! 8 That same night they shall eat the meat roasted on a fire! They shall eat it together with bread made without yeast, and with bitter herbs! 9 Do not eat any of it raw or boiled in water, but roasted on a fire, with its head, legs, and internal organs! 10 You shall not leave any of it until the next morning, but you shall burn up whatever remains of it until morning! 11 This is how you shall eat it: You shall have your cloaks tucked into your belts, your sandals on your feet, and your staffs in your hands! You shall eat it quickly! It is the Passover of the LORD. 12 On that night I shall pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn in Egypt, both human beings and animals. I shall bring judgment against all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD. 13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are. When I see the blood, I shall pass over you. The plague will not strike you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.'

14 "You shall commemorate this day! You shall celebrate it as a festival to the LORD throughout your generations! You and your descendants shall celebrate it as a festival by a permanent Statute! 15 You shall eat bread without yeast for seven days! On the first day you shall be sure to remove any yeast from your houses! For any person who eats anything made with yeast from the first day to the seventh day shall be excluded from Israel! 16 You shall have a holy assembly on the first day and another holy assembly on the seventh day! You shall not do any work on them except to prepare food for everyone! That is the only thing that you may do. 17 You shall observe the festival of bread without yeast! For this was the very day when I brought your great numbers out of the land of Egypt. You shall observe this day throughout your generations as a permanent Statute! 18 From the evening of the fourteenth day of the first month you shall eat bread without yeast until the evening of the twenty-first day of the month! 19 For seven days no yeast shall be found in your houses! For any person who eats anything made with yeast shall be excluded from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a foreigner or a native of the land! 20 You shall not eat anything made with yeast! You shall eat bread without yeast wherever you live!"

21 Moses summoned all the elders of Israel. He told them: "Go off and select lambs for your families and kill the Passover lamb! 22 You shall take a sprinkling brush of hyssop, dip it into the blood, which is in the basin, and brush the upper crosspiece and the two posts of the door with the blood from the basin! None of you shall go outside the door of his house until morning! 23 The LORD will pass through to strike down the Egyptians. When the LORD sees the blood on the upper crosspiece and the two doorposts, He will pass over the entrance, and will not permit the destroyer to come into your homes to strike you down. 24 You shall observe this as a Prescription for yourself and for your children for ever! 25 When you enter the land that the LORD will give you as He has promised, you shall observe this ceremony! 26 When your children ask you, ‘What do you mean by this ceremony?' 27 you shall answer, ‘This is the sacrifice of the Passover to the LORD, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and rescued our families when He struck down the Egyptians!'"

The people bowed down and worshipped.

The Tenth Plague, the Death of the Firstborn — Exodus 11:1-10

28 The Israelites went and did exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron. 29 At midnight the LORD struck down every firstborn male in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who was sitting on his throne, to the firstborn of the prisoner in the dungeon, and also every firstborn animal. 30 Pharaoh and all his officials and all the other Egyptians got up at night, and there was loud wailing in Egypt, because there was not a house without someone dead.

Pharaoh's Order to the Israelites to Leave Egypt

31 Pharaoh sent a message to Moses and Aaron at night. He said: "Go away from my people immediately, both you and the Israelites! Go and worship the LORD, as you have been asking! 32 Take your flocks and herds too, as you have been asking, and go! You should also bless me!"

33 The Egyptians urged on the people, to send them out of the land quickly. For they said, "We shall all be dead!"

34 The people took up their dough before yeast was added and carried their kneading troughs on their shoulders, wrapped up in their garments. 35 The Israelites had done what Moses had told them, and had asked the Egyptians for silver and gold jewellery and for clothing. 36 The LORD had made the Egyptians favourably disposed toward the people, and they had let them have what they asked for. So they had plundered the Egyptians.

The Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt

37 The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Succoth. There were about six hundred thousand strong men on foot, besides the women and children. 38 A numerous mixed race of people also went up with them, as well as a very large number of livestock, in both flocks and herds. 39 They baked the dough that they brought from Egypt into bread-cakes without yeast, because there was no food with yeast. For they had been driven out of Egypt, and could not delay. They had also not prepared any provisions for their journey.

40 The length of time the Israelite people had been living in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years. 41 At the end of the four hundred and thirty years, on that very day, all the great numbers of the LORD marched out of the land of Egypt. 42 It was a night when the LORD kept vigil to take them out of the land of Egypt. It is this night, which belongs to the LORD, in which all the Israelites keep vigil throughout their generations.

Regulations for the Passover — Exodus 12:1-13

43 The LORD told Moses and Aaron: "This is the Statute for the Passover: ‘No foreigner shall eat of it! 44 However, any slave who has been bought with money may eat of it after you have circumcised him. 45 No temporary resident or hired worker shall eat of it! 46 Each lamb shall be eaten in one house! You shall not take any of the meat outside! You shall not break any bone of it! 47 The whole congregation of Israel shall celebrate this festival! 48 When a foreigner is living with you and wants to celebrate the Passover of the LORD, all his males shall be circumcised! Then he may approach to celebrate it, and he shall be like any citizen who has full rights in the land! However, no uncircumcised person shall eat of it! 49 The same Law shall apply to the citizen with full rights and to the foreigner who is living among you!'"

50 All the Israelites did exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron. 51 On that same day the LORD brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt in their military divisions.

13

Ex 13

The Provision to Dedicate Firstborn Males — Deuteronomy 15:19-23

1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 2 "Consecrate to Me every firstborn male! The first offspring of every womb among the Israelites, both human beings and animals, belongs to Me."

Regulations for the Annual Festival of Bread without Yeast — Exodus 12:14-20

3 Moses told the people: "Remember this day, on which you have come out of slave-quarters in Egypt! For the LORD has brought you out from this place with His mighty hand. You shall eat nothing containing yeast! 4 Today, in the month of Abib, you are going out. 5 When the LORD brings you to the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which He swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, you shall observe this ceremony in this month!

6 You shall eat bread without yeast for seven days, and there shall be a festival to the LORD on the seventh day! 7 Only bread without yeast shall be eaten for the seven days! No yeast or any fermented dough shall be seen among you anywhere in your territory! 8 On that day you shall tell your son, ‘I am doing this because of what the LORD did for me when I came out of Egypt!' 9 You shall have a record of it like a sign on your hand and a memorial on your forehead, that you may keep talking about the Law of the LORD! For the LORD has brought you out of Egypt with a mighty hand. 10 You shall keep this Statute at the appointed time every year!

Regulations about Firstborn Male Children

11 "After the LORD has brought you to the land of the Canaanites, as He swore to you and your fathers, and given it to you, 12 you shall set apart to the LORD the first offspring of every womb, and every firstborn offspring of the animals that you have! If they are males, they belong to the LORD. 13 However, you shall redeem every firstborn male donkey with a lamb or a kid, and, if you do not redeem it, you shall break its neck! Of human beings, you shall redeem every firstborn among your sons! 14 When in the future your son asks you, ‘What does this mean?' you shall tell him, ‘With a mighty hand the LORD brought us out of slave-quarters in Egypt! 15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, the LORD killed every firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of human beings and the firstborn of animals. This is the reason why I am sacrificing to the LORD the first male offspring of every womb and am redeeming every firstborn of my sons.' 16 It shall be a sign on your hand and a mark on your forehead! For the LORD brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand."

God's Leading the Israelites on Their Journey out of Egypt with Pillars of Cloud and Fire — Exodus 40:34-38; Numbers 9:15-23; 1 Kings 8:10-11

17 When Pharaoh let the people go, God did not lead them on the road that goes to the land of the Philistines, although that was the shortest way. For God said, "It is to avoid having the people change their minds and go back to Egypt when they face war."

18 Therefore God led the people around by way of the wilderness to the Red Sea. The Israelites were organised for war when they came up out of the land of Egypt. 19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, because Joseph had made the Israelites swear a solemn oath. He had said, "God will certainly take up your cause. Then you shall carry my bones up from here with you!"

20 They journeyed from Succoth and camped at Etham, on the edge of the wilderness. 21 The LORD kept going ahead of them in a pillar of cloud during the day to lead them on their way and in a pillar of fire by night to give them light, so they could travel by day and by night. 22 Neither the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night failed to be present as it went ahead of the people.

14

Ex 14

The Israelites' Journey to the Red Sea

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Tell the Israelites that they should turn back and camp in front of Pi-Hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, in front of Baal-Zephon! Camp opposite it, beside the sea! 3 Pharaoh will say, about the Israelites, ‘They are wandering aimlessly in the land. The wilderness has hemmed them in!' 4 I shall harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will pursue them. Then I shall appear in My glory at the expense of Pharaoh and his whole army, and the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD."

Then the Israelites did this. 5 When the king of Egypt was told that the people had fled, Pharaoh and his officials changed their minds about the people. They asked, "What have we done here? For we have let Israel go and lost our slaves."

Pharaoh's Pursuit of the Israelites

6 So Pharaoh harnessed his chariot, and took his troops with him. 7 He took six hundred of the best chariots as well as the other chariots of Egypt, with adjutant chariot-officers in all of them. 8 The LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, so that he pursued the Israelites, who were leaving defiantly. 9 The Egyptians pursued them, and all Pharaoh's horses and chariots, his horsemen and his other fighting forces, overtook them as they were camping for the night beside the sea near Pi-Hahiroth, in front of Baal-Zephon.

10 When Pharaoh approached, the Israelites looked up and saw the Egyptians marching behind them. The Israelites were terrified and cried out to the LORD. 11 They asked Moses: "Was it because there were no graves in Egypt that you have brought us to die in the wilderness? What is this that you have done to us, by bringing us out of Egypt? 12 Is this not what we told you in Egypt: ‘Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians'? It would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than for us to die in the wilderness."

God's Miraculous Deliverance at the Red Sea

13 Moses told the people: "Do not be afraid! Stand still, and see what the LORD will do to save you today! For you will never see again the Egyptians whom you have seen today. 14 The LORD will fight for you. Therefore you yourselves must be silent!"

15 The LORD asked Moses: "Why are you crying out to Me? Tell the Israelites to go forward! 16 As for you, raise your staff, stretch out your hand over the sea, and divide the sea, that the Israelites may go through the sea on dry ground! 17 Look! I am making the hearts of the Egyptians stubborn, so that they may go in after the Israelites, and that I may be glorified at the expense of Pharaoh, all his army, his chariots, and his horsemen. 18 Then the Egyptians will know that I am the LORD, when I am glorified at the expense of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen."

19 Then the Angel of God, who had been going ahead of the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them. The column of cloud also moved away from in front of them, and took its place behind them. 20 It came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel. The cloud brought darkness to the one side, and it lit up the night for the other. Neither side went near the other all night long. 21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the LORD pushed back the sea with a strong east wind all that night, and He turned the sea into dry land. The water was divided. 22 Therefore the Israelites went through the middle of the sea on dry ground. The water was like a wall for them on their right side and on their left. 23 The Egyptians, all of Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen, pursued them and followed them into the middle of the sea. 24 In the watch before dawn the LORD looked down through the column of fire and cloud at the Egyptian army and threw it into a panic. 25 He made the wheels of their chariots come off, so that they had difficulty driving them. The Egyptians said: "Let us flee from the Israelites! For the LORD is fighting for Israel and against Egypt."

The Destruction of the Egyptian Army in the Red Sea

26 The LORD told Moses, "Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the water may flow back over the Egyptians, over their chariots, and over their horsemen!"

27 Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and, at daybreak, the sea flowed back to its normal depth. The Egyptians were fleeing to meet it, but the LORD shook them off into the middle of the sea. 28 The water flowed back, and covered the chariots, the horsemen, and all the army of Pharaoh, which had followed the Israelites into the sea. Not even one of them remained. 29 The Israelites had walked through the middle of the sea on dry ground while the water was a wall for them on their right side and on their left. 30 Therefore the LORD saved Israel that day from the power of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore. 31 When the Israelites saw the great power that the LORD had used against the Egyptians, the people feared the LORD, and put their trust in the LORD, and in His servant Moses.

15

Ex 15

The Song of Moses after the Deliverance at the Red Sea — Exodus 14:13-14; Psalm 78:12-14; Revelation 15:3-4

1 Then Moses and the people of Israel sang this song to the LORD:

"I shall sing to the LORD. For He has been highly exalted. The horse and its rider He has thrown into the sea.

2 "The LORD is my Strength and my Song. He has become my Salvation. This is my God, and I shall praise Him, my father's God, and I shall exalt Him.

3 "The LORD is a warrior. The LORD is His name.

4 "He has thrown Pharaoh's chariots and his army into the sea. His chosen captains have been engulfed in the Red Sea.

5 "The deep waters have covered them. They have gone down to the depths like a stone.

6 "Your right hand, O LORD, was glorious in power. Your right hand, O LORD, was shattering the enemy.

7 "By Your great Majesty You were destroying those who rose up against You. You were sending out Your blazing anger. It was consuming them like stubble.

8 "At the blast of Your nostrils the waters rose. The waves stood upright like a dam. The depths congealed in the heart of the sea.

9 "The enemy said, ‘I shall pursue, I shall overtake, I shall divide the spoil. I shall glut my appetite on them. I shall draw my sword. I shall rid myself of them.'

10 "You blew with Your breath: the sea covered them. They sank like lead in the mighty waters.

11 "Who is like You among the gods, O LORD? Who is like You, glorious in holiness, worthy of awe and praise, and working wonders?

12 "You stretched out Your right hand: the earth swallowed them.

13 "You in Your mercy have led forth the people whom You have redeemed. You have guided them in Your strength to Your holy dwelling.

14 "The peoples have heard, and will tremble in fear. Anguish will take hold of the inhabitants of Philistia.

15 "Next the chiefs of Edom will be terrified. Trembling will take hold of the powerful men of Moab. All the inhabitants of Canaan will be disheartened.

16 "Terror and dread will fall on them. Because of the greatness of Your arm, they will be rigid like a stone, until Your people pass over, O LORD, until the people whom You have purchased pass over.

17 "You will bring them in and plant them on the mountain of Your inheritance, in the place that You have made, O LORD, for Your dwelling, the sanctuary, O LORD, that Your own hands have established.

18 "The LORD will reign for ever and ever."

19 For Pharaoh's horses, with his chariots and horsemen had gone into the sea, and the LORD had made the water of the sea flow back over them. However, the Israelites had walked on dry ground through the middle of the sea.

The Refrain of Miriam — Numbers 26:59

20 Then the prophetess Miriam, Aaron's sister, took a tambourine in her hand, and all the women followed her with tambourines and dancing. 21 Miriam sang this refrain to them:

"Sing to the LORD! For He has been highly exalted. The horse and its rider He has thrown into the sea."

God's Provision of Sweet Water for the Israelites

22 Then Moses made Israel start out away from the Red Sea. They went out into the wilderness of Shur. They travelled in the wilderness for three days without finding water. 23 They came to Marah, but they could not drink the water at Marah, because it was bitter. That was the reason why the place was named "Marah."*60 24 The people grumbled against Moses. They asked, "What shall we drink?"

25 Moses cried out to the LORD, and the LORD directed him to a tree. He threw it into the water, and then the water became sweet. There God laid down a Prescription and a Decision for the people, and there He tested them. 26 He said: "If you carefully obey the LORD, your God, if you do what He considers right, if you listen to His commands, and if you keep all His Prescriptions, I shall not bring on you any of the sickness that I inflicted on Egypt. For I am the LORD, your Healer."

27 Then they arrived at Elim, where there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm-trees, and they camped there beside the water.

16

Ex 16

God's Provision of Manna and Quails for the Israelites to Eat

1 The whole congregation of the Israelites moved from Elim, and on the fifteenth day of the second month after they had left the land of Egypt they came into the wilderness of Sin, which lies between Elim and Sinai. 2 The whole congregation of the Israelites grumbled against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness. 3 The Israelites said to them: "If only we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt! Then we sat around the pots of meat, and we ate all the food that we wanted! However, You have brought us into this wilderness in order to starve this whole assembly to death!"

4 Then the LORD told Moses: "Look! I shall rain bread down from heaven for you. Then each day the people shall go out and gather a daily quantity for that day, in order that I may test them, to see whether or not they will live according to My instructions! 5 However, on the sixth day, when they prepare what they bring in, it shall be twice as much as they gather on every other day!"

6 So Moses and Aaron spoke to all the Israelites: "In the evening you will know that the LORD has brought you out of the land of Egypt, 7 and in the morning you will see the glory of the LORD. For He has heard your grumbling against the LORD. Who are we, that you are grumbling against us?" 8 Moses also said: "You will know this when He gives you meat to eat in the evening and all the bread you need to satisfy yourselves in the morning. For the LORD has heard your grumbling against Him. Who are we? Your grumbling is not against us, but against the LORD."

9 Then Moses told Aaron: "Tell the whole congregation of the Israelites: ‘Come near before the LORD! For He has heard your grumbling.'"

10 While Aaron was speaking to the whole congregation of the Israelites, they turned toward the wilderness, and there was the glory of the LORD appearing in the cloud. 11 Then the LORD spoke to Moses, 12 "I have heard the grumbling of the Israelites. Tell them, ‘At twilight you will eat meat, and in the morning you will have all the bread you need to satisfy you! Then you will know that I am the LORD, your God.'"

13 That evening quails came up and settled over the camp and the next morning there was a layer of dew around the camp. 14 When the layer of dew evaporated, there, on the surface of the wilderness, was something fine and scale-like, as fine as frost, on the ground. 15 When the Israelites saw it, they asked one another, "What is that?"

For they did not know what it was. Moses told them: "That is the bread that the LORD has given you to eat. 16 This is what the LORD has commanded: ‘Everyone should gather as much of it as he can eat! Collect two litres for each person as you count the persons that each of you has in his tent!'"

17 That is what the Israelites did. Some gathered much, and others gathered little. 18 However, when they measured it with a two-litre measure, the one who had gathered much did not have a surplus, and the one who had gathered little did not have too little. Each had gathered as much as he could eat. 19 Moses told them, "No one shall keep any of it until morning!"

20 However, some did not listen to Moses. These people kept part of it until morning, and it swelled up with maggots and stank. So Moses was angry with them. 21 Every morning each one gathered as much as he could eat. However, when the sun became hot, it melted away. 22 On the sixth day they gathered twice as much food, four litres for each person, and all the leaders of the congregation came and reported this to Moses. 23 He told them: "This is what the LORD has said, ‘Tomorrow is a Sabbath observance, a holy Sabbath to the LORD. Bake what you want to bake, and boil what you want to boil! Save for yourselves everything that is left over, and store it until the morning!'"

24 So they saved it until the morning as Moses had commanded, and it did not stink or have maggots in it. 25 Moses said: "Eat it today! For today is a Sabbath to the LORD. You will not find any in the open today. 26 You shall gather it for six days! However, on the seventh day, the Sabbath, there will not be any."

27 Nevertheless, on the seventh day some of the people went out to gather it, but they did not find anything.

28 The LORD asked Moses: "How long do you people refuse to keep My Commandments and My Laws? 29 Realise that the LORD has given you the Sabbath! That is the reason why He is giving you enough food on the sixth day for two days. Everyone should stay in his place! No one shall go out from where he is on the seventh day!"

30 So the people observed the Sabbath on the seventh day. 31 The people of Israel called it "manna." It was white like coriander seed and it tasted like a flat cake made with honey. 32 Moses said: "This is what the LORD has commanded: ‘Take two litres of it and store it for your coming generations, so that they may see the food that I gave you to eat in the wilderness when I brought you out of the land of Egypt!'"

33 Moses told Aaron: "Take a jar, put two litres of manna in it, and save it in the presence of the LORD, to store it for your coming generations!"

34 As the LORD commanded Moses, Aaron stored it in front of the Testimony, for safe-keeping. 35 The Israelites ate the manna for forty years until they came to a land where they could settle. They ate the manna until they came to the border of the land of Canaan. 36 (Now a two-litre omer is one tenth of an ephah).

17

Ex 17

God's Provision of Water for the Israelites from a Rock — Compare Numbers 20:1-13

1 The whole assembly of the Israelites broke camp from the Wilderness of Sin to travel by stages, as the LORD directed. They camped at Rephidim, but there was no water for the people to drink. 2 The people quarrelled with Moses. They said, "Give us water, that we may drink it!"

Moses asked them, "Why are you quarrelling with me? Why are you testing the LORD?"

3 There the people were so thirsty for water that they grumbled against Moses. They asked: "Why have you brought us up here out of Egypt? Was it to kill me, my children, and my cattle with thirst?"

4 Moses cried out to the LORD. He asked: "What should I do with this people? They are almost stoning me."

5 The LORD told Moses: "Go in front of the people and walk past them! Take with you some of the elders of Israel! Take also in your hand your staff, with which you struck the Nile, and go! 6 Look! I shall stand before you there on the rock at Horeb. Strike the rock! Water will come out of it, and the people will drink it."

Moses did this while the elders of Israel were watching him. 7 Moses named the place "Massah"*61 and "Meribah,"*62 because the Israelites had quarrelled, and because they had tested the LORD, by asking, "Is the LORD among us or not?"

The Battle between the Israelites and the Amalekites — Genesis 14:7; Numbers 13:29; 14:25

8 The Amalekites came and fought with the Israelites at Rephidim. 9 Moses told Joshua,*63 "Choose men for us, and go out to fight against the Amalekites! Tomorrow I shall be standing on top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand."

10 Joshua followed Moses' instructions about fighting with the Amalekites, but Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. 11 When Moses kept holding up his hand, the Israelites kept winning, but when he lowered his hand, the Amalekites kept winning. 12 However, Moses' hands began to feel heavy. So they took a rock and put it under him and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur took hold of his hands, one on each side. His hands were supported in this way until the sun went down. 13 So Joshua defeated the Amalekite army with the edge of the sword. 14 The LORD told Moses: "Write this on a scroll as something to be remembered, and impress it on Joshua as he listens to you: ‘I shall certainly blot out all the memory of the Amalekites from under heaven!'"

15 Moses built an altar and named it "YAHWEH-Nissi."*64 16 He said: "A hand is lifted in an oath to the throne of the LORD. The LORD will be at war against the Amalekites from generation to generation."

18

Ex 18

The Visit of Jethro, Moses' Father-in-Law, to the Israelite Camp — Deuteronomy 1:9-18

1 Jethro, the priest of Midian and the father-in-law of Moses, heard about everything that God had done for Moses and for His people Israel, and that the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt. 2 Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, had taken back Moses' wife, Zipporah, after Moses had dismissed her. 3 He had also taken back her two sons. The name of the one was "Gershom,"*65 because Moses had said, "I have become a stranger in a foreign land." 4 The name of the other was "Eliezer,"*66 because Moses had said, "The God of my father has helped me and has rescued me from the sword of Pharaoh."

5 Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, his sons, and his wife came to Moses in the wilderness where he was camping at the mountain of God. 6 He had someone tell Moses, "I, your father-in-law Jethro, am coming to you, bringing your wife and her two sons with her."

7 Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, bowed down, and kissed him. After they had greeted one another and had gone into the tent, 8 Moses reported to his father-in-law everything that the LORD had done to Pharaoh and the Egyptians because of Israel, all the hardship that had happened to them on the way, and how the LORD had rescued them. 9 Jethro was glad about all the good things that the LORD had done for Israel, whom He had rescued from the control of the Egyptians. 10 Jethro said: "Blessed be the LORD, who has rescued you all from the power of the Egyptians and from the power of Pharaoh! He has rescued the people from the power of the Egyptians. 11 Now I know that the LORD is greater than all the other gods are. For He has done this to those who had been treating Israel so insolently."

12 Then Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, offered a burnt offering and other sacrifices to God. Aaron and all the elders of Israel also came to eat a meal with Moses' father-in-law in the presence of God. 13 The next day Moses took his seat to settle disputes among the people, and the people stood beside Moses from morning until evening. 14 When Moses' father-in-law watched everything that Moses was doing for the people, he asked: "What is this that you are doing for the people? Why do you sit here alone, with all the people standing beside you from morning until evening?"

15 Moses answered his father-in-law: "Because the people are coming to me to ask for God's guidance. 16 When they have a dispute, it is brought to me, that I may decide between one man and another, and that I may inform them about God's Prescriptions and Laws."

17 However, Moses' father-in-law told him: "This is not a good way to do it. 18 Both you and these people who are with you will certainly wear yourselves out. For this is too difficult for you. You cannot do it alone. 19 Now listen to what I say! I shall give you some advice, and may God be with you! You should be the people's representative before God and you should present their problems before God! 20 Then you should warn them about the Prescriptions and Laws, and you should teach them how they should behave and what they should do! 21 Therefore you should select capable men from all the people, men who fear God, reliable men, who hate corruption! You should appoint them as officials over units of a thousand, of a hundred, of fifty, and of ten! 22 They should judge the people at all times! Although they should refer every important matter to you, they should decide every minor matter themselves! Take off some of your burden to make it lighter, and let them help you carry it! 23 If you do this, and if God so commands, you will be able to survive, and all these people will go home well treated."

24 Moses listened to his father-in-law's advice, and did everything that he suggested. 25 Moses chose capable men from all Israel and appointed them as leaders over the people, officials over units of a thousand, of a hundred, of fifty, and of ten. 26 These men kept judging the people at all times. They used to refer the difficult cases to Moses, but they used to decide every minor matter themselves. 27 Then Moses let his father-in-law leave, and Jethro returned to his own country.

19

Ex 19

The Israelites' Arrival at Sinai and God's Instructions to Moses at Mount Sinai

1 In the third month, after the people of Israel had left Egypt, on the very day, they came to the Wilderness of Sinai. 2 After they set out from Rephidim, they entered the Wilderness of Sinai and set up camp in the wilderness. Therefore Israel camped there in front of the mountain. 3 Then Moses went up the mountain to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain. He said: "This is what you shall inform the family of Jacob, and what you shall tell the people of Israel: 4 ‘You have seen for yourselves what I have done to the Egyptians, and how I have carried you on the wings of eagles and have brought you here to Myself! 5 Now, if you strictly obey Me and keep My Covenant, then out of all nations you will be a special treasure to Me, because the whole earth is Mine. 6 You will be My kingdom of priests and My holy nation.' These are the Words that you shall speak to the people of Israel!"

7 Moses came back, summoned the elders of the people, and laid before them all these things, which the LORD had commanded him. 8 All the people answered together and said, "We shall do everything that the LORD has said."

Then Moses took the answer of the people back to the LORD. 9 The LORD told Moses: "Look! I am coming to you in a dense cloud, so that the people may hear Me speaking with you, and that their trust in you may never fail."

Then Moses reported the response of the people to the LORD.

The Consecration of the People

10 The LORD told Moses: "Go to the people, and consecrate them today and tomorrow! They should wash their clothes, 11 and be ready for the day after tomorrow! For on the day after tomorrow the LORD will come down on Mount Sinai while all the people are watching. 12 You shall set a barrier around the mountain for the people, and tell them that they must be careful not to come up the mountain or touch the foot of it! Anyone who touches the mountain shall certainly be put to death! 13 No hand shall touch him, but he shall certainly be stoned or shall certainly be shot with an arrow! Whether an animal or a man, he shall not live! However, when a ram's horn sounds a long blast, they should come up near the mountain!"

14 After Moses had gone down the mountain to the people, he consecrated them, and they washed their clothes. 15 He told the people: "Be ready for the day after tomorrow! Abstain from sexual relations!"

16 On the morning of the third day there were peals of thunder and flashes of lightning, a dense cloud over the mountain, and a very loud trumpet-blast. All the people who were in the camp trembled. 17 Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. 18 All of Mount Sinai was wrapped in smoke, because the LORD had come down on it in fire. The smoke went up from it like the smoke from a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked violently. 19 The blast of the trumpet kept growing louder and louder. Moses spoke and God answered him with a voice. 20 The LORD came down over Mount Sinai to the top of the mountain, and the LORD summoned Moses to the top of the mountain. So Moses went up.

21 The LORD told Moses: "Go down and warn the people not to break through to the LORD to see Him! Otherwise many of them will perish. 22 Even the priests, who have access to the LORD, should consecrate themselves, so that the LORD may not break out against them!"

23 Moses told the LORD: "The people cannot come up onto Mount Sinai, because You Yourself have warned us, ‘Set a barrier around the mountain, to keep it holy!'"

24 The LORD told him: "Go down, and bring Aaron back up with you! However, the priests and the people should not break through to come up to the LORD, so that He may not break out against them!"

25 So Moses went down to the people and spoke to them.

20

Ex 20

The Giving of the Ten Commandments — Deuteronomy 5:6-21

1 Then God spoke all these Words: 2 "I am the LORD, your God, and I have brought you out of slave-quarters in the land of Egypt. 3 You shall have no other gods before Me! 4 You shall not make a carved image for yourself, or any likeness of anything that is in the heavens above, or that is on the earth below, or that is in the water under the earth! 5 You shall not worship them or serve them! For I, the LORD, your God, am a jealous God. I punish the children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation of those who hate Me. 6 However, I show mercy for a thousand generations to those who love Me and keep My Commandments. 7 You shall not use the name of the LORD, your God, in a wrong way! For the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who uses His name wrongly. 8 Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy! 9 For six days You shall labour and do all your work! 10 However, the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD, your God. On it you shall not do any work, you, your son, your daughter, your male servant, your female servant, your cattle, or your foreign resident, who is inside your gates! 11 For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea and everything that is in them, but He rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD has blessed the Sabbath day and has declared it holy. 12 Honour your father and your mother, so that your days may be prolonged in the land that the LORD, your God, is giving you! 13 You shall not murder! 14 You shall not commit adultery! 15 You shall not steal! 16 You shall not give false evidence against your neighbour! 17 You shall not desire your neighbour's house! You shall not desire your neighbour's wife, or his male servant, his female servant, his ox, his donkey, or anything else that belongs to your neighbour!"

The Reaction of the People to the Giving of the Commandments

18 All the people were witnessing the thundering, the lightning flashes, the blast of the ram's horn, and the mountain smoking. When the people saw them, they trembled and stood at a distance. 19 They told Moses: "Speak to us yourself, that we may listen! However, let God not speak to us, or we shall die!"

20 Moses told the people: "Do not be afraid! For God has come in order to test you, and in order that there may be fear of Him on your faces, in order that you may not sin."

21 So the people stood at a distance, while Moses went closer, into the darkness where God was.

General Regulations for Worship

22 The LORD instructed Moses: "This is what you shall tell the Israelites: ‘You yourselves have witnessed that I have spoken to you from heaven! 23 You shall not make any gods alongside of Me! You shall not make for yourselves gods of silver or gods of gold!

24 "You shall make an altar of earth for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace-offerings, your flocks and your cattle! In every place where I make My name known I shall come to you and I shall bless you. 25 If you make an altar of stones for Me, you shall not build it with hewn stones! For, if you move your chisel back and forth over it, you have made it unholy. 26 You shall not go up to My altar on steps, in order that your nakedness may not be exposed on it!

21

Ex 21

Legislation about the Rights of Hebrew Slaves – Leviticus 25:39-55; Deuteronomy 15:12-18

1 "These are the Decisions that you shall set before them: 2 When you buy a Hebrew slave, he shall be your slave for six years, but in the seventh year he shall go free without paying anything! 3 If he comes in alone, he shall leave alone! If he comes in as a married man, his wife shall leave with him! 4 If his master gives him a wife and she bears him sons or daughters, the woman and her children shall belong to her master, and the man shall leave alone! 5 However, if the slave plainly says, ‘I love my master, my wife, and my children, I shall not go out free,' 6 his master shall bring him before God! Then his master shall take him to the door or the doorpost, and he shall pierce his ear with an awl! Then he shall be his slave for life!

7 "When a man sells his daughter to be a slave, she shall not go free as male slaves go free! 8 If she does not please her master after he has assigned her to himself, he shall let her be ransomed! He shall not be entitled to sell her to strangers! For he has treated her unfairly. 9 If he assigns her to be his son's wife, he shall treat her as daughters may legally claim! 10 If he marries another woman, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, or her marital rights! 11 If he does not do these three things for her, she shall go free without any payment of money!

Legislation about Responsibility for Bodily Injuries

12 "If anyone strikes another, so that he dies, he shall certainly be put to death! 13 However, if he has not killed him deliberately, but God has let him fall into his hand, I shall designate a place for you to which he may flee. 14 However, when a man treats another man insolently, by scheming to kill him, you shall take him away from My altar to be put to death!

15 "If anyone strikes his father or his mother, he shall certainly be put to death!

16 "If one man kidnaps another, whether he sells him, or he is found in the man's possession, he shall certainly be put to death!

17 "If anyone curses his father or his mother, he shall certainly be put to death!

18 "When men quarrel and one man strikes the other man with a stone or with his fist and the man does not die but becomes confined to his bed, 19 if he recovers so as to walk around outside with his walking-stick, the one who hit him shall not be punished. Nevertheless, he shall pay for his loss of work and shall pay for him to get completely well again!

20 "When a man strikes his male slave or female slave with a stick, so that he dies as a direct result, he shall certainly be punished! 21 However, if the slave gets up in one day or two days, the man shall not be punished! For he is his property.

22 "When men who are quarrelling injure a pregnant woman so that she gives birth prematurely but there is no mortal harm, the man shall certainly pay the fine that the woman's husband imposes on him, and he shall pay as the judges determine! 23 However, if any mortal harm follows, you shall give a life for a life, 24 an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot, 25 a scar for a scar, a bruise for a bruise, a wound for a wound!

26 "When a man strikes his male slave or female slave in the eye, and destroys it, he shall let him go free to compensate for his eye! 27 If he knocks out a tooth of his male slave or female slave, he shall let the slave go free to compensate for his tooth!

28 "When a bull gores a man or a woman to death, the bull shall be stoned to death! Its meat shall not be eaten! However, the bull's owner shall not be held responsible! 29 However, if the bull was likely to gore in the past, and his owner has been warned and has not kept him in an enclosure, and the bull kills a man or a woman, the bull shall be stoned, and his owner shall also be put to death! 30 If only money as a ransom is demanded from him, he shall redeem his life by paying exactly what is imposed on him! 31 If the bull gores a son or a daughter, this same Decision shall be applied to the owner! 32 If the bull gores a male slave or a female slave, the owner shall pay three hundred and sixty grams of silver to the slave's master, and the bull shall be stoned!

Regulations about Injury through Negligence

33 "When a man opens a cistern or digs a cistern and fails to cover it, and a bull or a donkey falls into it, 34 the owner of the cistern shall make amends with money! He shall make restitution to its owner, but the dead animal shall be his!

35 "When someone's bull injures another man's bull so that it dies, they shall sell the live bull and shall divide both the money and the dead bull! 36 If it was known in the past that the bull was likely to gore, and his owner had not been keeping him in an enclosure, he shall certainly make amends for the bull with another bull, but the dead animal shall be his!"

22

Ex 22

Legislation about Stealing, Loss of Property, and Restitution

1 "When a man steals a bull or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it, he shall make amends with five cattle for the one bull and with four sheep for the one sheep!

2 "If a thief is caught while he is breaking into a house and is struck so that he dies, the defender is not guilty of murder. 3 If it has happened after sunrise, then it has been murder.

"A thief shall certainly make amends! If he has no means, he shall be sold because of what he has stolen! 4 If a stolen animal is actually found alive in his possession, whether a bull, a donkey, or a sheep, he shall repay double!

5 "When a man uses a field or a vineyard for grazing and allows his animal to stray and it grazes in another man's field, he shall make restitution from the best part of his own field or vineyard!

6 "When a fire breaks out and spreads into thorn-bushes, so that a stack of grain or standing grain or a field is burnt, the one who set fire to the field shall certainly make restitution for what the fire has damaged!

7 "When a man gives his neighbour some money or articles for safekeeping and they are stolen from that man's house, if the thief is caught, the thief shall pay back double! 8 If the thief is not caught, the owner of the house shall be brought before God to see whether he has not laid his hand on his neighbour's goods! 9 In every case of contested ownership of a bull, a donkey, a sheep, a mantle, or of any other lost property, about which somebody claims: ‘This is it,' the case of both persons shall be brought before God! The one whom God pronounces guilty shall repay double to his neighbour!

10 "When anyone gives a donkey, a bull, a sheep, or any other animal to his neighbour for safekeeping and it dies, is injured, or is captured, and no one has seen what has happened, 11 the two of them shall swear by the LORD! If the one has not laid his hand on his neighbour's goods, then the owner shall accept this, without being paid for the loss! 12 However, if it has indeed been stolen from the neighbour, he shall make restitution to the owner! 13 If a wild animal has indeed torn it in pieces, the man shall bring the remains as evidence! He shall not make restitution for what a wild animal has torn in pieces!

14 "When anyone borrows an animal from his neighbour and it is injured or dies while its owner is not with it, the borrower shall make full restitution! 15 If the owner is with it, the borrower shall not make restitution! If it has been hired, it shall be reckoned in the money paid to hire it."

Regulations for Living as God's Holy People

16 "When a man seduces a virgin who has not become engaged and sleeps with her, he shall certainly acquire her as his wife by paying the bridal money! 17 If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he shall pay in silver the amount of bridal money for a virgin!

18 "You shall not permit a sorceress to live!

19 "Anyone who has sexual relations with an animal shall certainly be put to death!

20 "Anyone who sacrifices to any god except the LORD alone shall be put to death under solemn ban!

21 "You shall not oppress a foreigner or torment him! For you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

22 "You shall not oppress any widow or a child who is fatherless! 23 If, on the contrary, you oppress such a person and he actually cries to Me for help, I shall certainly hear his cry for help. 24 I shall become very angry, and I shall kill you with the sword, and then your own wives will be widows and your own children will be fatherless.

25 "If you lend money to any poor person among you who belongs to My people, you shall not act like a money-lender toward him! You shall not charge him any interest! 26 If you indeed take your neighbour's cloak as security, you shall give it back to him before the sun goes down! 27 For that is his only covering in which to wrap his skin. In what else can he sleep? When he cries to Me for help, I shall listen, because I am compassionate.

28 "You shall not blaspheme God and you shall not curse a leader of your people!

29 "You shall not hold back offerings from the full yield of your crop or from the juice in your wine-vat!

"You shall give the firstborn of your sons to Me! 30 You shall do the same with your cattle and your sheep! The young one shall stay with its mother for seven days! On the eighth day you shall give it to Me!

31 "You shall be My holy people! You shall not eat meat from an animal torn to pieces by a wild animal in the open field! You shall throw it to the dog!

23

Ex 23

1 "You shall not spread a false report! Do not make common cause with a wicked person by giving false evidence! 2 Do not follow a crowd in doing wrong! When you give evidence in a lawsuit you shall not side with the majority to pervert justice! 3 You shall not give special favours to a powerless man in his lawsuit!

4 "When you happen to find your enemy's ox or donkey going astray, you shall certainly take it back to him!

5 "When you see the donkey of someone who hates you lying exhausted under its load, you shall not leave him alone with it! You shall certainly help him set it free!

6 "You shall not pervert justice when a poor person among you has a public dispute! 7 Have nothing to do with anything false! Do not put an innocent and righteous person to death! For I shall not acquit a wicked person. 8You shall not accept a bribe! For a bribe blinds clear-sighted persons and distorts the cases of righteous people.

9 "You shall not oppress a foreigner! You know a foreigner's state of mind, because you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

The Sabbatical Year — Leviticus 25:1-7

10 "For six years you may sow your land and gather what it yields. 11 However, in the seventh year you shall leave the land unploughed and fallow, so that those who are poor among your people may eat, and the wild animals may eat what the poor people leave! You shall do the same with your vineyard and your olive orchard! 12 You shall do your work in six days, but you shall rest on the seventh day, so that your ox and your donkey may rest, and your home-born person and the foreigner may be refreshed!

13 "Pay careful attention to everything that I have told you!

"You shall not mention the names of other gods! They shall not be heard on your lips!

Legislation about Three Festivals – Exodus 34:18-26; Leviticus 23:4-44; Numbers 28:16-29:40; Deuteronomy 16:1-17

14 "Three times a year you shall celebrate a festival to Me! 15 You shall keep the Festival of Bread without Yeast: You shall eat bread without yeast for seven days at the right time in the month of Abib, as I commanded you! For you left Egypt in that month. You shall not come into My presence without an offering! 16 You shall also keep the Festival of the Harvest with the firstfruits of your labour when you have sown the field, as well as the Festival of In-Gathering at the end of the year, when you have gathered from the field what your labour has produced! 17 Three times a year all your males shall come into the presence of the Lord GOD!

18 "You shall not offer the blood of a sacrifice to Me together with anything that contains yeast!

"The fat sacrificed at My festival shall not remain overnight until morning!

19 "You shall bring the best of the firstfruits of your soil to the house of the LORD, your God!

"You shall not boil a young goat in its mother's milk!

The Promise about God's Messenger, Who will Lead the Israelites to Canaan

20 "See! I am sending an Angel ahead of you, to protect you on the way, and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. 21 Be on your guard before Him, and listen to what He says! Do not cause trouble for Him! For He will not forgive your rebellion. For My name is in Him. 22 Rather, if you indeed listen to Him and do everything that I say, I shall be an enemy to your enemies and shall be hostile toward those who are hostile to you. 23 When My Angel goes ahead of you and brings you to the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, I shall destroy them. 24 You shall not bow down before their gods, you shall not serve them, and you shall not follow their practices! Rather, you shall certainly destroy their images! You shall certainly break their sacred stones in pieces! 25 You shall serve the LORD, your God! Then He will bless your food and water. I shall take sickness away from among you. 26 No woman in your land will have a miscarriage or be barren. I shall give you a full life span. 27 I shall send terror of Me ahead of you. I shall throw into confusion all the people whom you encounter. I shall make all your enemies turn their backs to you. 28 I shall send discouragement ahead of you to drive out the Hivites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites as you advance. 29 I shall not drive them out before you in one year, that the land may not become deserted and that the wild animals may not become too numerous for you. 30 I shall drive them out ahead of you gradually until you increase enough to take possession of the land. 31 I shall establish your borders from the Red Sea to the Sea of the Philistines and from the wilderness to the Euphrates. For I shall hand the people who live in the land into your power, so that you will drive them out as you advance. 32 You shall not make a covenant with them or with their gods! 33 They must not live in your land, that they may not cause you to sin against Me! For the worship of their gods will surely be a snare to you."

24

Ex 24

The Ratification of the Covenant with Blood

1 God told Moses: "Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel! While you are still at a distance you shall worship! 2 Then Moses alone shall approach the LORD! The others shall not come near, and the people shall not come up with him!"

3 When Moses came and recounted to all the people all the Words of the LORD and all the Ordinances, all the people answered with one voice: "We shall do all the things that the LORD has spoken."

4 Then Moses wrote down all the Words of the LORD. He got up early in the morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and also set up twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. 5 Then he sent the young Israelite men, and they offered whole burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls, as fellowship offerings to the LORD. 6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and he poured the other half out on the altar. 7 Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it aloud for the people to hear. They said, "We shall do all that the LORD has spoken, that we may be obedient."

8 Moses then took the blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, "Look! The blood of the Covenant, which the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these Words."

9 Then Moses went up, together with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and the seventy elders of Israel, 10 and they saw the God of Israel. Under His feet there was something like a pavement of sapphire, as clear as the sky itself. 11 However, God did not stretch out His hand against the eminent men of Israel. They saw God, and they ate and drank.

Moses' Ascent of the Mountain to Receive God's Words Written on Stone — Compare Exodus 34:1-4

12 Then the LORD told Moses: "Come up to Me on the mountain! Wait there, that I may give you the tablets of stone with the Law and the Commandments that I have written, in order to instruct them!"

13 Moses and Joshua, his assistant, set out, and Moses went up onto the mountain of God. 14 He told the elders: "Wait here for us until we come back to you! Look! Aaron and Hur are here with you. Anyone who is involved in a dispute should go to them!"

15 When Moses went up on the mountain, the cloud covered the mountain. 16 The glory of the LORD settled on Mount Sinai. For six days the cloud covered it, and, on the seventh, He called to Moses from inside the cloud. 17 The glory of the LORD appeared to the Israelites like a consuming fire on the top of the mountain. 18 Moses entered the cloud as he went up onto the mountain. Moses was on the mountain for forty days and forty nights.

25

Ex 25

Instructions about Freewill Contributions for the Tent of Meeting — Exodus 35:4-9

1 The LORD instructed Moses: 2 "Tell the Israelites to take a contribution for Me. You shall take the contribution to Me from everyone whose heart makes him willing! 3 This is the contribution that you shall take from them: gold, silver, bronze, 4 purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, fine linen, goat hair, 5 ram skins dyed red, dolphin skins, and acacia wood, 6 olive-oil for the light, spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant perfumes, 7 onyx stones, and other gems to be mounted on the priestly garment and the priestly breast-piece!

8 "Then they shall make a sanctuary for Me, so that I may dwell among them! 9 You shall make it exactly like the pattern of the tabernacle and the pattern of all its furnishings that I am showing you!"

Instructions about the Ark of the Testimony — Exodus 37:1-5

10 "They shall also make an Ark of acacia wood, one hundred and twenty-five centimetres long, seventy-five centimetres wide, and seventy-five centimetres high! 11 You shall plate it with pure gold! You shall plate it inside and outside! You shall make a moulding of gold all around on it! 12 You shall cast four rings of gold for it, and you shall put them on its four lower corners, two rings on one side and two rings on the other side! 13 You shall also make carrying-poles of acacia wood, and you shall plate them with gold! 14 You shall insert the poles through the rings on the sides of the Ark, that they may carry the Ark! 15 The poles shall remain in the rings of the Ark, and shall not be removed from it! 16 Then you shall put the Testimony that I shall give you into the Ark!

Instructions about the Propitiatory Cover — Exodus 37:6-9

17 "You shall make a propitiatory cover of pure gold, one hundred and twenty-five centimetres long and seventy-five centimetres wide! 18 You shall also make two cherubim! You shall make them by hammering them out of gold on the two ends of the propitiatory cover! 19 Make one cherub on one end and the other cherub on the other end! You shall make the two cherubim at the two ends, to form one whole with the propitiatory cover! 20 The cherubim shall have wings that spread out upwards, screening the propitiatory cover with their wings as they face each other! The faces of the cherubim shall look towards the propitiatory cover! 21 You shall put the propitiatory cover on top of the Ark, and you shall put the Testimony, which I shall give you, into the Ark! 22 I shall make Myself known to you there, and I shall speak to you from above the propitiatory cover, from between the two cherubim that are over the Ark of the Testimony. There I shall speak about everything that I shall command you for the Israelites.

Instructions about the Table for the Holy Place — Exodus 37:10-16

23 "You shall also make a table of acacia wood one metre long, fifty centimetres wide, and seventy-five centimetres high! 24 You shall plate it with pure gold, and you shall make a moulding of gold for it all around! 25 You shall make a rim for it all around a handbreadth wide, and you shall make a moulding of gold for the rim all around! 26 You shall make four rings of gold for it, and you shall fasten the rings to the four edges that are on the table's legs! 27 The rings shall be close to the rim as sockets for the poles to carry the table! 28 You shall make the poles of acacia wood, and you shall plate them with gold, that the table may be carried with them! 29 You shall also make its dishes, its basins, its jars, and its bowls with which to pour drink offerings, and you shall make them of pure gold! 30 You shall always set the bread of the Presence on the table before Me!"

Instructions about the Lampstand — Exodus 37:17-24

31 "You shall also make a lampstand of pure gold! The lampstand shall be made as hammered metalwork! Its base and its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its flower-shaped ornaments shall be of one piece with it! 32 Six shafts shall extend from its sides, three shafts of the lampstand from its one side and three shafts of the lampstand from its other side! 33 Three cups shaped in the form of almond blossoms with a bulb and a flower shall be on the one shaft, and three cups in the form of almond blossoms with a bulb and a flower on the other shaft! There shall also be the same for all six shafts, which extend from the lampstand! 34 On the lampstand there shall also be four cups in the form of almond blossoms each with its bulb and its flower! 35 One bulb shall be under the first pair of shafts extending from the lampstand, a second bulb under the second pair of shafts extending from it, and a third bulb under the third pair of shafts extending from it! The six shafts that extend from the lampstand shall be like this! 36 Their buds and their shafts shall be of one piece with the lampstand! All of it shall be one piece of hammered metalwork of pure gold! 37 You shall also make seven lamps for it, and set up its lamps so that it may give light over the space in front of it! 38 Its wick-trimmers and its fire-pans shall be of pure gold! 39 Thirty-five kilograms of pure gold shall be used to make the lampstand and all these accessories! 40 See that you make them according to the pattern of them, which you have been shown on the mountain!"

26

Ex 26

Instructions about the Tabernacle — Exodus 36:8-38

1 "You shall make the tabernacle with ten curtains! You shall make them with twisted fine linen and purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, and crimson material, with cherubim worked into them by a weaver! 2 The length of one curtain shall be fourteen metres, and the width of one curtain two metres! All of the other curtains shall be the same size as the first! 3 Five curtains shall be joined to one another, and the five other curtains shall be joined to one another! 4 You shall also make loops of purple wool on the edge of the end-curtain in the one set, and you shall do the same on the edge of the outermost curtain in the other set! 5 You shall make fifty loops on the one curtain and you shall make fifty loops on the edge of the curtain that is in the other set, so that the loops are opposite to each other! 6 You shall also make fifty golden hooks, and with the hooks you shall join the curtains to one another so as to form the tabernacle as a unit!

Instructions about the Covering for the Tabernacle —Exodus 36:14-19

7 "You shall also make curtains of goat hair to be a tent over the tabernacle! You shall make eleven of these curtains! 8 The one curtain shall be fifteen metres long and two metres wide, and the eleven curtains shall all be the same size as the first curtain! 9 You shall join five of the curtains to one another as one set, and the other six to one another as a second set, and you shall fold the sixth curtain double at the front of the tent! 10 You shall make fifty loops on the edge of the end-curtain in the one set, and fifty loops on the edge of the end-curtain in the second set! 11 You shall also make fifty bronze hooks, and put the hooks through the loops, so that you may join the tent together to form a unit! 12 The projecting part of the tent-curtains that is left, the one half-curtain that is left over, shall hang over the back of the tabernacle! 13 The fifty centimetres that are left over on each side in the length of the tent-curtains shall be an overhang on each side of the tabernacle, to cover it! 14 You shall also make a covering for the tent of ram skins dyed red, and over that another covering of dolphin skins!

Instructions about the Planks of the Tabernacle — Exodus 36:20-34

15 "You shall also make the planks for the tabernacle of acacia wood, as uprights! 16 The length of each plank shall be five metres and the width of each plank shall be seventy-five centimetres! 17 Each plank shall have two tenons to be dovetailed into the next plank! You shall make them like this on all the planks of the tabernacle! 18 You shall make twenty planks for the southern side of the tabernacle! 19 You shall also make forty silver pedestals under the twenty planks, two pedestals under the one plank for its two tenons, and two pedestals under the next plank for its two tenons! 20 You shall also make twenty planks on the other side of the tabernacle, the northern side, 21 with their forty silver pedestals, two pedestals under the one plank, and two pedestals under the next plank! 22 You shall also make six planks for the rear of the tabernacle, the western side! 23 You shall also make two planks for the two rear corners of the tabernacle! 24 These shall be made double from the bottom! They shall fit at the top into a single ring! Both of them shall be like that! They shall form the two corners! 25 There shall be eight planks with their sixteen silver pedestals, two pedestals under the one plank, and two pedestals under the next plank!

26 "You shall also make crosspieces of acacia wood, five for the planks on the one side of the tabernacle, 27 five crosspieces for the planks on the other side of the tabernacle, and five crosspieces for the planks on the rear side of the tabernacle, that is, the western side! 28 The middle crosspiece, halfway up the planks, shall slide through, from the one end to the other! 29 You shall plate the planks with gold! You shall also make golden rings for them as sockets for the crosspieces, and you shall plate the crosspieces with gold! 30 You shall erect the tabernacle according to the building-plan of it, which you have been shown on the mountain!

Instructions about the Curtain and the Most Holy Place — Exodus 36:35

31 "You shall also make a curtain of purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen! It shall be made with cherubim worked into it by a weaver! 32 You shall hang it on four acacia posts overlaid with gold. Their hooks shall be of gold, and they shall stand on four silver pedestals! 33 You shall hang the curtain from the hooks, and you shall bring the Ark of the Testimony inside, behind the curtain! The curtain shall divide for you the holy place from the most holy place. 34 You shall put the propitiatory cover on the Ark of the Testimony in the most holy place!

Instructions about the Table and the Lampstand in the Holy Place — Exodus 37:10-16

35 "You shall set the table outside the curtain! You shall put the lampstand opposite the table on the southern side of the tabernacle! You shall set the table on the northern side!

Instructions about the Entrance to the Tabernacle — Exodus 36:37

36 "You shall also make a curtain for the entrance to the tent, of purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen, worked by a weaver of coloured fabric! 37 You shall also make for the curtain five posts of acacia wood! You shall plate them with gold! They shall have golden nails, and you shall cast five bronze pedestals for them!

27

Ex 27

Instructions about the Altar for Burnt Offerings — Exodus 38:1-7

1 "You shall also make the altar of acacia wood! The altar shall be square, two and a half metres long, and two and a half metres wide, and it shall be one and a half metres high! 2 You shall also make its horns on its four corners! Its horns shall be of one piece with it, and you shall plate it with bronze!

3 "You shall also make pots for it to clean it of fatty ashes, and its fire-shovels, its bowls used for pouring, its meat-forks, and its ash-buckets! You shall make all its utensils of bronze!

4 "You shall also make a grating for it, a bronze network, and on the network you shall make four bronze rings, one on each of its four edges! 5 You shall put the network below, under the rim of the altar, so that the network is halfway up the altar!

6 "You shall also make poles for the altar, poles of acacia wood, and you shall plate them with bronze! 7 Its poles shall be inserted through the rings, and the poles shall be along two sides of the altar to be used in carrying it! 8 You shall make the altar as a hollow chest of boards! It shall be made as God has shown you on the mountain!

Instructions about the Courtyard and Its Curtains — Exodus 38:9-20

9 "You shall also make the courtyard of the tabernacle! For the one side, on the southern side of the courtyard, there shall be curtains of twisted fine linen for the courtyard, fifty metres long, 10 with twenty posts and twenty bronze pedestals for them! The hooks on the posts and their bindings shall be of silver! 11 Similarly there shall be curtains on the northern side, fifty metres long, with their twenty posts and twenty bronze pedestals! The hooks on the posts and their bindings shall be of silver! 12 The curtains on the western side of the courtyard shall be twenty-five metres wide, and they shall have their ten posts and their ten pedestals! 13 On the eastern side, toward the rising sun, the courtyard shall be twenty-five metres wide! 14 On the one side of the entrance there shall be seven and a half metres of curtains with three posts and three pedestals for them! 15 On the other side of the entrance there shall be seven and a half metres of curtains with three posts and three pedestals for them! 16 For the gate of the courtyard there shall be a curtain ten metres long of purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen, worked by a weaver of coloured fabric! It shall have four posts and four pedestals! 17 All the posts around the courtyard shall have silver bindings! Their hooks shall be of silver, and their pedestals shall be of bronze! 18 The courtyard shall be fifty metres long, twenty-five metres wide all the way, and two and a half metres high, with curtains of twisted fine linen and with bronze pedestals!

19 "All the other articles used in the service of the tabernacle, all its tent-pegs, and all the tent-pegs for the courtyard shall be of bronze!

Instructions about Olive-oil for Lamps — Exodus 35:28, Leviticus 24:1-4

20 "You shall command the Israelites to bring you clear oil of beaten olives for the lighting in order to cause the lamps to burn continuously! 21 Aaron and his sons shall attend to this from evening until morning before the LORD in the Tent of Meeting, outside the curtain, which is in front of the Testimony! This shall be a lasting Statute for the Israelites in their coming generations!"

28

Ex 28

Sacred Vestments for the Priests — Exodus 39:1-21

1 "You now, make your brother Aaron together with his sons come to you from among the other Israelites, so that they may serve Me as priests! They shall be Aaron, and Aaron's sons Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar! 2 You shall make holy garments for your brother Aaron, to make him magnificent and splendid!

3 "You shall tell all who have skilful minds, whom I have endowed with skill, to make Aaron's garments to consecrate him, so he may serve me as priest! 4 These are the garments that they shall make: a breast-piece, a priestly garment, a sleeveless robe, a tunic of chequered work, a headband, and a sash! They shall make holy garments for your brother Aaron as well as for his sons, so that Aaron may serve Me as a priest! 5 They shall use gold, purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material and fine linen!

Instructions about the Priestly Garment (or Ephod) — Exodus 39:2-7

6 "They shall make the priestly garment by having a weaver work it with gold, purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen! 7 It shall have two shoulder-pieces attached at the back and the front, so that it may be fastened! 8 The waistband that is on it to fasten it shall be made like it and be of one piece with it! It shall be made of gold, purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen! 9 You shall also take two onyx stones, and you shall engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel, 10 six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the remaining six on the other stone, in the order in which they were born! 11 They shall be made as a gem-cutter engraves a seal! You shall engrave the names of the sons of Israel on the two stones! Then you shall mount them in filigree work of gold! 12 You shall fasten the two stones on the shoulder-pieces of the priestly garment as reminder-stones for the Israelites, so that Aaron may bear their names before the LORD on his two shoulders as a reminder! 13 You shall make filigree settings of gold! 14 You shall make two chains of pure gold by working twisted wires into chains, and you shall fasten the corded chains to the filigree settings!

Instructions about the Breast-piece— Exodus 39:8-21

15 "You shall make a breast-piece of judgment! You shall use a weaver to make it as the priestly garment is made! You shall make it of gold, purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen! 16 It shall be square, a span long and a span wide, when folded double! 17 You shall make settings of precious stones on it, four rows of precious stones! The first row shall consist of a ruby, a topaz, and an emerald! 18 The second row shall consist of a turquoise, a lapis lazuli, and a sardonyx! 19 The third row shall consist of a carnelian, an agate, and an amethyst! 20 The fourth row shall consist of a chrysolite, an onyx, and a jasper! They shall be set in gold filigrees! 21 There shall be twelve stones, corresponding to the names of the sons of Israel! They shall be engraved like a seal, each bearing the name of one of the twelve tribes! 22 You shall also make chains on the breast-piece by welding cordage-work of pure gold together! 23 You shall make two golden rings on the breast-piece, and you shall fasten the two rings to the upper corners of the breast-piece! 24 You shall fasten the two golden cords to the two rings at the edges of the breast-piece! 25 You shall fasten the other two ends of the two cords to the two filigrees, and you shall attach them to the shoulder-pieces of the priestly garment at the front! 26 You shall also make two golden rings, and fasten them to the other two edges of the breast-piece on the edge of it that is next to the inner side of the priestly garment! 27 You shall make two more golden rings, and you shall fasten them to the bottom of the two shoulder-pieces of the priestly garment at the front, close to its seam above the waistband of the priestly garment! 28 They shall tie the breast-piece by its rings to the rings of the priestly garment with a cord of purple wool, so that it may lie over the waistband of the priestly garment, so that the breast-piece may not come loose from the priestly garment! 29 Aaron shall wear the names of the sons of Israel on the breast-piece of judgment over his heart when he enters the holy place, as a constant reminder before the LORD! 30 You shall also put the Urim and Thummim into the breast-piece of judgment, so that they may be over Aaron's heart when he enters the presence of the LORD! Aaron shall always wear the means of making judgment on the Israelites over his heart in the presence of the LORD!

Instructions about the Sleeveless Robe for the Priest – Exodus 39:22-26

31 "You shall also make the sleeveless robe that goes with the priestly garment entirely of purple wool! 32 It shall have an opening in it for the head! There shall be a woven border all around, like the collar in a body-armour of leather! It shall have this to keep it from tearing! 33 You shall also make pomegranates of purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, and crimson material all around on the hem of its skirt, with golden bells between them all around! 34 A golden bell shall alternate with a pomegranate all around the lower hem of the sleeveless robe! 35 Aaron must wear it when he ministers, so that its sound may be heard when he enters the holy place before the LORD and when he comes out, so that he may not die!

Instructions about the Artificial Flower — Exodus 39:30-31

36 "You shall also make an artificial flower of pure gold, and you shall engrave on it, in the kind of engraving that a seal has: ‘THE HOLINESS OF THE LORD!' 37 You shall fasten it to a cord of purple wool to attach it to the headband! It shall be on the front of the headband! 38 It shall be on Aaron's forehead, and Aaron shall bear the guilt for shortcomings in the holy things that the Israelites consecrate, whatever their gifts may be! The artificial flower shall always be on his forehead, so that the LORD may show favour to them!

Instructions about the Tunics, the Headbands, the Sashes, and the Linen Breeches for the Priests — Exodus 39:27-29

39 "You shall also weave the tunic in checker work of fine linen! You shall also make a headband of fine linen, and a weaver of coloured fabric shall make a sash!

40 "You shall also make tunics for Aaron's sons, and you shall make sashes for them and make headbands for them, to give them dignity and grandeur!

41 You shall put these on your brother Aaron and his sons, you shall anoint them, you shall install them as priests, and you shall consecrate them, that they may perform the duties of priests to Me!

42 "Make for them white linen breeches to cover their private parts! These shall reach from the hips to the thighs! 43 Aaron and his sons shall wear them when they enter the Tent of Meeting or when they approach the altar to minister in the holy place, so that they may not bring guilt on themselves and die! This shall be a permanent Statute for him and for his descendants after him!"

29

Ex 29

Instructions about the Consecration of the Priests — Exodus 40:12-15; Leviticus 8:1-36

1 "This is what you shall do to the priests when you consecrate them to serve Me as priests: Take one young bull and two rams that are free from blemish! 2 Take bread without yeast and ring-shaped bread without yeast, which have been moistened with olive-oil, and wafers without yeast, which have been spread with olive-oil! You shall make them with fine wheat flour! 3 You shall put them in a single basket, and present them in the basket, together with the young bull and the two rams!

4 "Then you shall bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and you shall wash them with water! 5 You shall take the garments and dress Aaron with the tunic, the sleeveless robe that is with the priestly garment, the priestly garment itself, and the breast-piece! Then you shall put the priestly garment on him tightly by its waistband! 6 You shall put the headband on his head, and you shall fasten the holy crown on the headband! 7 Then you shall take the anointing oil, and pour it on his head to anoint him!

8 "Then you shall bring his sons forward and put tunics on them! 9 You shall fasten sashes around Aaron and his sons, and you shall tie their headbands on them, that the priesthood may belong to them by a lasting Statute! This is the way in which you shall install Aaron and his sons!

10 "Then you shall bring the young bull forward, in front of the Tent of Meeting! Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the young bull! 11 Then you shall slaughter the young bull before the LORD at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting! 12 You shall take some of the blood of the young bull, and put it on the horns of the altar with your finger, and you shall pour out all the rest of the blood against the base of the altar!

13 "You shall take all the fat that covers the internal organs, the lobe on the liver, the two kidneys with the fat on them, and burn them on the altar! 14 However, you shall burn the young bull's meat, hide, and the contents of its stomach in a fire outside the camp! It is a sin-offering.

15 "You shall take one ram, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the ram! 16 Then you shall slaughter the ram, take its blood, and pour it out against the altar all around! 17 You shall cut the ram into its pieces, wash its internal organs and its shins, and lay them beside its other pieces and its head! 18 Then you shall burn the whole ram on the altar! It is a burnt offering to the LORD, a soothing aroma, an offering made by fire to the LORD.

19 "Then you shall take the other ram, and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands on the head of the ram! 20 You shall slaughter the ram, take some of its blood, and put it on the lobe of Aaron's right ear, on the lobes of his sons' right ears, on the thumbs of their right hands, and on the big toes of their right feet! Then you shall pour the blood out against the altar all around! 21 You shall take some blood that is on the altar and some of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it on Aaron and his garments, and also on his sons and his sons' garments! Then he and his garments, and his sons and their garments will also be holy.

22 "You shall also take the fat of the ram, the fat tail, the fat that covers the internal organs, the lobe of the liver, the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, and the right leg! For this is a ram for the installation. 23 You shall also take one disk-shaped loaf of bread, one ring-shaped loaf of bread made with olive-oil, and one wafer from the basket of bread without yeast, which is before the LORD! 25 You shall lay all these in the hands of Aaron and of his sons, and you shall move them back and forth as a wave offering to the LORD! 26 Then you shall take them from their hands, and burn them on the altar together with the burnt offering, as a soothing aroma before the LORD! It will be an offering made by fire to the LORD.

26 "You shall take the brisket of the ram for Aaron's installation, and you shall move it back and forth as a wave offering before the LORD! That shall be your portion! 27 You shall consecrate the brisket of the wave offering that has been moved back and forth and the leg of the contribution that has been presented, taken from the ram for the installation! These parts of it shall belong to Aaron and to his sons! 28 By a permanent Statute this gift from the Israelites shall belong to Aaron and to his sons! For this is a contribution, and it shall be a contribution from the Israelites out of their peace-offerings! It is their contribution to the LORD.

29 "Aaron's holy garments shall belong to his sons after him, so that they may be anointed and installed in them! 30 When the son who succeeds him as priest goes into the Tent of Meeting to minister in the holy place, he shall wear them for seven days!

31 "You shall take the ram for installation, and boil its meat in a holy place! 32 Then Aaron and his sons shall eat the meat of the ram and the bread that is in the basket at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting! 33 They shall eat these offerings, by which atonement has been made for their ordination and consecration! However, no unqualified person shall eat them, because they are holy! 34 If any of the meat from the installation or any of the bread is left over until morning, you shall burn up what is left! It shall not be eaten! For it is holy.

35 "You shall do this with Aaron and his sons exactly as I have commanded you! You shall take seven days to install them! 36 You shall sacrifice a young bull each day as a sin-offering, as an act of atonement! You shall also free the altar from sin when you make atonement for it, and also anoint it to make it holy! 37 For seven days you shall make atonement for the altar and make it holy! Then the altar will be most holy, and anyone who touches the altar will be holy.

Instructions about the Daily Offerings — Numbers 28:1-8

38 "This is what you shall prepare for the offering on the altar regularly each day: two male lambs that are one year old. 39 You shall prepare the one lamb in the morning, and you shall prepare the other lamb at twilight! 40 With the first lamb you shall prepare four litres of fine wheat flour mixed with one litre of olive-oil produced from beaten olives, and a drink offering of one litre of wine! 41 You shall prepare the other lamb at twilight with the same cereal offering and drink offering as in the morning! You shall prepare it as a soothing aroma, an offering made by fire to the LORD!

42 "For your coming generations this burnt offering shall be made regularly at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting before the LORD! I shall reveal Myself to you and speak to you there. 43 I shall reveal Myself to the Israelites there, and My glory will make it a holy place. 44 I shall make the Tent of Meeting and the altar holy and I shall make Aaron and his sons holy to serve Me as priests. 45 I shall dwell among the Israelites and I shall be their God. 46 They will know I am the LORD, their God. It is I who have brought them out of the land of Egypt to dwell among them. I am the LORD, their God."

30

Ex 30

Instructions about the Altar for Incense — Exodus 37:25-29

1 "You shall also make an incense-altar! You shall make it of acacia wood! 2 It shall be square, fifty centimetres long by fifty centimetres wide, and one metre high! Its horns should be of one piece with it! 3 You shall plate it with pure gold, its top slab, its sides all around, and its horns! You shall also make a golden moulding around it! 4 You shall make two rings of gold for it below its moulding on two of its sides! You shall make them on two of its sides, and they shall be sockets for the poles used to carry it! 5 You shall also make the poles of acacia wood, and you shall plate them with gold! 6 You shall set it in front of the curtain, which is before the Ark of the Testimony, in front of the propitiatory cover that is over the Testimony, where I shall reveal Myself to you!

7 "Aaron shall burn fragrant perfumes on it every morning! He shall burn incense on it when he attends to the lamps! 8 When Aaron puts the lamps up at twilight, he shall burn incense on it regularly before the LORD in your coming generations!

9 "You shall not offer any unauthorised incense on it or burnt offerings or grain-offerings, and you shall not pour a drink offering on it! 10 Aaron shall make atonement on its horns once each year with the blood of the annual sin-offering of atonement! He shall make atonement for it in your coming generations! It is most holy to the LORD."

Instructions about Ransom after a Census by the Payment of a Half Shekel

11 Then the LORD told Moses: 12 "When you take a census of the Israelites, to count them, everyone shall pay to the LORD a ransom for his life when he is counted, in order that no plague may come among them when they are counted! 13 Each one who crosses over to those already counted shall pay a half shekel, according to the shekel valid at the holy place, twenty gerahs to the shekel! The half shekel shall be a contribution to the LORD! 14 Everyone who is twenty years old or more and crosses over to those who have already been counted shall pay the contribution to the LORD! 15 Rich people shall not pay more than the half shekel, and poor people shall not pay less when you give the contribution to the LORD to atone for your lives! 16 You shall receive the atonement money from the Israelites, and use it for the service of the Tent of Meeting! It shall be a reminder to the Israelites before the LORD, to make atonement for your lives!"

Instructions about the Bronze Basin — Exodus 38:8

17 Then the LORD told Moses: 18 "You shall also make a bronze basin for washing, with a bronze stand for it, and you shall place it between the Tent of Meeting and the altar! You shall put water in it! 19 Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and feet with water from it! 20 When they go into the Tent of Meeting, they shall wash with water so they may not die! So also, when they approach the altar to minister by burning an offering made by fire to the LORD, 21 they shall wash their hands and feet, so that they may not die! This shall be a permanent Statute for him and his descendants in their coming generations!"

Instructions about the Holy Oil for Anointing — Exodus 37:29

22 Then the LORD told Moses: 23 "In addition, you yourself shall get the choicest spices: six kilograms of myrrh-oil, half as much (that is, three kilograms) of fragrant cinnamon, three kilograms of sweet cane, 24 six kilograms of cassia-buds (according to the shekel weight valid in the holy place), and four litres of olive-oil! 25 You shall make holy anointing oil with these, a spice blended by the perfumer's art! It shall be holy anointing oil! 26 With it you shall anoint the Tent of Meeting, the Ark of the Testimony, 27 the table with all its utensils, the lampstand with its utensils, the altar of incense, 28 the altar of burnt offering with all its utensils, and the basin with its stand! 29 You shall make them holy, that they may be most holy! Whatever touches them shall be holy! 30 You shall anoint Aaron and his sons, and make them holy to serve Me as priests!

31 "You shall tell the Israelites: ‘This shall be My holy anointing oil throughout your coming generations! 32 It shall not be poured out on the body of other people, and you shall not make anything with similar proportions to this! This is holy and you shall regard it as holy! 33 Anyone who blends a mixture like it or puts any of it on any unqualified person shall be cut off from his people!"

Instructions about the Incense to be Used in the Tabernacle

34 The LORD told Moses: "Get yourself fragrant spices: stacte resin, onycha, and galbanum! Add these spices and clear frankincense to these spices in equal parts! 35 You shall make it into incense, a spice made by the perfumer's art! It shall be salted, pure, and a holy thing! 36 You shall also grind some of it, crushing it fine, and you shall put some of it in front of the Testimony in the Tent of Meeting where I shall reveal Myself to you! You shall treat it as most holy! 37 You shall not make for yourselves anything with similar proportions to the incense that you will make! You shall regard it as holy to the LORD! 38 Anyone who makes anything like it to enjoy the smell of it shall be cut off from his people!"

31

Ex 31

Instructions about the Craftsmen to Make the Tabernacle – Exodus 35:30-35

1 Then the LORD told Moses: 2 "See! I have by name called Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. 3 I have filled him with the Spirit of God, with skill, intelligence, and knowledge for every kind of craft, 4 to devise artistic designs for work in gold, silver, and bronze. 5 He knows how to cut gemstones to be set, to carve wood, and to engage in all other kinds of craftsmanship. 6 Further, I Myself have appointed with him Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. I have also given to all skilful persons the ability to make everything that I have commanded you: 7 the Tent of Meeting, the Ark of the Testimony, the propitiatory cover on it, all the equipment of the tent, 8 the table with its utensils, the pure-golden lampstand with all its utensils, the altar of incense, 9 the altar of burnt offering with all its utensils, the basin with its stand, 10 the woven garments, the holy garments for Aaron the priest and the garments for his sons when they serve as priests, 11 the anointing oil, and the fragrant incense for the holy place. They shall make them exactly as I have commanded you!"

The Observance of the Sabbath, as a Sign

12 Then the LORD instructed Moses: 13 "Tell the Israelites yourself: ‘You shall surely keep My Sabbaths! For they will be a sign between Me and you for your coming generations, so that you may know that I am the LORD, and I make you holy. 14 You shall keep the Sabbath! For it is holy to you. Anyone who profanes it shall certainly be put to death! For any person who does any work on it shall be cut off from his people! 15 Work shall be done on six days, but on the seventh day there shall be a most solemn Sabbath, holy to the LORD! Anyone who does any work on the Sabbath day shall surely be put to death! 16 The Israelites shall keep the Sabbath and observe the Sabbath throughout their coming generations as a Covenant for all time! 17 It shall be a sign between Me and the Israelites for ever! For the LORD made the heavens and the earth in six days, and on the seventh He stopped working and refreshed Himself.'"

The Two Tablets of the Covenant

18 When He had finished speaking to Moses on Mount Sinai, He gave Moses two tablets of the Testimony, which were tablets of stone, written with the finger of God.

32

Ex 32

The Israelites' Worship of the Golden Calf — Deuteronomy 9:7-29

1 When the people saw that Moses was taking a long time to come back down from the mountain, they gathered around Aaron. They said: "Come, make us gods who will go before us. For, as for this Moses, the man who has brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has happened to him."

2 Aaron told them, "Pull off the golden ear-rings that your wives, sons, and daughters have in their ears, and bring them to me."

3 So all the people pulled off the golden earrings that were in their ears, and brought them to Aaron. 4 He took them from their hands, shaped it with a sharp instrument, and made it into a cast image of a bull calf. Then they said, "These are your gods, O Israel, who have brought you up out of the land of Egypt."

5 When Aaron saw this, he built an altar in front of the calf. He announced, "Tomorrow there will be a festival to the LORD."

6 On the next day the people got up early, sacrificed burnt offerings and made peace-offerings. Then the people sat down to eat and drink and got up to amuse themselves.

7 Then the LORD spoke to Moses: "Go! Get down! For your people, whom you have led up out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves. 8 They have been quick to turn aside from the way that I have commanded them, and have made themselves a cast image of a bull-calf. They have been bowing down to it and sacrificing to it, and have been saying, ‘These are your gods, O Israel, who have brought you up out of the land of Egypt.'" 9 The LORD also told Moses: "I have seen that this people is indeed a stiff-necked people. 10 Now therefore let Me alone, so that My anger may burn against them, that I may consume them! Then I shall make you into a great nation."

11 However, Moses pleaded with the LORD, his God. He asked: "O LORD, why is Your anger burning against Your people, whom You have brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand? 12 Why should the Egyptians say, ‘He has taken them out to harm them, to kill them in the mountains and wipe them off the surface of the earth'? Turn from Your hot anger, and relent from this harm to Your people! 13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, Your servants, to whom You swore by Your own self! You promised them: ‘I shall make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky, and I shall give to your descendants all this land, which I have promised, and they will inherit it for ever.'"

14 Then the LORD relented from the harm that He said He would do to His people.

15 Moses turned and went down from the mountain with the two tablets of the Testimony in his hand. The tablets had been written on both sides. They were written on the front and on the back. 16 The tablets were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God engraved on the tablets. 17 Then Joshua heard the noise of the people shouting. He told Moses, "There is the sound of war in the camp."

18 However, Moses replied: "It is not the sound that greets a victory, nor is it the sound that reacts to defeat. It is the sound of singing that I hear."

19 When Moses approached the camp, he saw the bull calf and the dancing, and his anger blazed out. He threw the tablets out of his hands and broke them to pieces at the foot of the mountain. 20 He took the bull calf, which they had made, and burned it in a fire. Then he ground it into powder, scattered it over the water, and made the Israelites drink it.

21 Moses asked Aaron, "What has this people done to you, that you have led them into such great sin?"

22 Aaron answered: "Do not become angry, my master! You yourself know that this people is inclined to evil. 23 They told me, ‘Make us gods who will go before us! For we do not know what has happened to this Moses, the man who has brought us out of the land of Egypt.' 24 So I told them, ‘Those of you who have any gold, tear it off!' So they gave it to me. I threw it into the fire, and this calf came out!"

25 When Moses saw that the people were out of control, because Aaron had let them get out of control, so that their enemies could whisper derisively about them, 26 Moses stood at the gate of the camp and said, "Whoever is for the LORD, come here to me!"

Then all the Levites gathered to him. 27 He told them: "The LORD, the God of Israel, has said: ‘Each of you, put your sword on your hip, and go back and forth from gate to gate in the camp, and, each of you, kill his brother, his friend, and his neighbour!'"

28 The Levites did as Moses had told them, and that day about three thousand of the people fell. 29 Moses said: "Fill your own hands with sacrificial offerings to the LORD today! For each of you has turned against his own son and his own brother, so that He may bestow a blessing on you today."

30 On the next day Moses told the people: "You have committed a great sin. Now, therefore, I shall go up to the LORD. Perhaps I may make atonement for your sin."

Moses' Intercession with God to Spare the People

31 So Moses went back to the LORD and said: "Oh! This people has committed a great sin! They have made gods of gold for themselves. 32 So now, will You forgive their sin? If not, please wipe me out of the book that You have written."

33 The LORD told Moses: "I shall wipe from My book whoever has sinned against Me. 34 Now, therefore, go! Lead the people where I have promised you. Look! My Messenger will go before you. However, at the time when I take revenge, I shall take revenge on them for their sin."

35 Then the LORD struck the people with a plague because of what they had done with the calf, which Aaron had made.

33

Ex 33

God's Refusal to Go to Canaan with the Israelites

1 The LORD told Moses: "Come! Leave this place, you and the people whom you have brought up from the land of Egypt, and go up to the land that I have promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob with an oath, saying, ‘I shall give it to your descendants!' 2 I shall send a Messenger before you, and I shall drive out the Canaanites, the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites. 3 Go up to a land flowing with milk and honey! For I shall not go up among you, because you are a stubborn people. Otherwise, I might annihilate you on the way."

4 When the people heard this adverse Message, they observed mourning rites, and no one put on his ornaments. 5 The LORD had told Moses: "Tell the Israelites: ‘You are a stubborn people. If for only a moment I went up among you, I would destroy you. Now, therefore, take off your ornaments, that I may determine what I am to do with you.'"

The Erection of the Tent outside the Camp

6 Therefore the Israelites stripped off their ornaments, from Mount Horeb on. 7 Moses used to take a tent and set it up outside the camp at some distance from the camp. He used to call it "the Tent of Meeting." Anyone who was making an inquiry of the LORD used to go out to the Tent of Meeting, which was outside the camp. 8 When Moses used to go out to the tent, each one of the people would rise and stand at the entrance of his own tent and watch Moses until he went into the tent. 9 When Moses used to go into the tent, the pillar of cloud would come down and stand at the entrance of the tent while God was speaking to Moses. 10 Whenever all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance of the tent, all the people would get up and worship, everyone at the entrance of his own tent. 11 The LORD would speak to Moses face to face, as one man speaks to another. Then Moses used to return to the camp, but his young assistant Joshua, the son of Nun, used to remain inside the tent.

Moses' Intercession for the People

12 Then Moses said to the LORD: "Look! You have been telling me, ‘Lead these people up! But You have not let me know whom You will send with me. You have also said, ‘I know you by name, and you have also found favour in My sight.' 13 Now therefore, please, if I have found favour in Your sight, cause me to know Your way, so that I may know You and find favour in Your sight! Consider also that this nation is Your people!"

14 He answered, "My Presence will go with you, and I shall give you rest."

15 Then Moses said to Him: "If Your Presence is not going with us, do not make us go up from here! 16 How will anyone ever know that Your people and I have found favour in Your sight unless You go with us? Then we, Your people and I, shall be distinct from every other nation on the surface of the earth."

God's Assurance that He will be Merciful to Israel

17 The LORD answered Moses, "I shall also do these things, which you have asked, because you have found favour in My sight, and I know you by name."

Moses' Request to See God's Glory — Exodus 34:5-9

18 Then Moses said, "Please, show me Your glory!"

19 He answered: "I shall make all My goodness pass in front of you, and I shall proclaim My name, ‘the LORD' in your presence. I shall be gracious to anyone to whom I am gracious. I shall have compassion on anyone on whom I have compassion."

20 However, He said, "You cannot see My face, because no human being may see Me and live." 21 The LORD also said: "Look! Here is a place near Me. Stand on the rock! 22 When My glory goes past, I shall put you in a gap in the rock, and I shall cover you with My hand until I have gone past. 23 Then I shall take My hand away, and you will see My back. Nevertheless, My face will not be seen."

34

Ex 34

God's Replacement for the Two Smashed Tablets — Exodus 31:18; Deuteronomy 10:1-5

1 Then the LORD told Moses: "Cut out for yourself two stone tablets like the first ones, and I shall write on the tablets the Words that were on the first tablets, which you smashed. 2 Be ready in the morning, and in the morning you shall come up on Mount Sinai, and you shall stand before Me there on the top of the mountain! 3 No one shall come up with you and no one should even be seen anywhere on the mountain! Not even the flocks and the herds should graze in front of this mountain!"

4 So Moses cut two stone tablets like the first ones. He got up early in the morning, and went up Mount Sinai as the LORD had commanded him. He took the two stone tablets in his hands.

God Revelation of His Gracious Name to Moses

5 Then the LORD came down in the cloud, stood with Moses there, and proclaimed the name of the LORD. 6 Then the LORD passed in front of him, and proclaimed: "The LORD, the LORD, the merciful and compassionate God, slow to become angry, abounding in unfailing mercy and truth. 7 He preserves mercy for thousands, and forgives wrongdoing, rebellion, and sin. He certainly does not declare anyone exempt from punishment. He avenges the wrongdoing of the fathers on the children and on the children's children, on the third and fourth generation."

8 Moses at once bowed down to the ground and worshipped. 9 Then he said: "O Lord, if now I have found favour in Your sight, please let the Lord go among us, even though this is a stiff-necked people! Pardon our wrongdoing and our sin, and take us as Your inheritance!"

God's Renewal of His Covenant with Israel — Exodus 23:14-19; Deuteronomy 7:1-6; Deuteronomy 16:1-17

10 He said: "Look! I am making a Covenant. Before all your people I shall do such wonders as have never been performed anywhere on earth or among any other nation, so that all the people who are around you may see that the work of the LORD, which I shall be doing for you, is awesome. 11 Carefully observe what I am commanding you today! Look! I shall drive out ahead of you the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites. 12 Be on your guard that you do not make a covenant with those who are living in the land against which you are going, that they may not become snares among you! 13 Rather, you shall tear down their altars! You shall smash their upright stones, and cut down their Asherah posts! 14 For you shall not worship any other god! For the LORD, whose name is ‘Jealous,' is a jealous God. 15 Be careful not to make a covenant with those who are living in the land! When they run wantonly after their gods and sacrifice to their gods, they will invite you, and you will eat their sacrifices. 16 Then you will choose some of their daughters as wives for your sons. When their daughters run wantonly after their gods, they will lead your sons astray into worshipping other gods as idols. 17 "You shall not make any images of gods from cast metal for yourselves!

18 "You shall keep the Festival of Bread without Yeast! As I commanded you, you shall eat bread without yeast for seven days, at the appointed time in the month of Abib! For in the month of Abib you came out of Egypt.

19 "The first male offspring of every womb belongs to Me, including all the firstborn males of your livestock, both from the herd and from the flock. 20 However, you may redeem the firstborn donkey with a lamb or kid. If you do not redeem it, you shall break its neck! You shall redeem all your firstborn sons!

"No one shall appear before Me empty-handed!

21 "You shall work for six days, but you shall rest on the seventh day. You shall rest even during the time of ploughing and the season of harvest.

22 "You shall observe the Festival of Weeks with the firstfruits of the wheat harvest, and the Festival of In-Gathering at the end of the year!

23 "Three times a year all your males shall come into the presence of the Lord GOD, the God of Israel! 24 For, after I drive nations out before you and enlarge your territory, no one will want to take your land when you go up three times a year to appear before the LORD, your God.

25 "You shall not slaughter the blood of any sacrifice to Me along with anything containing yeast!

"The sacrifice at the Passover Festival shall not remain through the night until the morning!

26 "You shall bring the best of the firstfruits of your ground to the house of the LORD, your God!

"You shall not boil a young goat in its mother's milk!"

27 Then the LORD told Moses: "Write down these Words! For in accordance with these Words I have made a Covenant with you and with Israel."

28 Moses was there with the LORD for forty days and nights without eating food or drinking water. God also wrote on the tablets the Words of the Covenant, the Ten Commandments.

Moses' Return to the People with a Shining Face after Speaking with God

29 Moses came down from Mount Sinai. The two tablets of the Testimony were in Moses' hands when he came down the mountain. Moses did not know that the skin of his face was radiant because God had been speaking with him. 30 When Aaron and all the other Israelites looked at Moses, they saw that the skin of Moses' face was radiant and they were afraid to come near him. 31 However, when Moses called to them, Aaron and all the leaders of the community came back to him, and Moses spoke to them. 32 After that, all the other Israelites came near him, and he commanded them to do everything that the LORD had told him on Mount Sinai. 33 When Moses had finished speaking to them, he put a veil over his face. 34 However, whenever Moses entered the presence of the LORD to speak with Him, he used to remove the veil until he came out. Whenever he came out he used to tell the Israelites what he had been commanded. 35 When the Israelites saw Moses' face, they observed that the skin on Moses' face was shining. Then Moses used to put the veil back over his face until he went in to speak with Him.

35

Ex 35

Regulations about the Sabbath

1 Moses assembled the whole congregation of the Israelites and told them: "These are the things that the LORD has commanded you to do: 2 Work may be done for six days, but you shall keep the seventh day as your most solemn Sabbath holy to the LORD! Anyone who does any work on it shall be put to death! 3 You shall not light a fire in any of your dwellings on the Sabbath day!"

The People's Contributions for the Tabernacle — Exodus 25:1-7; Exodus 39:32-43

4 Then Moses told the whole congregation of the Israelites: "This is what the LORD has commanded: 5 ‘Out of what you possess make a contribution to the LORD! Everyone with a willing heart should bring a contribution to the LORD: gold, silver, and bronze, 6 purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, fine linen, goat hair, 7 ram skins dyed red, dolphin skins, acacia wood, 8 olive-oil for the light, spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense, 9 onyx stones, and other precious stones to be mounted on the priestly garment and the breast-piece!

The Craftsmen to Make the Tabernacle and Its Furnishings — Exodus 31:2-6; 39:32-41

10 "‘All skilful persons among you should come to make everything that the LORD has commanded: 11 the tabernacle with its tent and its covering, its hooks, its planks, its bars, its posts and its pedestals, 12 the Ark with its poles, the propitiatory cover, the covering curtain, 13 the table with its poles and all its utensils, the bread of the Presence, 14 the lampstand for the light with its utensils, its lamps, and the oil for the light, 15 the altar of incense with its poles, the anointing oil, the fragrant incense, the curtain for the doorway at the entrance to the tabernacle, 16 the altar for burnt offering with the bronze grating for it, its poles, and all its utensils, the basin with its stand, 17 the curtains for the courtyard, its posts, its pedestals, the curtain for the gate to the courtyard, 18 the pegs for the tabernacle, the tent-pegs for the courtyard with their tent-cords, 19 the woven garments worn for ministering in the holy place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments in which his sons will serve as priests!'"

The Offerings for the Tabernacle

20 Then the whole congregation of the Israelites went away from Moses' presence, 21 and everyone who was willing and everyone whose spirit prompted him came, and they brought a contribution to the LORD for the making of the Tent of Meeting, for all its service, and for the holy garments. 22 All who were willing, both men and women, came and brought brooches, earrings, rings, necklaces, and golden articles of all kinds. Yes, every one of them offered gifts of gold as wave offerings to the LORD. 23 Everyone who found that he had purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, fine linen, goat hair, ram skins dyed red, or dolphin skins came and brought them. 24 All came who made a contribution of silver or bronze and they brought them as contributions to the LORD. Everyone who found that he had acacia wood that could be used in any of the sacred work brought it. 25 Every skilled woman spun with her hands and brought what she had spun, purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, or fine linen, 26 and all the women who were willing and skilful spun the goat hair. 27 The leaders brought onyx stones and other precious stones to be mounted on the priestly garment and the breast-plate. 28 They also brought the spices and the olive-oil for the light, for the anointing oil, and for the fragrant incense. 29 So the Israelites brought voluntary gifts to the LORD, every man and woman bringing whatever their hearts prompted them to bring for all the work that the LORD through Moses had commanded them to do.

The Work of the Skilled Craftsmen, Bezalel and Oholiab — Exodus 31:2-6

30 Moses told the Israelites: "See, the LORD has called by name Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, 31 and He has filled him with God's Spirit, with skill, intelligence, and knowledge and with every kind of craftsmanship, 32 to devise artistic designs for work in gold, silver, and bronze, 33 to cut gemstones to be set, and to carve wood, and to engage in all kinds of craftsmanship. 34 He has also made him and Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, able to train others. 35 He has also filled them with skill to do all kinds of work: engraving, designing, embroidering with purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and fine linen, weaving all kinds of things, and the ability to devise artistic designs.

36

Ex 36

1 "So Bezalel and Oholiab should do the work with every other skilled workman to whom the LORD has given skill and intelligence, so that they know how to do all the work for the service of the holy place exactly as the LORD has commanded."

The Excess in Contributions

2 Moses summoned Bezalel and Oholiab and every other skilled workman to whom the LORD had given skill, and everyone who was willing to come and do the work. 3 They received from Moses every contribution that the Israelites had brought to carry out the work on the holy place. However, people still brought voluntary gifts to Moses every morning. 4 So all the skilled workmen who were doing all the work on the holy place came. Each one left the work that he was doing, 5 and told Moses, "The people are bringing much more than we need to carry out the work that the LORD has commanded us to do."

6 ‘So Moses gave the order, and sent the command throughout the camp: "No man or woman should prepare any more work to contribute towards the holy place."

This restrained the people from bringing more. 7 The material for all the work to be done was enough for them and to spare.

The Construction of the Tabernacle — Exodus 26:1-37

8 All those who were skilled among the workers built the tabernacle with its ten curtains. They made these of fine twisted linen, purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, and crimson material, with a pattern of cherubim worked into them by a weaver. 9 Each curtain was fourteen metres long and two metres wide. All the other curtains were the same size. 10 Five curtains were joined to one another, and the five other curtains were joined to one another. 11 They made loops of purple wool on the edge of the end-curtain in the one set and they did the same on the edge of the outermost curtain in the other set. 12 They made fifty loops on the one curtain and made fifty loops on the edge of the curtain in the other set, so that the loops were opposite to each other. 13 They made fifty golden hooks, and with these hooks they joined the curtains to one another, so that the tabernacle formed a unit.

The Covering for the Tabernacle — Exodus 26:7-14

14 They made curtains of goat hair for a tent over the tabernacle. They made eleven of these curtains. 15 The one curtain was fifteen metres long and two metres wide, and the eleven curtains were all the same size. 16 Five of the curtains were joined together as one set, and the other six curtains as a second set. 17 They made fifty loops on the edge of the end-curtain in the one set and fifty loops on the edge of the end-curtain in the second set. 18 They also made fifty bronze hooks to join the tent together to form a unit.

19 They also made a covering for the tent of ram skins, dyed red, and over that another covering of dolphin skins.

The Making of the Planks for the Tabernacle — Exodus 26:15-25

20 They also made the planks of acacia wood as uprights for the tabernacle. 21 Each plank was five metres long and seventy-five centimetres wide. 22 Each plank had two tenons that dovetailed into the next plank. They made them like this on all the planks of the tabernacle. 23 They made the twenty planks for the southern side of the tabernacle.

24 They also made forty silver pedestals under the twenty planks, two pedestals under the one plank for its two tenons, and two pedestals under the next plank for its two tenons. 25 They also made twenty planks on the other, or northern, side of the tabernacle, 26 and their forty silver pedestals, two pedestals under the one plank, and two pedestals under the next plank. 27 They also made six planks for the rear, or the western side, of the tabernacle. 28 They made two planks for the two rear corners of the tabernacle. 29 They were made double from the bottom and were completed at the top in a single ring. They did the same for both of them at the two corners. 30 There were eight planks with their sixteen silver pedestals, two pedestals under each plank.

31 They also made crosspieces of acacia wood, five for the planks on the one side of the tabernacle, 32 five crosspieces for the planks on the other side of the tabernacle, and five crosspieces for the planks on the rear, or the western, side of the tabernacle. 33 They made the middle crosspiece slide through, from the one end to the other, halfway up the planks. 34 They overlaid the planks with gold, made golden rings for them as sockets for the crosspieces, and overlaid the crosspieces with gold.

The Making of the Curtain between the Most Holy Place and the Holy Place – Exodus 26:31-32

35 They made the curtain of purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen. They made it with cherubim worked into it by a weaver. 36 They also made for it four acacia posts and overlaid them with gold. Their hooks were of gold, and they cast four silver pedestals for them. 37 They also made a curtain for the entrance to the tent, of purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen, worked by a weaver of coloured fabric, 38 and five posts with their nails for the curtain. They overlaid their tops and their binders with gold, and their five pedestals were of bronze.

37

Ex 37

The Making of the Ark of the Testimony — Exodus 25:10-16

1 Bezalel made the Ark of acacia wood, one hundred and twenty-five centimetres long, seventy-five centimetres wide, and seventy-five centimetres high. 2 He overlaid it with pure gold inside and outside and made a moulding of gold all around it. 3 He cast four rings of gold for it and put them on its four lower corners, two rings on one side and two rings on the other side. 4 He also made poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold, 5 and inserted the poles through the rings on the sides of the Ark that they might carry the Ark.

The Making of the Propitiatory Cover — Exodus 25:17-22

6 He also made a propitiatory cover of pure gold, one hundred and twenty-five centimetres long and seventy-five centimetres wide. 7 He made two cherubim by hammering them out of gold. He made them on the two ends of the propitiatory cover. 8 He made one cherub on one end and the other cherub on the other end. He made the two cherubim at the two ends, to form one whole with the propitiatory cover. 9 The angels had wings that spread out upwards, screening the propitiatory cover with their wings as they faced each other. The faces of the cherubim looked towards the propitiatory cover.

The Making of the Table for the Holy Place — Exodus 25:23-30

10 He also made the table of acacia wood, one metre long, fifty centimetres wide, and seventy-five centimetres high. 11 He overlaid it with pure gold and made a moulding of gold for it all around. 12 He also made a rim for it all around, a handbreadth wide, and a moulding of gold for the rim all around. 13 He also cast four gold rings for it and fastened the rings to the four edges that were on the table's legs. 14 The rings were close to the rim as sockets for the poles to carry the table. 15 He also made the poles of acacia wood, overlaid them with gold, that the table might be carried with them. 16 He also made, out of pure gold, the utensils to be used on the table, its dishes, its basins, its jars, and its bowls with which to pour drink offerings.

The Making of the Lampstand — Exodus 25:31-40

17 He also made the lampstand of pure gold. He made it as hammered metalwork. Its base and its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its flower-shaped ornaments were of one piece with it. 18 Six shafts extended out of its sides, three shafts of the lampstand from its one side and three shafts of the lampstand from its other side. 19 Three cups shaped in the form of almond blossoms with a bulb and a flower were on the one shaft, and three cups in the form of almond blossoms with a bulb and a flower were on the next shaft, and the same for all six shafts that extended from the lampstand. 20 On the lampstand there were also four cups in the form of almond blossoms, each with its bulb and its flower. 21 There was a bulb under the first pair of shafts extending from the lampstand, there was a second bulb under the second pair of shafts extending from it, and there was a third bulb under the third pair of shafts extending from it. The six shafts that extended from the lampstand were like this. 22 Their buds and their shafts were of one piece with the lampstand. All of it was one piece of hammered metalwork of pure gold. 23 He made seven lamps for it with its wick-trimmers and fire-pans of pure gold. 24 He made the lampstand and all its equipment out of thirty-five kilograms of pure gold.

The Making of the Altar for Incense — Exodus 30:1-5

25 He also made an altar of incense from acacia wood. It was square, fifty centimetres long, fifty centimetres wide, and one metre high. Its horns were of one piece with it. 26 He overlaid it with pure gold, its top slab, its sides all around, and its horns. He also made a golden moulding around it. 27 He also made two rings of gold for it below its moulding on two of its sides, as sockets for the poles used to carry it. 28 He also made the poles of acacia wood, and overlaid them with gold.

The Making of the Anointing Oil and the Incense — Exodus 30:22-38

29 He also made the holy anointing oil and the pure fragrant incense, blended by a perfumer.

38

Ex 38

The Making of the Altar for Burnt Offerings — Exodus 27:1-8

1 He also made the altar of burnt offering of acacia wood, two and a half metres long, and two and a half metres wide. The altar was square, and one and a half metres high. 2 He also made its horns on its four corners. Its horns were of one piece with it, and he overlaid it with bronze. 3 He also made all the utensils for the altar, the pots, its fire-shovels, its bowls used for pouring, its meat-forks, and its ash-buckets. He made all its utensils of bronze. 4 He also made a grating for the altar, a bronze network below, under the rim of the altar, halfway up the altar. 5 He also cast four rings at the four corners of the bronze grating as sockets for the poles. 6 He also made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with bronze. 7 He inserted the poles through the rings along the sides of the altar, to be used in carrying it. He made it as a hollow chest of boards.

The Making of the Bronze Basin — Exodus 30:17-21

8 He also made the bronze basin with a bronze stand for it, out of the bronze mirrors given by the women who were on duty at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.

The Making of the Courtyard around the Tabernacle — Exodus 27:9-19

9 He also made the courtyard. On the southern side the curtains of the courtyard were fifty metres long, of twisted fine linen. 10 Their twenty posts and twenty pedestals were of bronze, and the hooks on the posts and their bindings were of silver. 11 On the northern side the curtains were also fifty metres long. Their twenty posts and twenty pedestals were of bronze, and the hooks on the posts and their bindings were of silver. 12 On the western side the curtains were twenty-five metres wide with their ten posts and their ten pedestals. The hooks on the posts and their bindings were of silver. 13 On the eastern side, toward the rising sun, the curtains were twenty-five metres wide. 14 The curtains on the one side of the entrance were seven and a half metres long, with their three posts and their three pedestals. 15 There were also curtains seven and a half metres wide on the other side of the gateway of the courtyard, with their three posts and their three pedestals, the same as on the first side. 16 The curtains all around the courtyard were of twisted fine linen. 17 The pedestals for the posts were of bronze, and the hooks on the posts and their bindings were of silver. The tops of the posts were overlaid with silver. The bindings on all the posts of the courtyard were of silver. 18 A weaver of coloured fabric worked the curtain for the gateway of the courtyard. It was made of purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted linen. It was ten metres long and two and a half metres high all the way, corresponding to the rest of the curtains of the courtyard. 19 Their four posts and their four pedestals were of bronze, the hooks on them were of silver, their tops were overlaid with silver, and their bindings were of silver. 20 All the tent-pegs for the tabernacle and for the courtyard all around were of bronze.

The Inventory of the Gold, Silver, and Bronze Used for the Tabernacle

21 This is an accounting of the materials used in the tabernacle, the tabernacle of the Testimony. It was counted at Moses' command by the Levites under the direction of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. 22 Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made everything that the LORD had commanded Moses. 23 Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan, assisted him. He was a craftsman, a weaver, and an embroiderer of purple wool, of wool dyed with maroon, of crimson material, and of fine linen. 24 The total amount of gold, that is, the gold that was contributed and used for all the work of the holy place weighed one thousand and twenty three kilograms and seven hundred and sixty grams, according to the monetary weight used in the holy place. 25 The silver that was obtained from the men of the congregation who were registered weighed three tonnes, five hundred and twenty-one kilograms, and three hundred grams, according to the monetary weight used in the holy place. 26 Six grams was collected from each man who was twenty years old or older and who crossed over to those who had already been registered. The amount was a half-shekel by the standard of the shekel used in the holy place. The total levied came from six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty men. 27 Three and a half tonnes of the silver were used to cast the pedestals for the holy place and the pedestals for the curtain. Three thousand, five hundred kilograms were used for one hundred pedestals, thirty-five kilograms for each pedestal. 28 With the twenty-one kilograms and three hundred grams he made the hooks for the posts, overlaid the tops of the posts, and made bindings for them. 29 The wave offering of bronze weighed two tonnes, four hundred and seventy-eight kilograms, and eight hundred grams. 30 With this he made the pedestals for the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, the bronze altar with its bronze grating, all the utensils for the altar, 31 the pedestals all around the courtyard, the pedestals for the gateway of the courtyard, all the tent pegs for the tabernacle, and all the tent-pegs for the surrounding courtyard.

39

Ex 39

The Making of Garments for Aaron — Exodus 28:1-5

1 They used purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, and crimson material to make woven garments for ministering in the holy place. They made the holy garments for Aaron as the LORD had commanded Moses.

The Making of the Priestly Garment or Ephod — Exodus 28:6-14

2 They also made the priestly garment of gold, purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen. 3 They hammered out thin sheets of gold and cut these up into threads in order that a weaver might work them into the purple wool, into the wool dyed with maroon, into the crimson material, and into the fine linen. 4 They made shoulder pieces for the priestly garment, which were attached to its two edges so that it could be fastened. 5 The waistband on his priestly garment was of one piece with it. It was made like it, of gold, purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen, as the LORD had commanded Moses. 6 They also prepared onyx stones, mounted them in filigree work of gold, and engraved them, as seals are engraved, with the names of the sons of Israel. 7 He fastened them on the shoulder pieces of the priestly garment as reminder-stones for the sons of Israel, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

The Making of the Breast-Piece for the High Priest — Exodus 28:15-28

8 He also made a breast-piece, using a weaver to make it as the priestly garment had been made, of gold, purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, crimson material, and twisted fine linen. 9 The breast-piece was square. They made it a span long and a span wide, and it was folded double. 10 On it they made settings with four rows of precious stones. The first row had a ruby, a topaz, and an emerald. 11 The second row had a turquoise, a lapis lazuli, and a sardonyx. 12 The third row had a carnelian, an agate, and an amethyst. 13 The fourth row had a chrysolite, an onyx, and a green jasper. They were set in golden filigrees. 14 The twelve stones corresponded to the names of the sons of Israel and were engraved like a seal, each bearing the name of one of the twelve tribes. 15 On the breast-piece they made chains by welding cordage work of pure gold together. 16 They made two golden filigrees and two golden rings, and fastened the two rings to the two edges of the breast-piece. 17 They fastened the two golden cords to the two rings at the edges of the breast-piece. 18 They fastened the other two ends of the two cords to the two filigrees, and attached them to the shoulder pieces at the front of the priestly garment. 19 They made two golden rings and fastened them to the other two edges of the breast-piece, on the edge of it that is next to the inner side of the priestly garment. 20 They made two more golden rings and fastened them to the bottom of the two shoulder-pieces of the priestly garment at the front, close to its seam above the waistband of the priestly garment. 21 They tied the breast-piece by its rings to the rings of the priestly garment with a cord of purple wool, so that it lay over the waistband of the priestly garment, and so that the breast-piece would not become detached from the priestly garment, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

The Making of the Priestly Robe — Exodus 28:31-35

22 They also made the robe that went with the priestly garment. A weaver worked it, entirely of violet material. 23 There was an opening in the sleeveless robe like the collar in a body-armour of leather. Its opening had a hem all around to keep it from tearing. 24 They also made pomegranates of purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, and twisted crimson material, on the lower border of the sleeveless robe. 25 They also made bells of pure gold and fastened the bells between the pomegranates all around the lower hem of the sleeveless robe between the pomegranates. 26 A golden bell alternated with a pomegranate all around the lower hem of the sleeveless robe, for the priest to use when he was ministering, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

The Making of the Other Priestly Garments — Exodus 28:36-43

27 They also had weavers make tunics of fine linen for Aaron and his sons, 28 the headband of fine linen, the ornamental headbands of fine linen, the breeches of twisted fine linen, 29 and the sash of twisted fine linen, which an embroiderer made with purple wool, wool dyed with maroon, and crimson material, as the LORD had commanded Moses. 30 They made the artificial flower for the holy headband, of pure gold, and engraved on it, in the kind of engraving that a seal has, "THE HOLINESS OF THE LORD." 31 They fastened it to a cord of purple wool, to attach it to the top of the headband, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

The Completion of the Tabernacle and its Presentation to Moses — Compare 35:10-19

32 So all the work on the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting, was completed. The Israelites did everything exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses. 33 They brought the tabernacle to Moses, the tent with all its equipment, its hooks, its planks, its bars, its posts, and its pedestals, 34 the covering of ram skins dyed red, the covering of dolphin skins, the covering curtain, 35 the Ark of the Testimony with its poles, and the propitiatory cover, 36 the table with all its utensils, and the bread of the Presence, 37 the lampstand of pure gold with its lamps set in order and all its accessories, the olive-oil for the light, 38 the golden altar, the anointing oil, the fragrant incense, the curtain for the entrance to the tent, 39 the bronze altar with its bronze grating, its poles, and all its utensils, the basin with its stand, 40 the curtains for the courtyard with its posts and pedestals, the curtain for the gateway to the courtyard with its tent-cords and tent-pegs, all the other articles needed for the service of the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting, 41 the woven garments for serving in the holy place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments for his sons when they served as priests.

42 The Israelites had done all the work exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses. 43 When Moses inspected all the work, he saw that they had done it as the LORD had commanded. Then Moses blessed them.

40

Ex 40

The Instructions for Setting up the Tabernacle

1 Then the LORD told Moses: 2 "On the first day of the first month you shall set up the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting! 3 You shall put the Ark of the Testimony there and you shall partition off the Ark with the curtain! 4 You shall also bring in the table, and arrange its accessories! You shall bring in the lampstand, and set up its lamps! 5 You shall put the golden altar for incense in front of the Ark of the Testimony! You shall also put the curtain at the entrance of the tabernacle! 6 You shall also put the altar of burnt offering in front of the entrance of the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting! 7 You shall also put the basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and put water in it! 8 You shall also set up the courtyard all around, and put the curtain at the gateway to the courtyard! 9 You shall also take the anointing oil and you shall anoint the tabernacle and everything that is in it and you shall consecrate it with all its equipment, so that it may be holy! 10 You shall also anoint the altar of burnt offering with all its equipment and you shall consecrate the altar, so that it may be most holy! 11 You shall also anoint the basin and its stand and you shall consecrate it!

The Consecration of Priests — Exodus 29:1-46; Leviticus 8:1-36

12 "Then you shall bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and you shall wash them with water! 13 You shall also clothe Aaron with the holy garments, and you shall anoint him and consecrate him, that he may serve Me as priest! 14 Then you shall bring his sons forward and clothe them in tunics! 15 You shall also anoint them as you have anointed their father, that they may serve Me as priests! Their anointing will constitute them as a perpetual priesthood throughout their coming generations."

The Erection of the Tabernacle

16 Moses did this exactly as the LORD had commanded him. 17 On the first day of the first month in the second year the tabernacle was set up. 18 Moses set up the tabernacle. He placed the pedestals for it, set up its planks, inserted its crossbars, and set up its posts. 19 Then he spread the tent over the tabernacle and put the covering for the tent on top of it, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

The Arrangement of the Tabernacle

20 Then he took the Testimony and placed it in the Ark, attached the poles to the Ark, and put the propitiatory cover on top of the Ark. 21 Then Moses brought the Ark into the tabernacle, and put up the covering curtain and shielded the Ark of the Testimony, as the LORD had commanded him. 22 Then Moses put the table in the Tent of Meeting, on the northern side of the tabernacle, outside the curtain. 23 Then Moses arranged the appropriate number of loaves on it before the LORD, as the LORD had commanded him. 24 Then he placed the lampstand in the Tent of Meeting, opposite the table, on the southern side of the tabernacle. 25 Moses set up the lamps before the LORD as the LORD had commanded him. 26 He put the golden altar in the Tent of Meeting in front of the curtain. 27 Then Moses burned fragrant incense on it as the LORD had commanded him.

28 He put up the curtain at the entrance of the tabernacle. 29 He put the altar of burnt offering at the entrance of the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting. Then Moses offered the burnt offering and the grain-offering on it, as the LORD had commanded him. 30 He put the basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and put water in it for washing. 31 Moses, Aaron, and his sons used to wash their hands and their feet from it. 32 They used to wash whenever they went into the Tent of Meeting or approached the altar, as the LORD had commanded Moses. 33 Moses set up the courtyard around the tabernacle and the altar, and put up the curtain at the gateway of the courtyard. So Moses finished the work.

The Indication of God's Presence by the Cloud at the Tent of Meeting — Exodus 13:21-22; Numbers 9:15-23

34 Then the cloud covered the Tent of Meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. 35 Moses could not go into the Tent of Meeting, because the cloud had settled down on it and the glory of the LORD had filled the tabernacle.

36 In all their journeys, whenever the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the Israelites used to set out. 37 However, if the cloud was not taken up, they would not set out, until the day when it was taken up. 38 For the cloud of the LORD was over the tabernacle by day, and fire used to be in it at night for all the family of Israel to see, throughout all their journeys.

 

Index

 

LEVITICUS

1

Lv 1

Instructions about Burnt Offerings — Leviticus 1:6-13; 8:18-21; 16:24

1 The LORD called Moses and spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting. He told him: 2 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘When any one of you offers a gift to the LORD, you shall offer your gifts of livestock from the herd or from the flock!

Instructions about Burnt Offerings of Cattle

3 "‘If anyone's gift is a burnt offering from the herd, he shall offer a male without blemish! He shall bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, so that it may be acceptable to the LORD! 4 He shall lay his hand on the head of the animal that is being offered as a burnt offering! Then it will be accepted on his behalf to make atonement for him. 5 He shall slaughter the young bull before the LORD, and Aaron's sons, the priests, shall bring the blood and pour the blood out all around against the altar that is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting! 6 He shall skin the animal that is being offered for the burnt offering, and cut it into its pieces! 7 The sons of Aaron, the priest, shall put fire on the altar and arrange the wood on the fire! 8 Then Aaron's sons, the priests, shall arrange the pieces, the head, and the fat, on the burning wood that is on the altar! 9 He shall wash its inner parts and its legs with water! Then the priest shall burn all of it on the altar as a burnt offering, an offering by fire, a soothing aroma to the LORD!

Instructions about Burnt Offerings of Sheep or Goats

10 "‘If anyone offers his gift from the flock, from either the sheep or the goats, as a burnt offering, he shall bring a male without blemish! 11 He shall slaughter it on the northern side of the altar before the LORD, and Aaron's sons, the priests, shall pour its blood out against the altar on all sides! 12 He shall cut it into its pieces, together with its head and its fat, and the priest shall arrange the pieces on the burning wood that is on the altar! 13 He shall wash the inner parts and the legs with water! Then the priest shall offer all of it and burn it on the altar! It is a burnt offering, an offering by fire, and a soothing aroma to the LORD.

Instructions about Burnt Offerings of Birds

14 "‘If anyone's gift to the LORD is a burnt offering from the birds, he shall bring some turtledoves or some young pigeons as his gift! 15 The priest shall take it to the altar, wring off its head, and burn it on the altar. Its blood shall be pressed out against the side of the altar! 16 He shall remove its crop and its feathers and throw them at the eastern side of the altar, on the place for the ashes! 17 He shall tear it open by its wings without severing it completely! Then the priest shall burn it on the altar, on the burning wood! This is a burnt offering, an offering by fire, and a soothing aroma to the LORD.

2

Lv 2

Instructions about Uncooked Grain-offerings — Leviticus 6:14-23

1 "‘When anyone brings, as a gift, a grain-offering to the LORD, his gift shall be of fine wheat flour! He shall pour olive-oil on it, put frankincense on it, 2 and take it to Aaron's sons, the priests! A priest shall take from this a handful of its fine wheat flour, and some of its olive-oil, with all its incense, and the priest shall burn it on the altar as its memorial portion, an offering by fire, and a soothing aroma to the LORD! 3 The rest of the grain-offering shall be for Aaron and his sons! It is a most holy part of the offerings made by fire to the LORD.

Instructions about Baked Grain-offerings

4 "‘When you bring something baked in an oven as the gift of a grain-offering, it shall be made with fine wheat flour, either ring-shaped loaves made without yeast, mixed with olive-oil, or wafers made without yeast, spread with olive-oil! 5 If your gift is a grain-offering prepared on a griddle, it shall be made of fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil, and without yeast! 6 You shall crumble it into small pieces and pour olive-oil on it! It is a grain-offering. 7 If your gift is a grain-offering prepared in a baking-pan, it shall be made of fine wheat flour with olive-oil! 8 You shall bring the grain-offering, which is prepared from these things, to the LORD! When it is presented to the priest, he shall take it to the altar! 9 The priest shall present some of the grain-offering as its memorial portion and burn it on the altar! It is an offering by fire and a soothing aroma to the LORD. 10 The rest of the grain-offering shall be for Aaron and his sons! It is a most holy part of the offerings made by fire to the LORD.

Instructions about Other Ingredients with Offerings

11 "‘No grain-offering that you bring to the LORD shall be prepared with yeast, because you shall burn no yeast or honey in any offering made by fire to the LORD! 12 As for the gift of firstfruits, you may bring them to the LORD. However, they shall not be brought up to the altar for a soothing aroma! 13 You shall season every gift of your grain-offering with salt! You shall not let the salt of the Covenant of your God be lacking from your grain-offering! You shall offer salt with every one of your gifts!

Instructions about Offerings of the First Grain of the Harvest

14 "‘If you offer a gift of firstfruits to the LORD, it shall be heads of grain roasted in the fire! You shall offer crushed newly ripe grains as your gift of firstfruits! 15 You shall put olive-oil on it, and you shall place frankincense on it! It is a grain-offering. 16 The priest shall burn some of its crushed grain and some of its olive-oil with all the frankincense as its memorial portion, an offering made by fire to the LORD!

3

Lv 3

Instructions about Peace-offerings – Leviticus 7:11-34

Instructions about Peace-offerings of Cattle

1 "‘If anyone's gift is a peace-offering, if he is offering it from the herd, either male or female, he shall offer an animal without blemish before the LORD! 2 He shall lay his hand on the head of his gift, and slaughter it at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting! Aaron's sons, the priests, shall pour the blood out against the altar on all sides! 3 He shall offer part of the peace-offering as an offering by fire to the LORD! He shall remove the fat that covers the inner parts, all the fat that is connected with the inner parts, 4 the two kidneys with the fat on them at the loins, and the long lobe of the liver in addition to the kidneys! 5 Then Aaron's sons shall burn these parts on the altar along with the burnt offering that is on the burning wood! It shall be an offering by fire, and a soothing aroma to the LORD!

Instructions about Peace-offerings of Sheep

6 "‘If anyone's gift, as a peace-offering to the LORD, is an animal from the flock, he shall offer a male or female without blemish! 7 If he is offering a lamb as his gift, he shall present it before the LORD! 8 He shall lay his hand on the head of his gift, and slaughter it in front of the Tent of Meeting! Aaron's sons shall pour its blood out against the altar on all sides! 9 Then he shall offer part of the peace-offering as an offering by fire to the LORD! He shall remove its fat, the whole fat tail, which he shall take off close to the tail-bone, the fat that covers the inner parts, all the fat that is connected with the inner parts, 10 the two kidneys with the fat on them at the loins, and the long lobe of the liver in addition to the kidneys! 11 The priest shall burn them on the altar as food, an offering by fire to the LORD!

Instructions about Peace-offerings of Goats

12 "‘If anyone's gift is a goat, he shall present it before the LORD! 13 He shall lay his hand on its head, and slaughter it in front of the Tent of Meeting! Aaron's sons shall pour its blood out against the altar on all sides! 14 He shall offer part of it as his gift, an offering made by fire to the LORD! He shall remove the fat that covers the inner parts, all the fat that is connected with the inner parts, 15 the two kidneys, with the fat on them at the loins, and the long lobe of the liver, in addition to the kidneys! 16 The priest shall burn them on the altar as food, an offering by fire for a soothing aroma! All the fat shall belong to the LORD! 17 This shall be a permanent Statute throughout your coming generations wherever you live: You shall not eat any fat or any blood!'"

4

Lv 4

Instructions about Special Offerings for Thoughtless Sins, or Sin-offerings — Leviticus 6:24-30; 8:14-17; 16:3-22

1 Then the LORD instructed Moses: 2 "Tell the Israelites: ‘When anyone sins thoughtlessly and does something that one of the Commandments of the LORD forbids, this is what he must do!

Instructions about Offerings for Thoughtless Sins by the Chief Priest

3 "‘If the anointed priest sins and brings guilt on the people, he shall offer to the LORD, for his sin, which he has committed, a young bull without blemish from the herd as a sin-offering! 4 He shall take the bull to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting before the LORD, shall lay his hand on the head of the bull, and shall slaughter the bull before the LORD! 5 Then the anointed priest shall take some of the bull's blood and shall bring it into the Tent of Meeting! 6 The priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before the LORD on the surface of the curtain of the holy place! 7 Then the priest shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense, which is in the Tent of Meeting, before the LORD! He shall pour out all the rest of the bull's blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering, which is at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting! 8 He shall remove all the fat of the bull of the sin-offering! He shall remove the fat that covers the inner parts, all the fat that is connected with the inner parts, 9 the two kidneys with the fat on them at the loins, and the long lobe of the liver in addition to the kidneys, 10 just as these are removed from the bull of the peace-offering! The priest shall burn them on the altar of burnt offering! 11 However, the bull's hide, all its meat, as well as its head and legs, its inner parts, and the contents of its stomach, 12 that is, all the rest of the bull, he shall carry outside the camp to a ceremonially clean place, where the ashes are dumped, and shall burn it on a wood fire there! It shall be burnt where the ashes are dumped!

Instructions about Sin-offerings for a Thoughtless Sin by the Whole Congregation

13 "‘If the whole congregation of Israel sins thoughtlessly, and the assembly is unaware of the matter, and they have done something forbidden by one of the Commandments of the LORD, they have become guilty. 14 When the sin that they have committed against the Commandment becomes known, the assembly shall bring a young bull from the herd as a sin-offering, and present it before the Tent of Meeting! 15 The elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the bull's head before the LORD and slaughter the bull before the LORD! 16 The anointed priest shall take some of the bull's blood into the Tent of Meeting! 17 The priest shall dip his finger in some of the blood and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD on the surface of the curtain! 18 He shall also put some of the blood on the horns of the altar that is before the LORD in the Tent of Meeting, and he shall pour out all the rest of the blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering, which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting! 19 He shall remove all the fat from it and shall burn it on the altar! 20 He shall do the same with this bull as he has done with the bull for the sin-offering! And so, when the priest makes atonement for them, they will be forgiven for it. 21 Then he shall carry the bull outside the camp and shall burn it as he has burnt the first bull! This is the sin-offering for the assembly.

Instructions about the Sin-offering for the Thoughtless Sin of a Tribal Leader

22 "‘When a tribal leader sins thoughtlessly by doing something forbidden in one of the Commandments of the LORD, his God, he has become guilty. 23 Likewise, when the sin that he has committed against the commandment has been made known to him, he shall bring a male goat without blemish as his gift! 24 He shall lay his hand on the goat's head, and slaughter it at the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered before the LORD! It is a sin-offering. 25 The priest shall take some of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar for burnt offering! Then he shall pour out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar for burnt offering! 26 He shall burn all the fat on the altar just as is done with the fat of the peace-offering! When the priest makes atonement for his sin, he will be forgiven for it.

Instructions about the Sin-offering Made with a Goat for a Thoughtless Sin by any Ordinary Person

27 "‘If anyone of the ordinary people sins thoughtlessly by doing something forbidden in one of the Commandments of the LORD, he has become guilty. 28 Likewise, when the sin that he has committed has been made known to him, he shall bring a female goat without blemish as his gift for his sin, which he has committed! 29 He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin-offering, and shall slaughter the sin-offering at the place for the burnt offering! 30 The priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering and shall pour out all the rest of the blood at the base of the altar! 31 He shall remove all the fat as the fat is removed from the peace-offering! The priest shall burn it on the altar as a soothing aroma to the LORD! When the priest makes atonement for his sin, he will be forgiven for it.

The Sin-offering Made with a Lamb for a Thoughtless Sin by any Ordinary Person

32 "‘If the man brings a lamb as his gift for a sin-offering, he shall bring a female without blemish! 33 He shall lay his hand on the head of the sin-offering, and shall slaughter it for a sin-offering at the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered! 34 The priest shall take some of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the rest of the blood at the base of the altar! 35 He shall remove all the fat just as the fat of the lamb for the peace-offering is removed, and the priest shall burn it on the altar on top of the offerings made by fire to the LORD! When the priest makes atonement for the sin that the person has committed, he will be forgiven for it.

5

Lv 5

A List of Sins that Require Guilt-offerings — Leviticus 7:1-6

1 "‘When a person sins because he refuses to report a publicly uttered curse that he has heard or witnessed, either by seeing it or hearing about it, he brings guilt on himself. 2 Or if a person touches anything that is ceremonially unclean, either the carcass of an unclean wild animal, or the carcass of an unclean domestic animal, or the carcass of an unclean swarming creature, even when he has been unaware of it, he becomes unclean and guilty. 3 Or when a person touches any human uncleanness of any kind, which makes him unclean, even when he has not been aware of it, when he finds out about it, he becomes guilty. 4 Or if a person takes an oath by speaking thoughtlessly that he will do evil or do good, in any matter in which a human being might swear a rash oath, even if he is unaware of it, when he realises it, he becomes guilty in any one of these matters. 5 When he is guilty of any one of these, he shall confess that he has sinned in doing that! 6 He shall also bring his guilt-offering to the LORD for his sin! It shall be a female animal from the flock, a young lamb or a goat, as a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him for his sin!

Provision for Guilt-offerings when a Person Cannot Afford a Sheep

7 "‘However, if he cannot afford the expenditure for a lamb, he shall bring to the LORD two turtledoves or two young pigeons as his guilt-offering for the sin that he has committed! One shall be a sin-offering, and the other a burnt offering! 8 He shall take them to the priest, who shall first offer the one for the sin-offering! He shall wring its head from the front of its neck without severing it completely! 9 He shall sprinkle some of the blood of the sin-offering against the side of the altar, and the rest of the blood shall be pressed out against the base of the altar! It is a sin-offering. 10 Then he shall offer the second one as a burnt offering in the prescribed manner! When the priest makes atonement for him to take away his sin, which he has committed, he will be forgiven for it.

Provision for Guilt-offerings when a Person Cannot Afford Two Doves

11 "‘However, if he cannot afford two turtledoves or two young pigeons, he shall bring, as his gift for the sin that he has committed, four litres of fine wheat flour as a sin-offering! He shall not pour olive-oil on it or put frankincense on it! For it is a sin-offering. 12 He shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take a handful of it as its memorial portion, and he shall burn it on the altar on top of the offerings made to the LORD by fire! It is a sin-offering. 13 The priest shall make atonement for him for his sin, which he has committed in any one of these ways, and he will be forgiven for it! The remainder shall belong to the priest, as in a grain-offering!'"

Instructions about Guilt-offerings for a Thoughtless Sin against the Property of God — Leviticus 7:1-6

14 Then the LORD told Moses: 15 "When a person is unfaithful and sins thoughtlessly in regard to some of the holy things of the LORD, he shall bring his guilt-offering to the LORD! It shall be a ram without blemish from the flock of the estimated value in silver, according to the weight used at the holy place, for a guilt-offering! 16 He shall make amends for the sin that he has committed concerning the holy thing, and add one fifth to it! He shall give it to the priest, and the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram as the guilt-offering! Then he will be forgiven for it.

Instructions about Guilt-offerings for Thoughtless Disobedience to God's Commands

17 "If a person sins by doing something that is forbidden in any one of the Commandments of the LORD, even though he is not aware of it, he becomes guilty and brings guilt on himself. 18 He shall bring to the priest a ram without blemish from the flock of the estimated value as a guilt-offering! The priest shall make atonement for him for the error that he has committed thoughtlessly, even though he has not been aware of it, and he will be forgiven for it! 19 It is a guilt-offering. He has incurred guilt before the LORD."

6

Lv 6

Instructions about Guilt-offerings for Sins against God's People

1 Then the LORD told Moses, 2 "When a person sins by being unfaithful to the LORD, if it is by making a denial to his neighbour about something entrusted to him, about joint property, about something stolen, if he has extorted something from his neighbour, 3 if he has found some lost property and made a denial about it, or if he swears a false oath about any one of the other sins that people may commit, 4 then, because he sins and becomes guilty, he shall restore the stolen property that he has taken, the thing that he has extorted, the deposit that has been entrusted to him, the lost property that he has found, 5 or any of the other things about which a false oath may have been sworn! He shall restore the full amount, and add one fifth to it, and shall give it to the person to whom it belongs on the day when he realises his guilt! 6 He shall also bring to the priest his guilt-offering to the LORD! It shall be a ram without blemish from the flock, of the estimated value for a guilt-offering! 7 The priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD! Then he will be forgiven for any one of the things he may have done to make him guilty."

Instructions about the Fire on the Altar, and Regulations for the Burnt Offering — Leviticus 1; Numbers 15:1-16

8 Then the LORD told Moses: 9 "Give Aaron and his sons this command: ‘This is the Law for the burnt offering: The burnt offering shall remain on the hearth on the altar all night until morning, and the fire shall be kept burning on the altar! 10 The priest shall put on his linen garment, with the linen breeches next to his body! He shall remove the ashes of the burnt offering that the fire has been consuming on the altar and shall put them beside the altar! 11 Then he shall take off his clothes, put on other clothes, and take the ashes to a ceremonially clean place outside the camp! 12 The fire shall be kept burning on the altar and shall not go out! The priest shall burn wood on it every morning! He shall arrange the burnt offering on it, and shall burn the fat of the peace-offerings on it! 13 The fire shall be kept burning on the altar constantly! It shall not go out!

Instructions about the Grain-offering from the People — Leviticus 2

14 "‘This is the Law for the grain-offering: Aaron's sons shall bring it before the LORD, in front of the altar! 15 One priest shall take a handful of the fine wheat flour from the grain-offering, some of its olive-oil, and all the frankincense that is on the grain-offering and shall burn the grain-offering on the altar as a soothing aroma, as its memorial portion, to the LORD! 16 Aaron and his sons shall eat the rest of it! They shall eat it as bread without yeast! They shall eat it in a sacred place, in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting! 17 It shall not be baked with yeast! I have given it to them as their share of the offerings made to Me by fire. It is most holy, like the sin-offering and the guilt-offering. 18 Any male descendant of Aaron may eat it. This shall be permanently due to them in the coming generations from the offerings made to the LORD by fire! Everyone who touches them will become holy.'"

Instructions about Special Grain-offerings from the Priests

19 The LORD also told Moses: 20 "This is the gift that Aaron and his sons shall bring to the LORD on the day when he is anointed: four litres of fine wheat flour as a regular grain-offering, half of it in the morning and the other half of it in the evening! 21 It shall be prepared on a griddle with olive-oil! You shall bring it in as mixed dough! You shall offer the baked parts of the grain-offering in small pieces, as a soothing aroma to the LORD! 22 The one from the sons of Aaron who is anointed as priest to succeed him shall prepare it! It shall be the part that permanently belongs to the LORD! It shall be burnt completely! 23 Every grain-offering made by a priest shall be burnt completely! It shall not be eaten!"

Instructions about the Sin-offering — Leviticus 4:1-5:13

24 The LORD also told Moses: 25 "Tell Aaron and his sons: ‘This is the Law for the sin-offering: The sin-offering shall be slaughtered before the LORD in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered! It is most holy. 26 The priest who makes the sin-offering shall eat it! It shall be eaten in a holy place, in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting! 27 Everyone who touches its meat will be holy, and you shall wash any garment that has any of its blood sprinkled on it in a holy place! 28 Any earthenware vessel in which it is cooked shall be broken, and, if it is cooked in a bronze vessel, it shall be scoured and washed off with water! 29 Any male among the priests may eat it. It is most holy. 30 However, when any blood of a sin-offering is brought into the Tent of Meeting to make atonement in the holy place, the sin-offering shall not be eaten! It shall be burnt with fire!

7

Lv 7

Instructions about Guilt-offerings — Leviticus 5:14-6:7

1 "‘This is the Law for the guilt-offering: It is most holy. 2 They shall slaughter the guilt-offering in the place where they slaughter the burnt offering! The priest shall pour its blood out against the altar on all sides! 3 He shall offer all its fat, the fat tail, the fat that covers the inner parts, 4 and the two kidneys with the fat on them at the loins! He shall remove the long lobe of the liver in addition to the kidneys! 5 The priest shall burn them on the altar as an offering made to the LORD by fire! It is a guilt-offering. 6 Any male among the priests may eat it. It shall be eaten in a holy place! It is most holy.

7 "‘The same Law applies to both the sin-offering and the guilt-offering: The priest who makes atonement with each of them shall have it! 8 The priest who offers anyone's burnt offering shall have the hide of the burnt offering that he has offered! 9 Every grain-offering that is baked in an oven or prepared in a covered pan or on a griddle shall also belong to the priest who offers it! 10 Every grain-offering, whether mixed with olive-oil or dry, shall belong equally to all the sons of Aaron!

Instructions about Peace-offerings as Thanksgivings — Leviticus 3

11 "‘This is the Law for the peace-offerings that a person may offer to the LORD: 12 If he offers it as a sacrifice of thanksgiving, he shall offer, together with the sacrifice of thanksgiving, ring-shaped loaves without yeast and mixed with olive-oil, wafers without yeast and spread with olive-oil, and ring-shaped loaves kneaded from fine wheat flour and spread with olive-oil! 13 Together with the ring-shaped loaves he shall offer bread with yeast as his gift, in addition to the sacrifice of his peace-offering for a thanksgiving! 14 Out of every gift he shall present one part as a contribution to the LORD! It shall belong to the priest who pours out the blood of the peace-offering! 15 The meat of the sacrifice of thanksgiving that is anyone's peace-offering shall be eaten on the day when he offers it! He shall not leave any of it until morning!

Instructions about Other Peace-offerings

16 "‘However, if the sacrifice that anyone gives is the result of a vow, or is a free-will offering, it may be eaten on the day when he offers his sacrifice, and what is left over from it may also be eaten on the next day. 17 However, any of the meat of the sacrifice that is left over on the third day shall be burnt up with fire! 18 If any of the meat of the peace-offering is nevertheless eaten on the third day, it will not be accepted. It will not be credited to the person who offers it. It will be sacrificial meat that has become unclean. The person who eats any of it will bring guilt on himself. 19 Meat that touches anything that is ceremonially unclean shall not be eaten! It shall be burnt up with fire! Anyone who is ceremonially clean may eat the meat. 20 However, if anyone eats meat from a peace-offering, which belongs to the LORD, while he is unclean, that person will be cut off from his people. 21 When anyone touches something unclean, whether human uncleanness or an unclean animal or any other unclean, detestable thing, and then eats any of the meat of a peace-offering, which belongs to the LORD, that person will be cut off from his people.'"

The Prohibition of Eating Fat and Blood

22 The LORD spoke to Moses: 23 "Tell the Israelites: ‘You shall not eat any fat of cattle, sheep, or goats! 24 The fat of the carcass of any animal that dies by itself and the fat of one that is torn by wild animals may be used for any other purpose, but you shall certainly not eat it! 25 Indeed, when anyone eats the fat of an animal, part of which is offered by fire to the LORD, the person who eats it will be cut off from his people. 26 Moreover, you shall not eat the blood of any bird or animal, wherever you live! 27 Any person who eats any blood will be cut off from his people.'"

The Division of Peace-offerings between the People and the Priests — Leviticus 10:12-15; Numbers 18:8-20; Deuteronomy 18:1-5

28 The LORD spoke to Moses: 29 "Tell the Israelites: ‘Anyone who offers a peace-offering to the LORD shall bring a part of his peace-offering as his gift to the LORD! 30 He shall bring with his own hands the offerings made by fire to the LORD! He shall bring the fat, together with the brisket, so that he may move the brisket back and forth before the LORD as a wave offering! 31 The priest shall burn the fat on the altar, but the brisket shall belong to Aaron and his sons! 32 You shall also give the right leg from your peace-offerings as a contribution to the priest! 33 When any of the sons of Aaron offers the blood of the peace-offering and the fat, he shall have the right leg as his portion! 34 For I have taken the brisket of the wave offering and the hind leg that is contributed out of the peace-offerings of the Israelites, and I have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons, as what is regularly due them from the Israelites.

35 "‘This is the portion that belongs to Aaron and to his sons out of the offerings made by fire to the LORD. It became theirs when Moses presented them to serve the LORD as priests. 36 The LORD commanded that these should be given to them by the Israelites on the day when He anointed them. It shall be regularly due to them throughout their coming generations!'"

A Summary of the Offerings

37 This is the Law for the burnt offering, for the grain-offering, for the sin-offering, for the guilt-offering, for the offering at an installation, and for the peace-offering. 38 The LORD issued commands about them to Moses on Mount Sinai on the day when He commanded the Israelites to offer their gifts to the LORD in the Wilderness of Sinai.

8

Lv 8

The Installation of Aaron and his Sons as Priests — Exodus 29:1-46; Exodus 40:12-15

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Take Aaron and his sons with him, the garments, the anointing oil, the young bull for the sin-offering, the two rams, and the basket of bread made without yeast! 3 Gather the whole congregation at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting!"

4 Moses did as the LORD had commanded him. The congregation gathered at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting. 5 Moses told the congregation: "The LORD has commanded that this is what you must do."

6 Then Moses brought Aaron and his sons forward, and washed them with water. 7 He put the tunic on him, fastened the sash around him, clothed him with the sleeveless robe, and put the priestly garment on him. He fastened the priestly garment with a waistband, tying it tightly on him. 8 Then he put the breast-piece on him, and put the Urim and Thummim into the breast-piece. 9 Moses put the headband on his head and fastened the golden flower, the holy crown, to the front of the headband, as the LORD had commanded him.

11 Then Moses took the anointing oil, anointed the tabernacle and everything in it, and made them holy. 11 He used some of the oil to sprinkle the altar seven times, and anointed the altar with all its utensils, and the basin with its stand, to make them holy. 12 He also poured some of the anointing oil on Aaron's head and anointed him, to make him holy.

13 Then Moses brought Aaron's sons forward and put tunics on them. He fastened sashes around them, and tied headbands on them, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

14 Then he brought the young bull forward, which was the sin-offering, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the young bull for the sin-offering. 15 Moses slaughtered the bull, took the blood, and with his finger he put it on the horns of the altar on all sides and freed the altar from sin. Then he poured the rest of the blood against the base of the altar and made it holy, to provide atonement for it. 16 Moses also took all the fat that was on the inner parts, the long lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys with the fat on them, and burned them on the altar. 17 However, Moses burned with fire the rest of the young bull, its hide, meat, and the contents of its stomach outside the camp, as the LORD had commanded him.

18 He then brought the ram forward for the burnt offering. Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the ram's head. 19 Then Moses slaughtered the ram and poured the blood out against the altar on all sides. 20 Moses cut the ram into its pieces and burned the head, the pieces of meat, and the fat. 21 Moses washed the inner parts and the legs with water and burned the whole ram on the altar. It was a burnt offering and a soothing aroma. It was an offering made to the LORD by fire, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

22 Then Moses brought the second ram forward, the ram for the installation, and Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the ram's head. 23 Moses slaughtered the ram and took some of its blood and put it on the lobe of Aaron's right ear, on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot. 24 Then Moses brought Aaron's sons forward, and he put some of the blood on the lobes of their right ears, on the thumbs of their right hands, and on the big toes of their right feet. Then Moses poured the blood out against the altar on all sides. 25 Then he took the fat, the fat tail, all the fat that was on the inner parts, the long lobe of the liver, the two kidneys with their fat, and the right leg. 26 Then he took out of the basket of bread made without yeast, which had been before the LORD, one ring-shaped loaf made without yeast, one ring-shaped loaf of bread made with olive-oil, and one wafer, and laid them on the fat portions and on the right leg. 27 He laid all these in the hands of Aaron and his sons, and moved them back and forth as a wave offering before the LORD. 28 Then Moses took them from their hands and burned them on the altar, on top of the burnt offering. They were an installation offering, a soothing aroma, an offering made by fire to the LORD.

29 Then Moses took the brisket from the ram for the installation and moved it back and forth as a wave offering before the LORD. It belonged to Moses as his portion, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

30 Then Moses took some of the anointing oil and some of the blood that was on the altar. He sprinkled them on Aaron and his clothes and on his sons and his sons' clothes. In this way he made Aaron holy, and made his clothes, his sons, and his sons' clothes holy with him.

31 Then Moses told Aaron and his sons: "Cook the meat at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, that you may eat it there together with the bread in the basket for the installation offering, as I commanded when I said: ‘Aaron and his sons shall eat it!' 32 You shall burn up any meat or bread that is left over! 33 You shall not leave the entrance to the Tent of Meeting for seven days, until the days of your ordination are completed! For your installation will last for seven days. 34 The LORD commanded me to do today what has been done, to make atonement for you. 35 You shall stay day and night, for seven days, at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, that you may keep your obligation to the LORD, and that you may not die! For this is what I have been commanded."

36 Aaron and his sons did all the things that the LORD had commanded through Moses.

9

Lv 9

The First Sacrifices Offered by Aaron

1 On the eighth day Moses summoned Aaron and his sons and the elders of Israel. 2 He told Aaron: "Choose a bull calf from the herd as a sin-offering and a ram for a burnt offering! They shall be without blemish! Then present them before the LORD! 3 Then tell the Israelites, ‘Take a male goat for a sin-offering, a calf, and a lamb, each a year old and without blemish, for a burnt offering! 4 Take also a bull and a ram for peace-offerings to sacrifice before the LORD, together with a grain-offering mixed with olive-oil! For the LORD will appear to you today.'"

5 They brought what Moses had commanded to the front of the Tent of Meeting, and the whole congregation approached and stood before the LORD. 6 Then Moses said, "This is what the LORD has commanded you to do, so that the glory of the LORD may appear to you."

7 Moses told Aaron: "Approach the altar, and make your sin-offering and your burnt offering to make atonement for yourself and for the people! Offer the gift of the people also, and make atonement for them, as the LORD has commanded!"

8 Aaron approached the altar and slaughtered the calf as a sin-offering for himself. 9 Aaron's sons brought the blood to him, and he dipped his finger in the blood and put it on the horns of the altar. Then he poured out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar. 10 He burned the fat, the kidneys, and the long lobe of the liver from the sin-offering on the altar, as the LORD had commanded Moses. 11 Then he burned up the meat and the hide outside the camp. 12 Then he slaughtered the animal for the burnt offering. Aaron's sons handed the blood to him, and he poured it out against the altar on all sides. 13 They also brought the burnt offering to him, piece by piece, including the head, and he burned them on the altar. 14 He washed the inner parts and the legs, and burned them on top of the burnt offering on the altar.

15 Then Aaron brought the people's gift. He took the male goat for the people's sin-offering, slaughtered it, and offered it as a sin-offering, as he had done with the first one. 16 Then he brought forward the burnt offering, and dealt with it in the specified manner. 17 Then he brought the grain-offering. He took a handful of it, and burned it on the altar in addition to the morning burnt offering.

18 Then he slaughtered the bull and the ram as the peace-offering for the people. Aaron's sons handed the blood to him, and he poured it out against the altar on all sides. 19 However, as for the fat portions from the bull and the ram, the fat tail, and the fatty layer, the kidneys, and the long lobe of the liver, 20 they placed these fat portions on top of the briskets, and he burned the fat portions on the altar. 21 Aaron had moved the briskets and the right leg back and forth before the LORD as a wave offering, as Moses had commanded.

22 Then Aaron raised his hands toward the people and blessed them. After he had dealt with the sin-offering, the burnt offering, and the peace-offering, he came down. 23 Then Moses and Aaron went into the Tent of Meeting. When they came out, they blessed the people, and the glory of the LORD appeared to all the people. 24 Fire came out from the presence of the LORD and consumed the burnt offering and the fat portions on the altar. When all the people saw it, they shouted with joy and fell facedown.

10

Lv 10

The Death of Two of Aaron's Sons, Nadab and Abihu, for Improper Priestly Conduct

1 Aaron's sons Nadab and Abihu each took his fire pan, put fire in it, laid incense on it, and brought unauthorised fire before the LORD, which He had commanded them not to bring. 2 A fire came out from the presence of the LORD and consumed them, and they died before the LORD. 3 Moses told Aaron: "This is what the LORD has said: ‘I must be treated as holy by those who come near Me. All the people must regard Me with honour!'"

Aaron stood motionless. 4 Then Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Aaron's uncle Uzziel. He told them, "Come here, and carry your cousins outside the camp, away from the front of the holy place!"

5 They came near, and carried them outside the camp by their tunics, as Moses had told them. 6 Then Moses told Aaron and his sons, Eleazar and Ithamar: "Do not let your hair hang loose! You shall not tear your clothes to pieces, so that you may not die, and so that God may not be angry with the whole congregation! However, your relatives, the whole house of Israel, may mourn because of the fire that the LORD has sent. 7 You shall not go outside the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, that you may not die, because the anointing oil of the LORD is on you."

So they did as Moses had told them.

Instructions about Proper Conduct for Priests

8 Then the LORD told Aaron, 9 "You and your sons must not drink any wine or other intoxicating drink when you go into the Tent of Meeting, that you may not die! This is a lasting ordinance for your coming generations. 10 You must distinguish between what is holy and what is profane, and between what is unclean and what is clean! 11 You must also teach the Israelites all the Prescriptions that the LORD has told them through Moses!"

12 Moses told Aaron and his surviving sons, Eleazar and Ithamar: "Take the grain-offering that has been left over from the offerings made by fire to the LORD, and eat it without yeast beside the altar! For it is most holy. 13 You shall eat it in a holy place! For it is your proper portion, and the proper portion of your sons, out of the offerings made by fire to the LORD. For this is what I have been commanded. 14 You, together with your sons, and your daughters, shall also eat the brisket of the wave offering and the hind leg of the wave offering in a clean place! For they have been given as your proper portion and the proper portion of your children out of the peace-offerings of the Israelites. 15 They shall bring the hind leg of the wave offering and the brisket of the wave offering together with the fat portions of the offerings made by fire, and shall move them back and forth as a wave offering before the LORD! These shall continue to be the proper portion that belongs to you and to your children, as the LORD has commanded!"

The Sin-offering by Eleazar and Ithamar

16 Then Moses searched carefully for the male goat of the sin-offering, and found that it had already been burnt. He became angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's remaining sons, and asked: 17 "Why have you failed to eat the sin-offering in the holy place? For it is most holy, and God has given it to you to take away the guilt of the congregation by making atonement for them before the LORD. 18 Look! Its blood was not brought inside the holy place. You certainly should have eaten the sin-offering in the holy place, as I had commanded."

19 However, Aaron answered Moses: "Look! Today they presented their sin-offering and their burnt offering before the LORD, although such things have happened to me! If I had eaten a sin-offering today, would that have been pleasing to the LORD?"

20 When Moses heard that, he approved.

11

Lv 11

Instructions about Clean and Unclean Kinds of Food— Deuteronomy 14:3-20

1 The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron and told them, 2 "Tell the Israelites: ‘Out of all the animals that are on the earth, these are the animals that you may eat: 3 You may eat any animal that has a divided or split hoof and that also chews the cud. 4 Nevertheless, you shall not eat any of those that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof! You shall not eat the camel, because, although it chews the cud, it does not have a divided hoof! It is ceremonially unclean for you. 5 You shall not eat the coney! For, although it chews the cud, it does not have a divided hoof! It is unclean for you. 6 You shall not eat the hare! For, although it chews the cud, it does not have a divided hoof. It is unclean for you. 7 You shall not eat the pig! For, although it has a divided or cloven hoof, it does not chew the cud. It is unclean for you. 8 You shall not eat any meat from them, and you shall not touch their dead bodies! They are unclean for you.

9 "‘Of all the creatures in the water you may eat anything in the water of the seas and of the streams if they have fins and scales. 10 However, you shall consider disgusting any creatures in the seas and the streams that do not have fins or scales, both any things that move in shoals and any other living creatures that are in the water! 11 You shall consider them disgusting! You shall not eat meat from them, and you shall detest their dead bodies! 12 You shall consider anything in the water that does not have fins or scales disgusting!

13 "‘These are ones from the flying creatures that you shall consider disgusting! You shall not eat them! They shall be detestable! They are the eagle, the great bearded vulture, the black vulture, 14 the kite, any kind of black kite, 15 any kind of crow, 16 the horned owl, the screech owl, the seagull, any kind of falcon, 17 the little owl, the cormorant, the ibis, 18 the barn owl, the jackdaw, the carrion vulture, 19 the stork, any kind of plover, the hoopoe, and the bat.

20 "‘You shall consider disgusting all swarming creatures that have wings and crawl on four feet! 21 However, of all the swarming things that have wings, you may eat those that have jointed lower legs above their feet with which they hop over the ground. 22 Of these you may eat any kind of locust, any kind of consuming locust, any kind of grasshopper, and any kind of non-flying locust. 23 However, you shall consider disgusting all other swarming things that have wings and four feet!

Instructions about Unclean Animals

24 "‘These will make you unclean. Anyone who touches their dead bodies will be unclean until the evening. 25 Anyone who carries any of their dead bodies shall wash his clothes! He will be unclean until the evening. 26 The dead bodies of all animals that have divided hoofs without being completely cloven and that do not chew the cud are unclean for you. Anyone who touches them will be unclean. 27 Among all the animals that walk on four legs, all those that walk on their paws are unclean for you. Anyone who touches their dead bodies will be unclean until the evening. 28 Anyone who carries their dead bodies shall wash his clothes! Then he will be unclean until the evening. They are unclean for you.

29 "‘The following tiny creatures that occur in large numbers on the ground are unclean for you: the mole, the small rodent, and every kind of lizard, 30 the gecko, the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink, and the chameleon. 31 Among all the small crawling creatures these are unclean for you. Anyone who touches them when they are dead will be unclean until the evening. 32 When one of them dies and falls on any article, that article, with which any work is done, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, is an article of clothing, is made of leather, or is made of sackcloth. It shall be put in water. It will be unclean until the evening, and then it will be clean. 33 When any of them falls inside any clay pot, everything in the pot will be unclean. You shall break the pot. 34 If water from any such pot comes on any food that could be eaten, the food will be unclean, and any liquid that could be drunk from any pot like that will be unclean. 35 Anything on which any of their dead bodies falls will be unclean. An oven or a small stove shall be broken up! They are unclean, and they shall remain unclean for you! 36 Although a spring or a cistern for collecting water shall remain clean, anyone who touches a dead body in them will be unclean. 37 If any of their dead bodies falls on any seed that is to be sown, the seed remains clean. 38 However, if water is put on the seed and any of their dead bodies falls on it, it will be unclean for you.

39 "‘When any animal that you are allowed to eat dies, anyone who touches its dead body will be unclean until the evening. 40 Anyone who eats any of its dead body shall wash his clothes! He will be unclean until the evening. Anyone who carries its dead body shall wash his clothes! He will be unclean until the evening.

41 "‘You shall consider disgusting any small animal that crawls on the ground! It shall not be eaten! 42 You shall not eat any creature that crawls on its belly or on four legs, any creature with many legs, or any other small creature that crawls on the ground! For they are detestable. 43 You shall not make yourselves detestable by any creature that crawls on the ground! You shall not make yourselves unclean by them or defile yourselves with them!

44 "‘For I am the LORD, your God. You shall behave as people who have been made holy, and you shall be holy! For I am holy. You shall not make yourselves unclean by means of any creature that moves about and crawls on the ground! 45 For I am the LORD, and I have brought you up out of the land of Egypt to be your God. You shall be holy! For I am holy.'"

46 This is the Law about animals, flying creatures, and every living thing that moves in the water and every small living creature that moves about on the ground, 47 that you may distinguish between what is unclean and what is clean, and between the living creatures that may be eaten and those that shall not be eaten.

12

Lv 12

Instruction for the Cleansing of Women after Childbirth — Luke 2:22-24

1 The LORD instructed Moses: 2 "Tell the Israelites: ‘When a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a male child, she will be unclean for seven days, the same number of days as she is unclean during her menstruation. 3 On the eighth day the boy shall have the flesh of his foreskin circumcised! 4 Then the woman shall wait for thirty-three days to be ceremonially purified from her bleeding! She shall not touch anything holy and she shall not go to the holy place until the days of her purification are over! 5 If the woman gives birth to a female child, she will be unclean for two weeks, as during her menstruation. Then she shall wait for sixty-six days to be purified from her bleeding!

6 "‘When the days of her purification for a son or a daughter are completed, she shall bring a one-year-old lamb to the priest at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting for a burnt offering and a young pigeon or a turtledove for a sin-offering! 7 The priest shall offer it before the LORD and make atonement for her! Then she will be ceremonially clean from her flow of blood. This is the Law for the woman who gives birth to a boy or a girl. 8 If she cannot afford a lamb, she shall bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons, one for a burnt offering and the other for a sin-offering! In this way the priest shall make atonement for her! Then she will be clean.'"

13

Lv 13

Instructions about Infectious Skin-diseases

1 The LORD told Moses and Aaron: 2 "When any person has a swelling, a rash, or a white patch on the skin of his body and it begins to look like infectious skin-disease in his body, he shall be brought to Aaron the priest or to one of his sons, who are the priests! 3 The priest shall examine the sore on the skin of his body! If the hair in the sore has turned white and the sore appears to have gone deeper than the rest of the skin of his body, it is an infectious skin-disease. The priest shall examine him, and shall declare him ceremonially unclean! 4 If the bright spot on his skin is white but does not appear to have gone deeper than the rest of the skin and the hair in it has not turned white, the priest shall isolate the person who has the sore for seven days! 5 On the seventh day the priest shall examine him! If indeed the sore appears to him not to have changed, and the sore has not spread in the skin, the priest shall isolate him for another seven days! 6 On the seventh day the priest shall examine him again, and if the spot has faded, and the sore has not spread in the skin, the priest shall declare him clean! It is a harmless skin-eruption. The person shall wash his clothes! Then he will be clean. 7 However, if the skin-eruption has indeed spread in the skin after the person has shown himself to the priest to determine his cultic purity, he shall appear again before the priest! 8 The priest shall examine him, and if the skin-eruption has indeed spread in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him unclean! It is an infectious skin-disease.

9 "When any person has an infectious skin-disease, he shall be brought to the priest! 10 The priest shall examine him! If there indeed is a white swelling in the skin that has turned the hair white, and if raw flesh has emerged in the swelling, 11 it is a chronic infectious skin-disease in the skin of his body. The priest shall declare him unclean! He shall not shut him up! For he is unclean. 12 If the infectious skin-disease breaks out all over the skin and it covers the whole skin of the diseased person from his head to his foot, wherever the priest looks, 13 the priest shall examine him! If an infectious skin-disease has covered his whole body, he shall declare the person who had been infected clean! Since it has all turned white, he is clean. 14 However, when raw flesh appears on him, he will be unclean. 15 The priest shall examine the raw flesh and declare him unclean! Raw flesh is unclean. It is an infectious skin-disease. 16 Nevertheless, if the raw flesh recovers and turns white, he shall come to the priest! 17 The priest shall examine him, and, if the sore spot has indeed turned white, the priest shall declare the person who had been diseased clean! He is clean.

18 "When someone's body has a boil on the skin and it has healed, 19 and a white swelling or a reddish-white spot appears where the boil had been, it shall be shown to the priest! 20 The priest shall examine it, and if it looks deeper than the rest of the skin and its hair has turned white, the priest shall declare him unclean! It is an infectious skin-disease, which has broken out where the boil had been. 21 However, if, when the priest examines it, there is indeed no white hair on it, and it is not deeper than the rest of the skin, and it has faded, the priest shall isolate him for seven days! 22 If it has indeed spread in the skin, the priest shall declare him unclean! It is a skin-disease. 23 However, if the bright spot stays where it has been and has not spread, it is a scar from the boil. The priest shall declare him clean.

24 "Moreover, when fire leaves a burn in the skin of anyone's body, and a reddish-white or a white spot emerges from raw flesh of the burn, 25 the priest shall examine it, and, if the hair on the bright spot has indeed turned white and looks deeper than the rest of the skin, it is a skin-disease. It has broken out in the burn. The priest shall declare him unclean! It is an infectious skin-disease. 26 However, if, when the priest examines it, there is indeed no white hair on the bright spot, if it is not deeper than the rest of the skin, and if it has faded, the priest shall isolate him for seven days! 27 On the seventh day the priest shall examine him! If it is indeed spreading in the skin, the priest shall declare him unclean! It is an infectious skin-disease. 28 However, if the bright spot stays where it has been, and has not spread in the skin, but has faded, it is only a swelling caused by the burn. The priest shall declare him clean! For it is a scar from the burn.

29 "When a man or a woman has a sore on the head, or on the cheeks and chin, 30 the priest shall examine the sore! If it indeed appears to be deeper than the rest of the skin and there is gleaming-red thin hair on it, the priest shall declare the person unclean! It is an itch, an infectious skin-disease on the head or on the cheeks and chin. 31 However, if, when the priest examines the itching sore in the skin, it does not indeed appear to be any deeper than the rest of the skin, and there is no black hair on it, the priest shall isolate the person infected with the itching sore for seven days! 32 The priest shall examine the infected spot on the seventh day! If the itch has not in fact been spreading and no gleaming-red hair has come on it, and the itching spot does not appear to be deeper than the rest of the skin, 33 the person shall shave himself, but shall not shave the itching spot! The priest shall isolate the person with the itching spot for another seven days! 34 On the seventh day the priest shall examine the itching spot, and, if the itching spot has not indeed spread on the skin and does not appear to be deeper than the rest of the skin, the priest shall declare him clean! He shall wash his clothes! Then he will be clean. 35 However, if the itching spot does indeed spread in the skin after the person has been declared clean, 36 the priest shall examine him! If the itching spot has indeed spread on the skin, the priest shall not investigate carefully whether there is gleaming-red hair! The person is unclean. 37 However, if he considers that the itching spot has not changed and that black hair has been growing on it, the itch has healed. He is clean. The priest shall declare him clean!

38 "When a man or a woman has bright spots on the skin of the body, that is, bright-white spots, 39 the priest shall examine them! If the bright spots on the skin of the body are indeed dull white, a harmless rash has broken out on the skin. That person is clean.

40 "When a man loses the hair on the back of his head, he is bald, but he is clean. 41 If he loses his hair on the front of his scalp, he has become bald on the forehead, but he is clean. 42 However, when there is a reddish-white sore on the bald spot on the head or on the forehead, it is an infectious skin-disease breaking out on his bald head or on his bald forehead. 43 The priest shall examine him! If the swollen sore on his bald head or on his bald forehead is indeed reddish-white, and looks like an infectious disease in the skin elsewhere on the body, 44 the man is suffering from a skin-disease. He is unclean. The priest shall certainly declare him unclean! He has the disease on his head.

45 "Anyone who is suffering from the sore of an infectious skin-disease shall wear his clothes torn and let the hair on his head hang loose! He shall cover his upper lip, and shall call out, ‘Unclean, unclean!' 46 He shall remain unclean as long as he has the infection! He is unclean. He shall live alone! His dwelling shall be outside the camp!"

Instructions about Fungus on Clothing or Leather Articles

47 "When there is an infectious fungus on any woollen garment or linen garment, 48 whether it is in woven material or knitted material from linen or wool, or in leather, or in anything made of leather, 49 if the contamination is greenish or reddish in the garment, in the leather, in the woven material, in the knitted material, or in any leather article, it is an infectious fungus, and it shall be shown to the priest! 50 The priest shall examine the fungus and isolate the infected article for seven days! 51 He shall examine the infected article on the seventh day! When the infection has spread in the woven or knitted garment, in the leather, or in anything made of leather for any purpose, the infection is a malignant fungus. The article is unclean. 52 He shall burn the garment, the woven material, the knitted material, of wool or linen, or any leather article that has the infection on it! For it is a malignant fungus. The article shall be burnt up! 53 However, if, when the priest examines it and sees that the spot has not spread in the woven or knitted garment or in any leather article, 54 the priest shall order that the contaminated article shall be washed! Then he shall isolate it for seven more days! 55 The priest shall examine the contamination after the article has been washed! If, although the discoloration has not spread, it has not changed its appearance, it is unclean. You shall burn it up! It is eaten away, whether the fungus is on its outer side or on its inner side. 56 If, when the priest examines it, he sees that the fungus has faded after the article has been washed, he shall tear the contaminated part out of the clothing, or out of the leather, or out of the woven or knitted material! 57 If the discoloration reappears in the woven or knitted garment or in any leather article, the fungus is spreading. You shall burn up whatever has the contamination on it! 58 However, if the fungus disappears from the clothing, or the woven or the knitted material, or from any leather article when you have washed it, it shall be washed a second time! Then it will be clean."

59 This is the Law concerning contamination by a fungus on woollen or linen clothing, on woven or knitted material, or on any leather article, to declare whether it is clean or unclean.

14

Lv 14

The Regulations for Cleansing a Person Infected with a Skin-disease — Matthew 8:1-4; Luke 5:12-14

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "This shall be the Law for the person who is infected with a skin-disease at the time of his ceremonial cleansing! He shall be brought to the priest! 3 The priest shall go outside the camp! The priest shall examine him! If the person who had the infectious skin-disease has indeed been healed of it, 4 the priest shall order someone to get two living clean birds, some cedar-wood, crimson material, and hyssop for the person who is about to be cleansed! 5 Then the priest shall order someone to kill the one bird over fresh water in a clay pot! 6 He shall take the living bird, with the cedar-wood, the crimson material, and the hyssop, and shall dip them, together with the living bird, in the blood of the bird that that has been killed over the fresh water! 7 Then he shall sprinkle it seven times on the person who is about to be cleansed of the infectious skin-disease! He shall declare the person clean and release the living bird in the open field! 8 The person who is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, shave off all his hair, and wash himself in water! Then he is ceremonially clean. After that he may come into the camp. However, he shall live outside his tent for seven days! 9 On the seventh day he shall shave off all the hair on his head, his beard, and his eyebrows, and shall also shave off all the rest of his hair! He shall wash his clothes and bathe his body in water! Then he will be clean.

10 "On the eighth day he shall take two male lambs without blemish and one female lamb one year old without blemish, twelve litres of fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil as a grain-offering and a third of a litre of olive-oil! 11 The priest who is declaring the person ceremonially clean shall station the man who is purifying himself together with his offerings before the LORD at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting! 12 The priest shall take the one male lamb and offer it as a guilt-offering with the one third of a litre of olive-oil, and shall move them back and forth as a wave offering before the LORD! 13 He shall slaughter the lamb where he slaughters the sin-offering and the burnt offering in the holy place, because the guilt-offering, like the sin-offering, belongs to the priest! It is most holy. 14 The priest shall take some of the blood of the guilt-offering! The priest shall put it on the lobe of the right ear of the person who is purifying himself, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot! 15 Then the priest shall take some of the one third of a litre of olive-oil, and the priest shall pour it into the palm of his own left hand! 16 The priest shall dip his right finger in the olive-oil in his left hand, and with his finger he shall sprinkle some of the oil seven times before the LORD! 17 The priest shall put some of the rest of the olive-oil that is in his hand on the lobe of the right ear of the person who is purifying himself, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot, on top of the blood of the guilt-offering! 18 The priest shall put the rest of the olive-oil that is in his hand on the head of the person who is purifying himself! Then the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD! 19 The priest shall make the sin-offering to make atonement for the person who is purifying himself from his ceremonial uncleanness, and after that he shall slaughter the burnt offering! 20 The priest shall offer the burnt offering together with the grain-offering on the altar! So the priest shall make atonement for him! Then he will be clean.

Instructions about the Cleansing of a Poor Person after a Skin-disease

21 "However, if the person is poor and cannot afford so much, he shall take one lamb as a guilt-offering to be moved back and forth, to make atonement for him! He shall bring only four litres of fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil as a grain-offering, three hundred and thirty millilitres of olive-oil, 22 and two turtledoves or two young pigeons, whichever he can afford! The one shall be a sin-offering and the other a burnt offering! 23 On the eighth day he shall bring them to the priest for his cleansing, to the entrance to the Tent of Meeting before the LORD! 24 The priest shall take the lamb for the guilt-offering, together with three hundred and thirty millilitres of olive-oil, and the priest shall move them back and forth before the LORD as a wave offering! 25 The priest shall slaughter the lamb for the guilt-offering! He shall take some of the blood of the guilt-offering, and shall put it on the lobe of the right ear of the person who is purifying himself, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot! 26 The priest shall pour some of the olive-oil into the palm of his own left hand! 27 Then the priest shall sprinkle with his right finger some of the olive-oil that is in his left hand seven times before the LORD! 28 The priest shall put some of the olive-oil that is in his hand on the lobe of the right ear of the person who is purifying himself, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot, on the same places as he had put the blood of the guilt-offering! 29 The priest shall pour the rest of the olive-oil that is in his hand on the head of the person who is purifying himself to make atonement for him before the LORD! 30 Then he shall prepare one of the turtledoves or the young pigeons, whichever the person can afford! 31 He shall offer the one, such as the person can afford, as a sin-offering and the other as a burnt offering together with the grain-offering! So the priest shall make atonement for the person who is purifying himself before the LORD!"

32 This is the Law for a person who has had an infectious skin-disease and who cannot afford the usual offering for his cleansing.

Regulations for the Cleansing of a Spreading Mildew in Houses

33 The LORD told Moses and Aaron: 34 "When you enter the land of Canaan, which I am giving you to own, and I put a spreading mildew in a house in the land that you own, 35 the owner of that house shall come and tell the priest, ‘There is something that looks to me like mildew in my house!'

36 "Then the priest shall order the people to take everything out of the house before the priest goes in to examine the mildew, so that he may not declare everything in the house unclean! After that, the priest shall go in to inspect the house! 37 He shall examine the mildew! If the mildew in the walls of the house has greenish or reddish depressions that appear to be deeper than the surface of the wall, 38 the priest shall come out of the doorway of that house, and shall close the house up for seven days! 39 On the seventh day the priest shall go back and inspect it! If the mildew has indeed spread in the walls of the house, 40 the priest shall order people to pull out the stones that have the mildew on them, and they shall throw them into an unclean place outside the city! 41 He shall have the inside of the house scraped off all around, and people shall dump the dust that they have scraped-off in an unclean place outside the city! 42 They shall fetch fresh stones to replace the other stones, and they shall fetch fresh clay to plaster the house! 43 If the mildew breaks out in the house again after they have pulled out the stones and after they have scraped and plastered the house, 44 the priest shall come and examine it! If the mildew has indeed spread in the house, there is a malignant mildew in the house. It is unclean. 45 They shall tear down the house, its stones, its timbers, and all the plaster in the house, and carry them to an unclean place outside the city! 46 Anyone who goes into the house at any time after the priest has closed it up will be ceremonially unclean until the evening. 47 Anyone who lies down in the house shall wash his clothes, and anyone who eats in the house shall wash his clothes! 48 However, if the priest comes and examines it, and the mildew has not indeed spread in the house after the house has been plastered, the priest shall declare the house ceremonially clean! For the mildew has been cured.

49 "To purify the house from its defect, he shall take two birds, cedar-wood, crimson material, and hyssop! 50 He shall kill the one bird over fresh water in a clay pot! 51 He shall take the cedar-wood, the hyssop, the crimson material, and the living bird, and he shall dip them in the blood of the bird that has been killed and in the fresh water, and he shall sprinkle the house seven times! 52 He shall purify the house with the bird's blood and the fresh water, with the living bird, the cedar-wood, the hyssop, and the crimson material! 53 Then he shall release the living bird in the open fields outside the city! So he shall make atonement for the house! Then it will be clean."

54 This is the Law for any kind of infectious skin-disease, for an itch, 55 for mildew in clothing or in a house, 56 for a swelling, for a rash, and for a white patch, 57 to show when it is unclean and when it is clean. This is the Law for infectious skin-diseases and mildew.

15

Lv 15

Regulations about Unclean Bodily Discharges from Men

1 The LORD told Moses and Aaron: 2 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘When any man has a mucous discharge from his penis, his discharge is unclean. 3 This shall be the manner in which he becomes unclean because of his discharge: whether his body continues to let his discharge flow or whether he keeps his member blocked up, it makes him unclean! 4 Any bed on which anyone with a discharge lies will be unclean, and anything on which he sits will be unclean. 5 Anyone who touches his bed shall wash his clothes and shall bathe in water! He will be unclean until the evening. 6 Anyone who sits on anything on which a person with the discharge was sitting shall wash his clothes, and shall bathe in water! He will be unclean until the evening. 7 Anyone who touches the body of anyone with the discharge shall wash his clothes, and shall bathe in water! He will be unclean until the evening. 8 When a person with the discharge spits on anyone who is clean, that person shall wash his clothes, and shall bathe in water! He will be unclean until the evening. 9 Any saddle on which a person with the discharge rides will be unclean. 10 Anyone who touches anything that was under him will be unclean until the evening. Anyone who carries such things shall wash his clothes, and shall bathe in water! He will be unclean until the evening. 11 Anyone whom a person with the discharge touches and has not washed his hands off in water shall wash his clothes, and shall bathe in water! He will be unclean until the evening. 12 Any pottery that a person with the discharge touches shall be broken, and any wooden container shall be washed off with water!

13 "‘When a person with the discharge is being cleansed from it, he shall count off seven days for his cleansing, and shall wash his clothes and bathe his body in running water! Then he will be clean. 14 On the eighth day he shall get two turtledoves or two young pigeons for himself and shall come before the LORD at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting and shall give them to the priest! 15 The priest shall prepare them, the one for a sin-offering and the other for a burnt offering! So the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD because of his discharge!

16 "‘When a man has an emission of semen, he shall bathe his whole body in water! He will be unclean until the evening. 17 Any garment and any leather that has an emission of semen on it shall be washed in water! It will be unclean until the evening. 18 When a man has sexual relations with a woman and has an emission of semen, they shall bathe in water! They will be unclean until the evening.

Regulations about Unclean Bodily Discharges from Women

19 "‘When a woman has her regular flow of blood, the discharge from her body in her menstruation lasts for seven days, and anyone who touches her will be unclean until the evening. 20 Anything on which she lies during her menstruation will be unclean, and anything on which she sits will be unclean. 21 Anyone who touches her bed shall wash his clothes and shall bathe in water! He will be unclean until the evening. 22 Anyone who touches anything on which she sits shall wash his clothes and shall bathe in water! He will be unclean until the evening. 23 If anything is on the bed or on anything on which she sits, anyone who touches it will be unclean until the evening. 24 If a man has sexual relations with her and her menstrual flow comes on him, he will be unclean for seven days, and any bed on which he lies will be unclean.

25 "‘When a woman has a discharge of blood for many days at some other time than her menstruation, or when she has a discharge that continues beyond her period, she will be unclean as long as she has the discharge. She will be unclean as at the time of her regular menstruation. 26 Any bed on which she lies as long as her discharge continues will be unclean, like her bed during her menstruation, and anything on which she sits will be unclean, as during her menstruation. 27 Whoever touches those things will be unclean. He shall wash his clothes and shall bathe with water! He will be unclean until the evening.

28 "‘If she is clear of her discharge, she shall count off seven days for herself! After that she will be ceremonially clean. 29 On the eighth day she shall get two turtledoves or two young pigeons for herself and shall bring them to the priest at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting! 30 The priest shall prepare the one as a sin-offering, and the other as a burnt offering! In this way the priest shall make atonement for her before the LORD because of the discharge that had made her unclean!

31 "‘You shall keep the Israelites separate from what makes them unclean, that they may not die in their uncleanness because they defile My tabernacle, which is among them!'"

32 This is the Law for the man who has a discharge or an emission of semen to make him unclean, 33 for a woman who is menstruating, for a man or a woman who has a discharge, and for a man who has sexual intercourse with a woman who is ceremonially unclean.

16

Lv 16

Regulations for the Day of Atonement — Compare Leviticus 23:26-32, Numbers 29:7-11

1 The LORD spoke to Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, who died when they came into the presence of the LORD. 2 The LORD instructed Moses: "Tell your brother Aaron not to come at just any time into the holy place inside the curtain in front of the propitiatory cover, which is on the Ark, that he may not die! For I appear in the cloud over the propitiatory cover. 3 Aaron shall use a young bull as a sin-offering and shall use a ram as a burnt offering to come into the holy place in the following way! 4 He shall put on the holy linen tunic, and wear the linen breeches on his body! He shall tie the linen sash around him and shall wrap on the linen headband! These are holy garments. He shall bathe his body in water before he puts them on! 5 He shall take two male goats from the congregation of Israel as a sin-offering and one ram as a burnt offering!

6 "Aaron shall offer the young bull as the sin-offering for himself and shall make atonement for himself and for his family! 7 He shall take the two goats and shall place them before the LORD at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting! 8 Then Aaron shall cast lots for the two male goats, one lot for the LORD, and the other lot for a scapegoat! 9 Aaron shall bring forward the goat on which the lot for the LORD has fallen and prepare it as a sin-offering! 10 However, the goat on which the lot has fallen to be the scapegoat shall be presented alive before the LORD, that atonement may be made over it, and that it may be released into the wilderness as the scapegoat!

11 "Aaron shall bring forward the young bull for his own sin-offering and he shall make atonement for himself and his family, and he shall slaughter the young bull as his own sin-offering! 12 He shall take a pan full of burning coals from the altar before the LORD, and two handfuls of finely ground fragrant perfumes, and take them up to the curtain! 13 He shall put the incense on the fire before the LORD, so that the cloud of incense may cover the propitiatory cover, which is over the Testimony, so that he may not die! 14 He shall take some of the young bull's blood, and shall with his finger sprinkle it on the eastern side in front of the propitiatory cover! Then he shall with his finger sprinkle some of the blood seven times in front of the propitiatory cover!

15 "He shall slaughter the goat for the sin-offering that is for the people! He shall bring its blood inside the curtain, and he shall do with its blood as he has done with the blood of the young bull! He shall sprinkle it on the propitiatory cover and in front of the propitiatory cover! 16 He shall make atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the Israelites, and because of their rebellious acts, that is, for all their other sins! He shall do the same for the Tent of Meeting, which remains among the people, in the middle of their forms of uncleanness! 17 No other person shall be in the Tent of Meeting when he goes into the holy place to make atonement until he comes out, that he may make atonement for himself, for his family, and for the whole assembly of Israel! 18 Then he shall go out to the altar, which is before the LORD, and he shall make atonement for it! He shall take some of the young bull's blood and some of the goat's blood and shall put it on the horns of the altar on all sides! 19 He shall use his finger to sprinkle some of the blood on it seven times, that he may cleanse it and make it holy from the forms of uncleanness of the Israelites!

20 "After he has finished making atonement for the holy place, the Tent of Meeting, and the altar, he shall bring forward the living goat! 21 Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the living goat! He shall confess over it all the offences of the Israelites, all their transgressions, and all their other sins, and shall put them on the head of the goat! Then he shall use a man, standing beside him, to release it into the wilderness! 22 The goat will carry all their offences on itself away to unfertile land. The man shall release the goat in the wilderness!

23 "Then Aaron shall go into the Tent of Meeting, take off the linen clothes that he had put on when he went into the holy place, and shall leave them there! 24 He shall bathe his body in water in a holy place, and put on his other clothes! Then he shall come out and make the burnt offering for himself and the burnt offering for the people, that he may make atonement for himself and for the people! 25 He shall also burn the fat of the sin-offering on the altar! 26 The man who releases the scapegoat shall wash his clothes and shall bathe his body in water! After that, he may come into the camp. 27 He shall take outside the camp the young bull for the sin-offering and the goat for the sin-offering, whose blood has been brought into the holy place to make atonement! Their hides, their meat, and the contents of their stomachs shall be burnt up! 28 The man who burns them shall wash his clothes, and shall bathe his body in water! After that he may come into the camp.

29 "This shall be a permanent Statute for you: On the tenth day of the seventh month you shall humble yourselves by fasting! You shall not do any work, neither the native Israelite nor the foreigner who is living among you! 30 For on this day the priest shall make atonement for you to make you clean! You will be clean before the LORD from all your sins. 31 It shall be a most solemn Sabbath for you! You shall humble yourselves by fasting! It is a permanent Statute. 32 The priest who is anointed and installed to serve as a priest in his father's place shall make the atonement! He shall put on the linen clothes, the holy garments, 33 and make atonement for the most holy place, the Tent of Meeting, and the altar! He shall also make atonement for the priests and shall make atonement for all the people of the assembly!

34 "This shall be a permanent Statute for you, to make atonement for the Israelites once each year because of all their sins!"

Aaron did what the LORD had commanded Moses.

17

Lv 17

The Regulations about the Slaughter of Animals and about the Eating of Sacrifices at the Tabernacle

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Speak to Aaron, his sons, and all the Israelites, and tell them: ‘This is what the LORD has commanded: 3 Any man belonging to the family of Israel who butchers a bull, a young ram, or a goat inside the camp or butchers it outside the camp 4 and has not brought it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to present it as a gift to the LORD before the sanctuary of the LORD, that man will be considered guilty of bloodshed. He has poured out blood. That man will be cut off from his people. 5 The purpose is that the Israelites shall bring their sacrifices, which they have been making in the open field, to the LORD instead. They shall bring them to the priest at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and shall offer them as their peace-offerings to the LORD! 6 The priest shall pour out the blood against the altar of the LORD at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and he shall burn the fat for a soothing aroma to the LORD! 7 They shall no longer offer their sacrifices to evil spirits, after whom they used to run wantonly! This shall be a permanent Statute for them throughout their coming generations!'

8 "You shall also tell them: ‘If any man belonging to the family of Israel or any stranger who lives among them offers a burnt offering or any other sacrifice, 9 but does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to offer it to the LORD, that man will be cut off from his people.'

The Prohibition of the Eating of Blood

10 "‘If any man belonging to the family of Israel or any stranger who lives among them eats any blood, I shall set my face against the person who eats the blood, and I shall cut him off from his people. 11 For the life of the body is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for your lives on the altar. For it is the blood that makes atonement by means of the life. 12 That is why I have told the Israelites: "No person among you shall eat blood, and the stranger who lives among you shall also not eat blood!

13 "‘If any man belonging to the family of Israel or any stranger who lives among you hunts as game an animal or a bird that may be eaten, he shall drain out its blood and shall cover it with soil! 14 For the life of any creature is its blood. Its blood is its life. Therefore I have told the Israelites: "You shall not eat the blood of any creature! For the life of every creature is its blood. Anyone who eats it will be cut off."

15 "‘Any person, either a native Israelite or a stranger, who eats the carcass of an animal that has died by itself or that has been torn by wild animals shall wash his clothes, and shall bathe in water! He will be unclean until the evening. Then he will be clean. 16 However, if he does not wash his clothes and bathe his body, he will bear his guilt.'"

18

Lv 18

Forbidden Sexual Relationships

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘I am the LORD, your God! 3 You shall not do what the people do in the land of Egypt, where you lived! You shall also not do what the people do in the land of Canaan, where I am taking you! You shall not follow their statutes! 4 You shall observe My Decisions! You shall keep My Statutes and walk in them! I am the LORD, your God. 5 You shall keep My Statutes and My Decisions! If a man practises them, he will live by them. I am the LORD.

6 "‘No person shall approach anyone closely related to him to have sexual relations! I am the LORD. 7 You shall not uncover the genital area of your father by having sexual relations with your mother! She is your own mother. You shall not have sexual relations with her! 8 You shall not have sexual relations with your father's wife! Her genital area belongs to your father. 9 You shall not have sexual relations with your sister, either your father's daughter or your mother's daughter! Whether she has been born in the same home or elsewhere, you shall not have sexual relations with either! 10 You shall not have sexual relations with your son's daughter or your daughter's daughter! For their genital area belongs to you. 11 You shall not have sexual relations with a daughter of your father's wife, born to your father! She is your own sister. You shall not have sexual relations with her! 12 You shall not have sexual relations with your father's sister! She is your father's close relative. 13 You shall not have sexual relations with your mother's sister, because she is your mother's close relative! 14 You shall not uncover the genital area that belongs to your father's brother! You shall not approach his wife! She is your aunt. 15 You shall not have sexual relations with your daughter-in-law! She is your son's wife. You shall not have sexual relations with her! 16 You shall not have sexual relations with your brother's wife! Her genital area belongs to your brother.

17 "‘You shall not have sexual relations with both a woman and her daughter! You shall not take the daughter of her son or her daughter's daughter and have sexual relations with them! They are close relatives. That is a shameful evil. 18 You shall not marry your wife's sister to be a rival-wife and have sexual relations with her while your wife is alive!

19 "‘You shall not go to a wife to have intercourse with her while she is ceremonially unclean from her menstruation!

20 "‘You shall not consummate intercourse with your neighbour's wife and so become ceremonially unclean with her!

21 "‘You shall not give any of your children to be sacrificed to Molech! You shall not profane the name of your God! I am the LORD.

22 "‘You shall not have sexual relations with a man as with a woman! That is detestable. 23 You shall not have intercourse with any animal and become unclean with it! A woman must also not offer herself to an animal for intercourse with her! That is perversion.

Punishment for Sexual Sins

24 "‘You shall not make yourselves unclean in any of these ways! For by all these practices the nations that I am driving out ahead of you have made themselves unclean. 25 The land has become unclean. I have punished it for its guilt, and the land has vomited out its inhabitants. 26 You yourselves shall keep My Statutes and My Decisions! You shall not do any of these detestable things, either a native Israelite or a stranger who is living among you! 27 For the people of the land, who were there before you, have been doing all these detestable things, and so the land has become unclean. 28 You shall avoid having the land vomit you out because you make it unclean, as it has vomited out the nation that was there before you! 29 For, as for everyone who commits any of these detestable things — the persons who commit them will be cut off from their people. 30 So you shall keep your obligation to Me, not to practise any of these detestable customs, which were practised before you came! You shall not make yourselves unclean by means of them! I am the LORD, your God.'"

19

Lv 19

The Requirement for the People to be ritually and morally Holy

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Speak to the whole congregation of the Israelites, and tell them: ‘You shall be holy! For I am the LORD, your God, and I am holy.

3 "‘Every one of you shall respect his mother and his father! You shall also keep My Sabbaths! I am the LORD, your God. 4 Do not turn to idols! You shall not make any gods of cast metal for yourselves! I am the LORD, your God.

5 "‘When you sacrifice a peace-offering to the LORD, you shall sacrifice it so that God may grant you favour! 6 It shall be eaten on the day when you sacrifice it or on the next day! What is left over until the third day shall be burnt up! 7 If any is nevertheless eaten on the third day, it is sacrificial meat that has become unclean, and will not be accepted. 8 Anyone who eats it will bring guilt on himself, because he has profaned what is holy to the LORD. That person will be cut off from his people.

The Duties of the People toward each other

9 "‘When you harvest the grain on your land, you shall not finish harvesting the edge of your field, and you shall not gather the gleanings of your harvest! 10 You shall not pick your vineyard a second time, or pick up the fallen grapes in your vineyard! You shall leave them for the poor man and the stranger! I am the LORD, your God.

11 "‘You shall not steal! You shall not tell lies, and you shall not deal falsely with one another! 12 You shall not swear by My name in order to deceive anyone, or profane the name of your God! I am the LORD.

13 "‘You shall not oppress your neighbour, and you shall not rob him! You shall not keep the wages of your hired labourer with you overnight until morning! 14 You shall not curse a deaf person, and you shall not place an obstacle in front of a blind person to make him stumble, but you shall fear your God! I am the LORD.

15 "‘You shall not deliver unjust verdicts! You shall not show partiality to poor people, or give preference to important people! You shall judge your neighbour fairly! 16 You shall not go about spreading slander among your people! You shall not do anything that endangers your neighbour's life! I am the LORD.

17 "‘You shall not hate your brother in your heart! You shall be sure to correct your neighbour, so that you may not be guilty of sin because of him! 18 You shall not take revenge! You shall not hold a grudge against any of your own people! Instead, you shall love your neighbour as yourself! I am the LORD.

Prohibitions about Mixing — Deuteronomy 22:8-10

19 "‘You shall keep My Statutes! You shall not crossbreed two different kinds of your animals! You shall not sow your field with two different kinds of seed! You shall not put on a garment woven from two different kinds of material!

Instructions about a Guilt-offering for Illicit Intercourse

20 "‘When a man has intercourse with a woman who is a slave and who is engaged to another man and who has not been ransomed at all or who has not been emancipated from slavery, there shall be due punishment! Such persons shall not be put to death! For there had been no emancipation from slavery. 21 Nevertheless, the man shall bring his guilt-offering to the LORD at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting! The guilt-offering shall be a ram! 22 The priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt-offering before the LORD for his sin, which he has committed! He will then be forgiven for his sin, which he has committed.

Various Regulations

23 "‘When you come into the land and plant all kinds of fruit trees, you shall leave their fruit unharvested as though it were uncircumcised! For three years you shall consider it uncircumcised! It shall not be eaten! 24 In the fourth year all its fruit shall be a holy offering of praise to the LORD! 25 However, in the fifth year you may eat its fruit. In this way it will yield all the more for you. I am the LORD, your God.

26 "‘You shall not eat any meat with its blood still in it!

"‘You shall not practise divination, and you shall not conjure up spirits!

27 "‘You shall not trim the hair at the sides of your head and you shall not clip off the edges of your beard! 28 You shall not make incisions in your bodies because a person has died, and you shall not put tattoo marks on yourselves! I am the LORD.

29 "‘You shall not profane your daughter by urging her into cultic prostitution, in order that the land may not turn to prostitution and that the land may not be full of shameful evil!

30 "‘You shall keep My Sabbaths, and you shall have reverence for My sanctuary! I am the LORD.

31 "‘Do not turn to mediums or to soothsayers! Do not search for them to become unclean through them! I am the LORD, your God.

32 "‘You shall stand up in the presence of a grey-haired person, and you shall treat the presence of an old man with respect! You shall also fear your God! I am the LORD.

33 "‘When a foreigner lives in your country with you, you shall not oppress him! 34 The stranger who lives with you shall be treated like a native Israelite among you! You shall love him as yourself! For you were strangers in the land of Egypt. I am the LORD, your God.

35 "‘You shall not act unjustly when you impose a sentence, when you measure length, when you measure weight, or when you measure liquids! 36 You shall have honest scales, honest weights, an honest grain measure, and an honest liquid measure! I am the LORD, your God, and I have brought you out of the land of Egypt.

37 "‘You shall keep all My Statutes and all My Decisions, and you shall put them into practice! I am the LORD.'"

20

Lv 20

Punishments for the Sacrifice of Children

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "You shall tell the Israelites: ‘If there is any Israelite or any stranger who lives in Israel who gives any of his children to Molech, he shall certainly be put to death! The people of the land shall stone him! 3 I Myself shall set my face against that man and I shall cut him off from his people. For he has given some of his children to Molech, with the result that he has made My sanctuary unclean and has profaned My holy name. 4 If the people of the country actually cover their eyes to that person when he gives some of his children to Molech, and fail to put him to death, 5 I shall set my face against that man and his family. I shall cut him off from his people when he runs wantonly after Molech, together with all who run wantonly after him.

6 "‘When a person turns to mediums and to soothsayers to run wantonly after them, I shall also set my face against that person, and I shall cut him off from his people.

7 "‘You shall behave as people who have been made holy, and you shall be holy! For I am the LORD, your God.

8 "‘You shall keep My Statutes and you shall put them into practice! I am the LORD, and I make you holy.

9 "‘When there is anyone who curses his father or his mother, he shall certainly be put to death! He has cursed his father or mother. His blood-guilt shall be on him!

Penalties for Sexual Immorality

10 "‘When anyone commits adultery with another man's wife, he who commits adultery with his neighbour's wife, the adulterer, together with the adulteress, shall surely be put to death! 11 If a man has sexual relations with his father's wife, he has uncovered the genital area that belongs to his father. Both the man and the woman shall certainly be put to death! Their blood-guilt shall be on them!

12 "‘If a man has sexual relations with his daughter-in-law, both shall certainly be put to death! What they have done is a perversion. Their blood-guilt shall be on them! 13 When a man has sexual relations with another male as with a woman, both of them have done something detestable. They shall certainly be put to death! Their blood-guilt shall be on them! 14 If a man marries both a woman and her mother, it is a shameful evil. People shall burn the man and the two women, so that no shameful evil may be among you! 15 If a man has sexual relations with an animal, he shall certainly be put to death! You shall also kill the animal! 16 If a woman approaches any animal to have sexual relations with it, you shall kill the woman and the animal! They shall certainly be put to death! Their blood-guilt is on them. 17 When a man takes his sister, either his father's daughter or his mother's daughter, and he sees her genital area, and she sees his genital area, it is a disgrace. Their people shall regard them as outcasts! He has uncovered his sister's nakedness. He shall bear his guilt! 18 If a man lies with a woman while she is menstruating and has intercourse with her, he has exposed her source, and she has uncovered the source of her blood. Both of them shall be cut off from their people! 19 You shall not have intercourse with your mother's sister or your father's sister! For such a person has made a close relative naked. They shall bear their guilt! 20 When a man has sexual relations with his uncle's wife, he has uncovered the genital area that belongs to his uncle. They shall bear their sin! They shall die childless! 21 If a man marries his brother's wife, it will be something detestable. He has uncovered the genital area that belongs to his brother. They shall be childless!

The Requirement for Holiness

22 "‘You shall keep all My Statutes and all my Decisions and you shall put them into practice, so that the land where I am bringing you to live may not vomit you out! 23 You shall not live according to the statutes of the nation that I am throwing out ahead of you! Because they have been doing all these things, I have been disgusted with them. 24 I have been telling you: "You will inherit their land. I shall give it to you to inherit, a land flowing with milk and honey." I am the LORD, your God, and I have separated you from the other peoples.

25 "‘You shall make a distinction between the animals that are clean and that are unclean, between birds that are unclean and that are clean! You shall not make yourselves detestable with any animal, bird, or any reptile on the ground that I have set apart for you by declaring it unclean! 26 You shall be holy to Me! For I, the LORD, am holy, and I have set you apart from the other peoples to be My own.

27 "‘Any man or woman who has a demon or a spirit of the dead in them shall certainly be put to death! People shall stone them! Their blood-guilt shall be on them!'"

21

Lv 21

The Requirements for the Holiness of the Priests — Ezekiel 44:15-31

1 The LORD told Moses: "Speak to the priests, the sons of Aaron, and tell them: ‘None of them shall become ceremonially unclean for any person in his family who has died, 2 except for his nearest relatives: his mother, his father, his son, his daughter, and his brother! 3 He may also become unclean for his sister if she is not married, but a virgin, and is dependent on him. 4 Because he is the head of his family, he shall not become unclean by profaning himself!

5 "‘Priests shall not shave their heads bald, shave the edges of their beards, or make incisions on their bodies! 6 They shall be holy to their God, and shall not profane the name of their God! For they present the offerings made to the LORD by fire, the food of their God. So they shall be holy!

7 "‘They must not marry any woman who is a prostitute, who has lost her virginity, or who has been divorced from her husband! For a priest is holy to his God. 8 You shall regard him as holy! For he offers the food of your God. You shall consider him holy to you! For I, the LORD, am holy — I Myself, who make you holy. 9 When the daughter of any priest profanes herself by being a prostitute, she is profaning her father. She shall be burnt with fire!

The Requirements for the Holiness of the Chief Priest

10 "‘Moreover, the one who is the high priest among his brothers, on whose head the anointing oil has been poured, and who has been installed to wear the garments, shall not let the hair on his head hang loose, and shall not tear his clothes! 11 He shall not go near any dead bodies! He shall not become unclean even for his father or his mother! 12 He shall not leave the sanctuary and he shall not profane the sanctuary of his God! For the anointing oil of his God, which has consecrated him, is on him. I am the LORD.

13 "‘He shall marry a woman who is a virgin! 14 He shall not marry any of these, a widow, a divorced woman, a woman who has lost her virginity, or a prostitute! Rather, he shall marry a virgin from his own people! 15 He shall not profane his children among his people! For I am the LORD, and I make him holy.'"

16 The LORD instructed Moses: 17 "Tell Aaron: ‘If any man among your descendants in their succeeding generations has any blemish, he shall not come near to offer the food of his God! 18 For no man who has any blemish shall come near: no man who is blind, lame, with a split nose, or deformed, 19 no man with a broken foot or broken hand, 20 or who is hunchbacked, who is dwarfed, who has a spot in the eye, who has a festering sore, who has a skin-disease with scabs, or who has damaged testicles! 21 No descendant of Aaron the priest who has a defect shall come near to present the offerings made to the LORD by fire! He has a defect. He shall not come near to offer the food of his God! 22 He may eat the food of his God, both some of the most holy things and some of the holy things. 23 Nevertheless, he shall not come up to the curtain or up to the altar! For he has a defect, and he shall not profane My holy places! For I am the LORD, and I make them holy.'"

24 So Moses told this to Aaron, his sons, and all the Israelites.

22

Lv 22

Regulations about Eating the Priests' Share of the Holy Things

1 The LORD instructed Moses: 2 "Tell Aaron and his sons that they shall treat with awe the holy offerings of the Israelites, which they consecrate to Me, so that they may not profane My holy name! I am the LORD."

3 "Tell them: ‘In your coming generations, if any of your descendants, while he is ceremonially unclean, comes near the holy offerings that the Israelites consecrate to the LORD, that person shall be cut off from My presence! I am the LORD.

4 "‘If any descendant of Aaron has an infectious skin-disease or suffers from a discharge, he shall not eat any of the holy offerings until he is clean! Whoever touches anything unclean by contact with a corpse, or any man who has had an emission of semen, 5 or anyone who touches any swarming thing, which makes him unclean, or any human being in whatever way he is ceremonially unclean, 6 the person who touches any such thing will be unclean until the evening. He shall not eat any of the holy offerings unless he has bathed his body with water! 7 When the sun goes down, he will be clean, and after that he may eat the holy offerings. For they are his food. 8 He shall not eat the meat of an animal that has died by itself or that has been torn by wild animals, so that it makes him unclean! I am the LORD. 9 They shall keep my Requirement, so that they may not bring sin on themselves through this and die because of this when they profane it! I am the LORD, and I make them holy.

10 "No unauthorised person shall eat a holy offering! No foreigner who is living with the priest and no hired servant shall eat a holy offering! 11 However, when a priest buys a slave as personal property with his money, he may eat his food. Any slave born in his household may also eat it. 12 When a priest's daughter marries anyone who is not a priest, she shall not eat any of the holy contributions! 13 However, when a priest's daughter is a widow or has been divorced and has no child comes back to her father's home as when she was young, she may eat her father's food. However, no unauthorised person shall eat it!

14 "‘When anyone by mistake eats a holy offering, he shall add a fifth of its value to it, and give the holy offering to the priest! 15 The priests shall not make profane use of the sacred offerings that the Israelites present to the LORD! 16 The priests shall burden such people with guilt that requires repayment when they eat the priests' holy offerings! For I am the LORD, and I make them holy.'"

Regulations about Acceptable Offerings

17 The LORD told Moses: 18 Speak to Aaron, his sons, and all the Israelites, and tell them: ‘If anyone in the family of Israel or any stranger in Israel presents, as his gift, something to fulfil any vow that he has made, or if he makes any kind of free-will offering, and offers it to the LORD as a burnt offering, 19 in order that God may be favourable to you, it shall be a male without blemish from the herd, from the sheep, or from the goats! 20 You shall not offer anything with a defect! For God will not treat it as acceptable on your behalf. 21 When anyone brings from the herd or from the flock a peace-offering to the LORD to fulfil a special vow or as a free-will offering, it shall be without blemish to be acceptable! There shall be no defect in it! 22 You shall not offer these to the LORD: anything blind, broken, mutilated, with warts, with festering sores, or with scabs! You shall not give any of these as an offering made to the LORD on the altar by fire! 23 You may use a bull or a sheep that has a deformity or a bodily defect as a free-will offering, but it will not be regarded as acceptable in fulfilment of a vow. 24 You shall not bring to the LORD any animal whose testicles are crushed, torn away, or cut out! You shall not use them in your country! 25 You shall also not accept any of these animals from any stranger to offer them as food to your God! For they have a defect or a blemish in them. God will not treat them as acceptable on your behalf.'"

26 The LORD told Moses: 27 "When a calf, a lamb, or a goat is born, it shall stay with its mother for seven days! However, from the eighth day on it will be regarded as acceptable as a gift offered by fire to the LORD. 28 You shall not slaughter a cow or a ewe and its young the same day!

29 "When you offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving to the LORD, you shall sacrifice it in such a way as will be accepted on your behalf! 30 It shall be eaten on the same day! You shall not leave any of it until the next morning! I am the LORD.

31 "You shall keep My Commandments, and put them into practice! I am the LORD. 32 You shall not profane My holy name! I must be treated as holy among the Israelites! I am the LORD, and I make you holy. 33 It is I who have brought you out of the land of Egypt to be your God. I am the LORD."

23

Lv 23

Instructions about the Appointed Festivals

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘The following are the fixed days of the LORD, which you shall proclaim as holy assemblies! These are My fixed days.

The Observance of the Sabbath

3 "‘Work may be done for six days, but on the seventh day there shall be a most solemn Sabbath, a holy assembly! You shall not do any work! It shall be the Sabbath to the LORD wherever you live!

4 "‘The following are the fixed days of the LORD. They are holy assemblies, which you shall announce at their appointed times.

The Spring Festivals, the Passover, Bread without Yeast, the Presentation of the First Ears of Barley, and the Festival of Weeks

The Passover and the Festival of Unleavened Bread — Exodus 12:1-30, 43-51; Numbers 28:16-25; Deuteronomy 16:1-8

5 "‘The Passover of the LORD shall begin at twilight on the fourteenth day of the first month! 6 The Festival of Bread without Yeast to the LORD shall begin on the fifteenth day of that month! You shall eat bread without yeast for seven days! 7 On the first day you shall hold a holy assembly! You shall not do any regular work! 8 You shall present to the LORD an offering made by fire for seven days! On the seventh day there shall be a holy assembly! You shall not do any regular work!'"

The Presentation of the First Ears of Barley or Firstfruits

9 The LORD told Moses: 10 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘When you come to the land that I am giving you and you are reaping its harvest, you shall bring to the priest the first ears of grain from your harvest! 11 He shall move the sheaf back and forth before the LORD so that you may be accepted! The priest shall move it back and forth on the day after the Sabbath! 12 On the day when you move the ears of grain back and forth, you shall also offer a one-year-old ram without blemish, as a burnt offering to the LORD! 13 The grain-offering with it shall be four-fifths of a litre of fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil as a sacrifice made by fire to the LORD as a soothing aroma, together with a drink offering of one litre of wine! 14 You shall not eat bread, parched grain, or fresh grain until this very day, until you bring this gift to your God! It shall be a permanent Statute throughout your coming generations, wherever you live!

The Festival of Weeks (Harvest or Pentecost) — Exodus 34:22; Numbers 28:26-31; Deuteronomy 16:9-12

15 "‘You shall count off for yourselves seven weeks from the day after the Sabbath, from the day when you bring the ears of grain as a wave offering! They shall be seven full weeks! 16 You shall count off fifty days, until the day after the seventh Sabbath! Then you shall present an offering of new grain to the LORD! 17 From wherever you live you shall bring two loaves of bread as a wave offering! They shall be made of four-fifths of a litre of fine wheat flour! They shall be baked with yeast! They are firstfruits to the LORD. 18 Together with the bread you shall present seven one-year-old male lambs without blemish, one young bull from the herd, and two rams! They shall be a burnt offering to the LORD, with their grain-offering and drink offerings! It is an offering made by fire, and a soothing aroma to the LORD. 19 You shall also use one male goat for a sin-offering, and two lambs a year old for a peace-offering! 20 The priest shall move them back and forth before the LORD as a wave offering, with the bread of the firstfruits! They, together with the two lambs, shall be holy to the LORD, and shall belong to the priest! 21 On that very day you shall proclaim that you are holding a holy assembly! You shall not do any regular work! It is a permanent Statute wherever you live throughout your coming generations.

22 "‘When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap everything on the edges of your field, and you shall not gather the gleanings of your harvest! You shall leave them for poor people and for strangers! I am the LORD, your God.'"

The Festivals in Autumn, the Blowing of Trumpets, the Day of Atonement, and the Festival of Booths — Compare Numbers 29:1-40

The Blowing of Trumpets (New Year's Day) — Numbers 29:1-6

23 The LORD instructed Moses: 24 "Tell the Israelites: ‘On the first day of the seventh month you shall have a Sabbath festival as a memorial day with the blowing of trumpets and a holy assembly! 25 You shall not do any regular work, and you shall present an offering made to the LORD by fire!'"

The Day of Atonement — Compare Leviticus 16:1-34, Numbers 29:7-11

26 The LORD told Moses: 27 "Now, the Day of Atonement is on the tenth day of this seventh month. You shall hold a holy assembly, humble yourselves by fasting, and present an offering made to the LORD by fire! 28 You shall not do any work on that day! For it is a Day of Atonement, when atonement is made for you before the LORD, your God. 29 Any person who does not humble himself by fasting on that day shall be cut off from his people! 30 If any person does any work on that day, I shall destroy that person from among his people. 31 You shall not do any work! It is a permanent Statute throughout your coming generations, wherever you live. 32 It shall be a most solemn Sabbath for you! You shall humble yourselves by fasting! You shall observe your Sabbath on the evening of the ninth day of the month, from the one evening until the next!"

The Festival of Tabernacles or the Festival of Booths or the Ingathering — Numbers 29:12-40; Deuteronomy 16:13-17; Zechariah 14:16-19

33 The LORD instructed Moses: 34 "Tell the Israelites: ‘On the fifteenth day of this seventh month there shall be the Festival of Booths to the LORD, and it shall last for seven days! 35 On the first day there shall be a holy assembly! You shall not do any regular work! 36 You shall present to the LORD an offering made by fire for seven days! On the eighth day you shall hold a holy assembly, and you shall present to the LORD an offering made by fire! It is a festive assembly. You shall not do any regular work!

37 "‘These are the appointed festivals of the LORD, which you shall announce as holy assemblies, for presenting to the LORD sacrifices made by fire, burnt offerings, grain-offerings, other sacrifices, and drink offerings, each on its right day. 38 These offerings shall be in addition to Sabbaths of the LORD, in addition to your gifts, in addition to all your vow offerings, and in addition to all your freewill offerings, which you give to the LORD!

39 "‘Moreover, on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered what the land has yielded, you shall celebrate the festival of the LORD for seven days! On the first day there shall be a Sabbath festival, and on the eighth day there shall be a Sabbath festival! 40 On the first day you shall take for yourselves choice fruit from the trees, palm-branches, the branches of leafy trees, and poplars of the Euphrates, and you shall rejoice before the LORD, your God, for seven days! 41 You shall celebrate it as the festival of the LORD for seven days each year! It is a permanent Statute throughout your coming generations. You shall celebrate it in the seventh month! 42 You shall live in booths for seven days! All native-born Israelites shall live in booths, 43 so that your coming generations may know that I made the Israelites live in booths when I brought them out of the land of Egypt! I am the LORD, your God.'"

44 So Moses announced to the Israelites the fixed days of the LORD.

24

Lv 24

Instructions about the Light in the Tent of Meeting — Exodus 27:20-21

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Command the Israelites to bring you pure oil from beaten olives for the lamp, so that the lamps may burn continuously! 3 In the Tent of Meeting, outside the curtain of the Testimony, Aaron shall continually keep the lamp supplied before the LORD from evening until morning! It is a permanent Statute throughout your coming generations. 4 Aaron shall continually keep the lamps on the pure-golden lampstand in trim before the LORD!

Instructions about the Bread that is Set before God

5 "You shall take fine wheat flour and bake twelve ring-shaped loaves with it, using four-fifths of a litre for each loaf! 6 You shall arrange them in two rows, with six in each row, on the table of pure gold before the LORD! 7 You shall lay pure frankincense beside each row! When it is offered by fire to the LORD, it will become a memorial of the bread. 8 On each Sabbath day Aaron shall regularly set this out before the LORD! It shall come from the Israelites as an unending Covenant! 9 The bread shall belong to Aaron and his sons, and they shall eat it in a holy place! For it is most holy. It shall be Aaron's part out of the offerings made by fire to the LORD! It shall be a permanent Statute!

The Punishment of a Man Who Blasphemed

10 A man who had an Israelite mother and an Egyptian father went out among the Israelites, and this Israelite woman's son and a man of Israel had a quarrel in the camp. 11 The son of the Israelite woman blasphemed the Name and cursed it. People brought him to Moses. His mother's name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, belonging to the tribe of Dan. 12 They put him in custody to obtain precise information about what the LORD wanted them to do. 13 The LORD told Moses: 14 "Take the man who has cursed outside the camp! All who heard him shall lay their hands on his head, and then the whole congregation shall stone him! 15 Tell the Israelites: ‘Any man who curses his God shall pay the penalty for his sin! 16 He who blasphemes the name of the LORD shall certainly be put to death! The whole congregation shall certainly stone him! The stranger shall be treated like the native-born Israelite! When he blasphemes the Name, he shall be put to death!

The Principle of Retaliation

17 "‘When any man kills another human being, he shall certainly be put to death! 18 Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution for it, a life for a life! 19 When anyone causes any disfigurement to his neighbour, whatever he has done shall be done to him: 20 a broken bone for a broken bone, an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth! As he has caused a disfigurement to another human being, so it shall be done to him! 21 Anyone who kills an animal shall make restitution for it, but anyone who kills a human being shall be put to death! 22 You shall make the same decision about the stranger as you make about the native-born Israelite! For I am the LORD, your God.'"

23 Moses told this to the Israelites. So they took outside the camp the man who had cursed and stoned him. The Israelites did as the LORD had commanded Moses.

25

Lv 25

Instructions about a Year of Rest for the Land — Exodus 23:10-11; Deuteronomy 15:1-11

1 The LORD told Moses on Mount Sinai: 2 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘When you come into the land that I am giving to you, the land itself shall stop working for a Sabbath to the LORD! 3 You shall sow your field for six years, and you shall prune your vineyard and gather what it produces for six years, 4 but in the seventh year the land shall stop working for a most solemn Sabbath, a Sabbath to the LORD! You shall not sow your field and you shall not prune your vineyard! 5 You shall not harvest what grows of its own accord after your harvest, and you shall not pick the grapes of your unpruned vines! The land shall have a year of rest! 6 You, together with your manservant, your maidservant, your hired worker, and the temporary resident, who live among you, may use what the Sabbath of the land produces as your food. 7 Everything that it produces shall also feed your livestock and the wild animals that are in the land!

The Fiftieth Year of Jubilee for the Land – Leviticus 27:17-24; Numbers 36:4; Deuteronomy 15:1-11

8 "‘You shall also count off for yourself seven weeks of years, seven times seven years, so that the seven weeks of years amount to forty-nine years for you! 9 You shall sound the loud trumpet on the tenth day of the seventh month, on the Day of Atonement, and you shall sound trumpets all over your land! 10 Then you shall consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty in the land for all its inhabitants! This shall be your Jubilee, when everyone shall return to his family-property and everyone shall return to his own clan! 11 That fiftieth year shall be your Jubilee year! You shall not sow, or reap what grows of its own accord, and you shall not pick grapes from the unpruned vines in the land! 12 For it is the Jubilee. It shall be holy for you! You shall eat from the field what it produces! 13 In this Year of Jubilee each of you shall return to his family-property! 14 When you sell something saleable to your neighbour or buy anything from him, do not drive a hard bargain with one another! 15 You shall buy from your neighbour on the basis of the number of years after the Jubilee! He shall sell to you on the basis of the number of years left for crops! 16 If there are still many years, you shall increase the purchase-price for it! If there are only a few years, you shall decrease the purchase-price for it! For he is selling only the number of crops to you. 17 You shall not drive hard bargains with one another, but you shall fear your God! For I am the LORD, your God.

18 "‘You shall put My Statutes into practice, and you shall observe My Decisions and put them into practice! Then you will live safely in the land. 19 Then the land will yield its fruit, you will be satisfied with what you eat, and you will live there in safety. 20 When you ask, "What shall we eat in the seventh year, since we must not sow or harvest our crops?" 21 I shall command My blessing on you in the sixth year, and the land will yield enough for three years. 22 While you sow in the eighth year you will be eating some of the old crop until the ninth year. You will continue to eat the old crop until the harvest of the ninth year comes in.

The Redemption of Family-property

23 "‘The land shall not be sold in such a way that the right of repurchase is forfeited! For the land is Mine. For you are only foreigners and temporary residents with Me. 24 In all the land that you hold as family-property you shall provide a right of redemption for the land! 25 When your fellow-Israelite becomes poor and sells some of his family-property, his relative shall come to him as his redeemer, and shall buy back what his relative has sold! 26 However, when a man has no one to redeem it, but comes into property and acquires enough to redeem it, 27 he shall calculate the years since he sold it, and shall refund the balance to the man to whom he sold it! Then he may return to his family-property. 28 But if he has not acquired enough to repay him, what he has sold shall remain in the possession of the man who has bought it until the year of the Jubilee. It shall be released in the Jubilee, and he shall go back to his family-property!

29 "‘If anyone sells a home in a walled city, he shall have the right of redemption for a whole year! During the year after he has sold it he shall retain his right to redeem it! 30 However, if it is not redeemed before the man's full year has elapsed, the house that is in the walled town shall belong permanently throughout his coming generations to the one who has bought it! It shall not be released in the Jubilee! 31 However, houses in villages without walls around them shall be regarded as belonging to the fields in the open country! They shall retain the right of redemption, and in the Jubilee they shall be released!

32 "‘Nevertheless, as for the cities of the Levites and the houses in the cities that are their family-property, the Levites shall have the permanent right to redeem them! 33 With respect to what any of the Levites redeems, the sale of a house that is in a city that is his family-property shall be released in the Jubilee! For the houses in the cities of the Levites shall be their family-property among the Israelites! 34 However, a field that is pastureland around their cities shall not be sold! For it is their perpetual family-property.

Concern for Impoverished People in the Year of Jubilee

35 "‘When your fellow Israelite becomes poor and impoverished among you, you shall hold on to him as you would a stranger or a temporary resident, so that he may continue to live among you! 36 Do not take interest from him or require other additional charges from him, but you shall fear your God, so that your fellow Israelite may continue to live among you! 37 You shall not lend him your money at interest, and you shall not loan him your food at a profit! 38 I am the LORD, your God, and I have brought you out of the land of Egypt to give you the land of Canaan, so that I may be your God.

Regulations about Hebrew Servants — Exodus 21:2-11; Deuteronomy 15:12-18

39 "‘When your fellow Israelite becomes poor among you, and sells himself to you, you shall not compel him to work like a slave! 40 He shall be like a hired worker or a temporary resident with you! He shall work with you until the Year of Jubilee! 41 Then he and his children shall be released from you! He shall go back to his own clan! He shall return to the family-property of his fathers! 42 For they are My servants, whom I have brought out of the land of Egypt. They shall not be sold like slaves! 43 You shall not manage him violently, but you shall fear your God!

The Possession of Slaves

44 "‘You may acquire your manservant and maidservant that you have from the nations around you. You may acquire a manservant and a maidservant from them. 45 You may also acquire them from the descendants of temporary residents who are foreigners living with you. You may own as family-property members of their clans who are among you and who have been born in your country. 46 You may bequeath them to your children after you as inherited family-property. You may use them as slaves permanently. However, with respect to your brothers, the Israelites, you shall not manage one another violently!

The Redemption of a Poor Man

47 "‘When a stranger or a temporary resident among you becomes wealthy, and your fellow Israelite becomes poor and he sells himself to a foreigner who is living among you, or to a member of a foreigner's clan, 48 after he has sold himself, there shall be a right of redemption for him! One of his brothers may redeem him. 49 Alternatively, his uncle or his cousin may redeem him, or any other close relative in his clan may redeem him. Or, if he becomes wealthy, he may redeem himself. 50 Together with the man who has bought him he shall calculate the time from the year when he sold himself until the Year of Jubilee! The money paid for him shall be based on the number of years, as if he had spent the time with him as a hired man! 51 If they still have many years left, he shall repay, as his redemption, a price relative to what had been paid for him! 52 If there are only a few years left until the Year of Jubilee, he shall put them down to his account! He shall pay for his redemption in proportion to the years he would still have had to serve! 53 The man shall be with him like a hired worker on a yearly basis! He shall not manage the man in what you regard as a violent manner! 54 Moreover, if he is not redeemed in any of these ways, he and his children shall be released in the Year of Jubilee!

55 "‘For the Israelites belong to Me as servants. They are My servants, whom I brought out of the land of Egypt. I am the LORD, your God.

26

Lv 26

The Rewards for Obedience — Deuteronomy 7:12-24; Deuteronomy 28:1-14

1 "‘You shall not make any idols for yourselves and you shall not set up any image or a sacred stone for yourselves! You shall not place any stone carved in relief in your land to bow down before it! For I am the LORD, your God.

2 "‘You shall keep My Sabbaths, and respect My sanctuary! I am the LORD.

God's Blessings on those who Keep His Laws

3 "‘If you live according to My Statutes and carefully keep My Commandments, 4 I shall give you your rain at the right time, the land will produce its crops, and the trees in the field will produce their fruit. 5 Your threshing will continue until grape harvest, the grape harvest will continue until planting, you will eat all the food you want and live in safety in your land. 6 I shall give peace in the land. You will lie down and no one will make you afraid. I shall remove savage beasts from the land, and the sword will not pass through your country. 7 You will pursue your enemies, and they will fall before you by the sword. 8 Five of you will chase a hundred, a hundred of you will chase ten thousand, and your enemies will fall before you by the sword. 9 I shall look kindly on you, make you fruitful, and increase your numbers, and I shall confirm My Covenant with you. 10 You will eat old produce that has been stored up, and you will clear out old stores of food to make room for new ones. 11 I shall put My dwelling place among you, and My soul will not abhor you. 12 I shall walk among you and be your God, and you will be My people. 13 I am the LORD, your God, and I have brought you out of the land of Egypt, so that you should no longer be their slaves. I have broken the bars of your yoke, and made you walk erect.'"

God's Curses on those who Disobey His Laws — Deuteronomy 28:15-68

14 "‘However, if you do not listen to Me and do not practise all these Commandments, 15 and if you reject My Statutes and your soul abhors My Decisions, so that you do not practise all my Commandments and so break My Covenant, 16 then I, too, shall do this to you: I shall punish you with terror, consumption, and inflammation, which will make your eyes go dead and wear your life away. You will sow your seed for nothing, because your enemies will eat it. 17 I shall set My face against you, so that you will be defeated by your enemies. Those who hate you will rule over you, and you will flee when no one is pursuing you.

18 "‘If, after all this, you refuse to listen to Me, I shall again chastise you for your sins, seven times over. 19 I shall break down your stubborn pride. I shall make your sky like iron and your soil like bronze. 20 You will use up your strength for nothing. Your land will not yield its produce, and the trees of the land will not yield their fruit. 21 If you set yourselves against Me and refuse to listen to Me, I shall bring seven more plagues on you, as your sins deserve. 22 I shall send wild animals among you to rob you of your children, to destroy your livestock, and to make you few in number, so that your roads will become deserted.

23 "‘If, in spite of these things, you do not accept my correction but set yourselves against Me, 24 then I too shall set Myself against you and I Myself shall also strike you down seven times for your sins. 25 I shall bring a sword against you to take revenge for breaking My Covenant. When you withdraw into your cities, I shall send a plague among you, and you will be delivered into the control of your enemy. 26 When I cut off your supply of bread, ten women will bake your bread in one oven, and weigh it out exactly when they give it back to you. Although you eat, you will not be satisfied.

27 "‘If, in spite of this, you do not listen to Me but set yourselves against Me, 28 then I shall resist you furiously, and I myself shall chastise you for your sins seven times over. 29 You will eat the flesh of your sons and you will eat the flesh of your daughters. 30 I shall destroy your high places, cut down your incense-altars, and pile your dead bodies on your lifeless idols, and I Myself shall abhor you. 31 I shall turn your cities into ruin and rubble. I shall make your sanctuaries desolate. I shall not smell the soothing aroma of your offerings. 32 I Myself shall make the land desolate, so that your enemies, who settle in it, will be horrified at it. 33 I shall scatter you among the nations. I shall draw out a sword after you. Your land will be a sinister desolation and your cities will be places of ruin and rubble.

34 "‘Then the land will enjoy its Sabbath days as long as it lies desolate and you are in your enemies' land. Then the land will rest and cause the debt to its Sabbath days to be paid off. 35 As long as it lies desolate the land will have the rest that it failed to have during the Sabbath days when you were living in it. 36 I shall also make the hearts of those among you who are left dejected in the lands of their enemies. The sound of a leaf when it is blown away will make them flee. They will flee to a sword as a place of refuge. They will fall when no one is pursuing them. 37 You will fall over one another as if running from a sword when no one is chasing you. You will not be able to stand before your enemies. 38 You will perish among the nations, and the land of your enemies will devour you. 39 Those among you who are left will waste away in the lands of your enemies because of their guilt. Indeed, they will waste away because of their fathers' guilt together with their own.

God's Promise to Pardon His People when they Repent

40 "‘Then they will confess their guilt and the guilt of their fathers, when they were unfaithful to Me, and when they even set themselves against Me, 41 so that I also set Myself against them and brought them into the land of their enemies. If then they humble their uncircumcised hearts and if they freely admit their guilt, 42 then I shall remember My Covenant with Jacob, and I shall remember My Covenant with Isaac and My Covenant with Abraham. I shall also remember the land. 43 However, the land, which will be abandoned by them, will enjoy its Sabbath days while it lies desolate without them. They will freely admit their guilt because they had been rejecting My Decisions and because they themselves had abhorred My Statutes. 44 Nevertheless, in spite of this, while they are in the land of their enemies I shall not reject them, and I shall not abhor them so as to exterminate them and make My Covenant with them invalid. For I am the LORD, their God. 45 Rather, for their sake I shall remember the Covenant with their ancestors, whom I brought out of the land of Egypt so that the nations could see it, in order that I might be their God. I am the LORD.'"

46 These are the Prescriptions, the Decisions, and the Laws, which the LORD established on Mount Sinai between Himself and the Israelites through Moses.

27

Lv 27

Regulations about Special Vows and Votive Offerings

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘When anyone makes an extraordinary vow to consecrate persons to the LORD by the value that you estimate, 3 if you estimate the value of a man from twenty to sixty years old, you shall value him at six hundred grams of silver, according to the weight used at the holy place! 4 If it is a woman, you shall value her at three hundred and sixty grams of silver! 5 If it is a person from five to twenty years old, you shall value a male at two hundred and forty grams and a female at one hundred and twenty grams! 6 If it is a person from one month to five years old, you shall value a boy at sixty grams of silver and a girl at thirty-six grams of silver! 7 If it is a person sixty years old or older, you shall value a male at one hundred and eighty grams and a female at one hundred and twenty grams!

8 "‘However, if the person is too poor to pay the amount that you estimate, he shall present himself before the priest, and the priest shall assess his value! The priest shall assess the value of the one who is making a vow according to what he can afford!

9 "‘If it is a domestic animal that people are presenting as a gift to the LORD, any such animal that a person presents to the LORD shall become holy! 10 He shall not substitute anything for it and shall not exchange it, a good one for a bad one or a bad one for a good one! If he does indeed exchange one animal for another, then both it and the one exchanged for it shall become holy! 11 If it is any ceremonially unclean animal, which people may not present as a gift to the LORD, the person shall present the animal before the priest, 12 and the priest shall assess its value as either good or bad! Its value shall be whatever the priest estimates! 13 However, if the person wants to buy the animal back after all, he shall add a fifth to the value that you assess!

14 "‘When anyone dedicates his house as something holy to the LORD, the priest shall estimate its value as either good or bad! Its value shall remain at whatever the priest estimates! 15 However, if the person who dedicates his house wants to redeem it, he shall add a fifth to the price that you estimate for it! Then the house will become his again. 16 If anyone dedicates part of his inherited property to the LORD, you shall value it according to the amount of seed required for it! You shall value six bushels of barley seed at six hundred grams of silver! 17 If he dedicates his field at the Year of Jubilee, whatever you value it at shall stand! 18 However, if he dedicates his field after the Jubilee, the priest shall value it according to the years left until the next Year of Jubilee! Your estimated value shall be reduced! 19 However, if the man who dedicates his field wishes to redeem it after all, he shall add a fifth to the amount of money that you estimate for it, and the field shall continue to be his! 20 However, if he does not redeem the field, or if he has sold the field to someone else, it shall never be redeemed! 21 When the field is released in the Jubilee Year, it shall be holy to the LORD! It shall be like a field that has been devoted to God, and it shall become the family-property of the priest! 22 However, if a man dedicates to the LORD a field that he has bought, which is not a part of his family property, 23 the priest shall calculate for him how much it is worth until the Year of Jubilee, and on that day the man shall pay what is assessed as something holy to the LORD! 24 At the Year of Jubilee the field shall revert to the man from whom he had bought it, to the man who had owned the land as family property!

25 "‘Every valuation that you make shall be according to the weight used in the holy place, twenty gerahs to twelve grams!

26 "‘Nevertheless, no one shall dedicate the firstborn of an animal, whether it is a bull or a sheep! For it already belongs to the LORD by being born first. It belongs to the LORD. 27 If it is one of the unclean animals, a person may redeem it at the value that you estimate, but he shall add a fifth of its value to it! However, if it is not redeemed, it shall be sold at the price that you set!

Persons and Things Devoted to God under the Ban

28 "‘Nevertheless, nothing that a person devotes unconditionally to the LORD from what he owns, whether it is a human being, an animal, or a field that is his family property, shall be sold or be redeemed! Everything devoted by the ban is most holy to the LORD.

29 "‘No human being who has been devoted to destruction by the ban shall be ransomed! He shall certainly be put to death!

The Reservation of One Tenth to God

30 "‘One tenth of everything that comes from the land, whether from the grain of the land or from the fruit of the trees, belongs to the LORD. It is holy to the LORD. 31 If anyone nevertheless redeems any part of his tenth, he shall add a fifth to it! 32 The full tenth part of the herd or the flock, each tenth being one of all the animals that pass under the shepherd's staff, shall be holy to the LORD! 33 He shall not investigate whether it is good or bad, and shall not exchange it! However, if he does exchange it, that animal and its substitute shall be holy! There shall be no redemption!'"

34 These are the Commandments that the LORD gave to Moses on Mount Sinai for the Israelites.

 

Index

 

NUMBERS

1

Nm 1

A Census of the Israelite Soldiers — Compare Numbers 26; 2 Samuel 24:1-9; 1 Chronicles 21:1-6

1 The LORD spoke to Moses in the Tent of Meeting in the Wilderness of Sinai. It was on the first day of the second month in the second year after the Israelites had left the land of Egypt. He said: 2 "Take a census of the whole congregation of the Israelites according to their clans and their families! Count every man by name individually! 3 You and Aaron shall count by their fighting forces all the men in Israel twenty years old or more who can serve in the army! 4 One man from each tribe, each of whom is the head of his family, shall assist you! 5 These are the names of the men who shall assist you: from Reuben, Elizur, the son of Shedeur; 6 from Simeon, Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai; 7 from Judah, Nahshon, the son of Amminadab; 8 from Issachar, Nethanel, the son of Zuar; 9 from Zebulun, Eliab, the son of Helon; 10 from the sons of Joseph: from Ephraim, Elishama, the son of Ammihud, and from Manasseh, Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur; 11 from Benjamin, Abidan, the son of Gideoni; 12 from Dan, Ahiezer, the son of Ammishaddai; 13 from Asher, Pagiel, the son of Ocran; 14 from Gad, Eliasaph, the son of Deuel; 15 from Naphtali, Ahira, the son of Enan."

16 These were the men who were chosen from the congregation, the leaders of the tribes of their fathers. They were the heads of the tribal subdivisions of Israel. 17 Moses and Aaron took these men, who had been designated by name. 18 They gathered the whole congregation on the first day of the second month. The people had themselves entered in a family-register according to their clans and their families. They counted individually the names of the men who were aged twenty years and more, 19 as the LORD had commanded Moses to do. So he counted them in the Wilderness of Sinai.

20 This is the family-record of the descendants of Reuben, the firstborn son of Israel, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 21 The total for the tribe of Reuben was forty-six thousand, five hundred.

22 This is the family-record of the descendants of Simeon according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 23 The total for the tribe of Simeon was fifty-nine thousand, three hundred.

24 This is the family-record of the descendants of Gad, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 25 The total for the tribe of Gad was forty-five thousand, six hundred and fifty.

26 This is the family-record of the descendants of Judah, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 27 The total for the tribe of Judah was seventy-four thousand, six hundred.

28 This is the family-record of the descendants of Issachar, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 29 The total for the tribe of Issachar was fifty-four thousand, four hundred.

30 This is the family-record of the descendants of Zebulun, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 31 The total for the tribe of Zebulun was fifty-seven thousand, four hundred.

32 From the descendants of Joseph, this is the family-record of the descendants of Ephraim, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 33 The total for the tribe of Ephraim was forty thousand, five hundred.

34 This is the family-record of the descendants of Manasseh, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 35 The total for the tribe of Manasseh was thirty-two thousand, two hundred.

36 This is the family-record of the descendants of Benjamin, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 37 The total for the tribe of Benjamin was thirty-five thousand, four hundred.

38 This is the family-record of the descendants of Dan, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 39 The total for the tribe of Dan was sixty-two thousand, seven hundred.

40 This is the family-record of the descendants of Asher, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 41 The total for the tribe of Asher was forty-one thousand, five hundred.

42 This is the family-record of the descendants of Naphtali, according to their clans and their families. All the men aged twenty years and over who could serve in the army were counted individually by their names. 43 The total for the tribe of Naphtali was fifty-three thousand, four hundred.

44 These are the men who were counted by Moses and Aaron and the twelve leaders of Israel, each one representing his family. 45 All the Israelites who were aged twenty years and over and who could serve in the army of Israel were counted by their families. 46 The total number was six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty.

The Exemption of the Levites

47 However, the Levites were not numbered along with the others by the tribe of their fathers. 48 The LORD had told Moses: 49 "You shall omit only the tribe of Levi from the count! You shall not take a census of them among the other Israelites. 50 Instead, you personally shall appoint the Levites to be in charge of the tabernacle of the Testimony, all its equipment, and everything else that belongs to it! They shall carry the tabernacle with all its equipment! They shall take care of it, and they shall camp around the tabernacle! 51 When the tabernacle has to move, the Levites shall take it down, and when it has to be set up, the Levites shall erect it! Any outsider who comes near it shall be put to death! 52 The Israelites shall set up their tents in their own sections of the camp by their military divisions, each under his own standard! 53 However, the Levites shall camp all around the tabernacle of the Testimony, so that God may not be angry with the congregation of the Israelites! The Levites shall stand guard over the tabernacle of the Testimony!"

54 The Israelites did that. They did exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses.

2

Nm 2

The Arrangement of the Camp of the Israelites and the Order in which they were to March

1 The LORD told Moses and Aaron: 2 "The Israelites shall camp all around the Tent of Meeting and facing it, and each man shall be under his own standard with the banners of his family!

3 "The tribal division of the camp of Judah shall be the ones who camp, in their military divisions, on the eastern side, toward the rising sun! Nahshon, the son of Amminadab, shall be the leader of the descendants of Judah! 4 The total of his military division is seventy-four thousand, six hundred.

5 The tribe of Issachar shall be the ones who camp next to Judah! Nethanel, the son of Zuar, shall be the leader of the descendants of Issachar! 6 The total of his military division is fifty-four thousand, four hundred.

7 Next there shall be the tribe of Zebulun! Eliab, the son of Helon, shall be the leader of the descendants of Zebulun! 8 The total of his military division is fifty-seven thousand, four hundred.

9 The total number of men in their military divisions that are assigned to the camp of Judah is one hundred and eighty-six thousand, four hundred. They shall set out first on the march!

10 "The tribal division of the camp of Reuben in their military divisions shall be on the southern side! Elizur, the son of Shedeur, shall be the leader of the descendants of Reuben! 11 The total of his military division is forty-six thousand, five hundred.

12 The tribe of Simeon shall be the ones who camp next to Reuben! Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai, shall be the leader of the descendants of Simeon! 13 The total of his military division is fifty-nine thousand, three hundred.

14 Next there shall be the tribe of Gad! Eliasaph, the son of Reuel, shall be the leader of the descendants of Gad! 15 The total of his military division is forty-five thousand, six hundred and fifty. 16 The total number of men in their military divisions that are assigned to the camp of Reuben is one hundred and fifty-one thousand, four hundred and fifty. They shall be the second to set out!

17 Then the Tent of Meeting shall set out with the camp of the Levites in the middle of the other camps! They shall break camp in the same order as they pitch camp! Each shall be in his own place, one tribal division after another!

18 "The tribal division of the camp of Ephraim, in their military divisions, shall be on the western side! Elishama, the son of Ammihud, shall be the leader of the descendants of Ephraim! 19 The total of his military division is forty thousand, five hundred.

20 The tribe of Manasseh shall be the ones who camp next to Ephraim! Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur, shall be the leader of the descendants of Manasseh! 21 The total of his military division is thirty-two thousand, two hundred.

22 Next there shall be the tribe of Benjamin! Abidan, the son of Gideoni, shall be the leader of the descendants of Benjamin! 23 The total of his military division is thirty-five thousand, four hundred. 24 The total number of men in their military divisions that are assigned to the camp of Ephraim is one hundred and eight thousand, one hundred. They shall be the third to set out!

25 "The tribal division of the camp of Dan shall be the ones who camp, in their military divisions, on the northern side! Ahiezer, the son of Ammishaddai, shall be the leader of the descendants of Dan! 26 The total of his military division is sixty-two thousand, seven hundred.

27 The tribe of Asher shall be the ones who camp next to Dan! Pagiel, the son of Ocran, shall be the leader of the descendants of Asher! 28 The total of his military division is forty-one thousand, five hundred.

29 Next there shall be the tribe of Naphtali! Ahira, the son of Enan, shall be the leader of the descendants of Naphtali! 30 The total of his military division is fifty-three thousand, four hundred.

31 The total number of men that are assigned to the camp of Dan is one hundred and fifty-seven thousand, six hundred. They shall be the last to set out, one tribal division after another!"

32 "These were the Israelites as they were counted according to their families. The total of those who were counted in the camps, in their military divisions, was six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty. 33 The Levites, however, were not counted along with the other Israelites, as the LORD had commanded Moses. 34 The Israelites put this into practice. They pitched their camps in their tribal divisions exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses. They also broke camp in this manner, each with his clan and according to his family.

3

Nm 3

The Census of the Sons of Aaron — Leviticus 10:1-7

1 The following is the family-record of Aaron and Moses at the time when the LORD spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai. 2 These were the names of the sons of Aaron: Nadab, the firstborn, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. 3 These were the names of the sons of Aaron, the anointed priests, who were installed to serve as priests. 4 However, Nadab and Abihu died before the LORD because they made an offering with unauthorised fire before the LORD in the Wilderness of Sinai, and they had no children. Eleazar and Ithamar served as priests during the lifetime of their father Aaron.

The Duties Assigned to the Levites

5 The LORD told Moses: 6 "Bring the tribe of Levi forward, and appoint them as assistants to Aaron the priest! 7 They shall perform duties for him and for the whole congregation at the Tent of Meeting, by doing the work that needs to be done at the tabernacle! 8 They shall take care of all the equipment of the Tent of Meeting and fulfil the obligations of the Israelites by doing the work that needs to be done at the tabernacle! 9 You shall assign the Levites to Aaron and his sons! Out of the Israelites they are unconditionally given to Aaron. 10 You shall appoint Aaron and his sons to attend to the priestly work! Any unauthorised person who comes near shall be put to death!"

11 The LORD also told Moses: 12 "See! I have Myself taken Levi's descendants from among the Israelites instead of the firstborn male children of the rest of the Israelite women. So the Levites shall belong to Me! 13 For every firstborn is Mine. At the time when I struck down every firstborn in the land of Egypt, I declared every firstborn in Israel, both human being and animal, holy to Me. They shall belong to Me! I am the LORD."

A Census of the Levites — Numbers 1:47-54

14 The LORD spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai: 15 "Count the descendants of Levi by their families and clans! You shall count every male one month old and more!"

16 So Moses counted them, as the Word of the LORD had commanded him. 17 These were the names of the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. 18 These were the names of the sons of Gershon by their clans: Libni and Shimei. 19 The sons of Kohath by their clans were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. 20 The sons of Merari by their clans were Mahli and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi by their families.

The Duties of the Clan of Gershon

21 From Gershon came the clans of Libni and of Shimei. These were the Gershonite clans. 22 The total of all the males who were counted from one month old and over was seven thousand, five hundred. 23 The Gershonite clans used to camp behind the tabernacle, on the western side. 24 Eliasaph, the son of Lael, was the leader of the family of the Gershonites. 25 At the Tent of Meeting the descendants of Gershon were responsible for the care of the tabernacle, the tent with its covering, the curtain at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, 26 the curtains of the courtyard, the curtain at the entrance of the courtyard, which surrounded the tabernacle and the altar, its ropes, and all the work connected with them.

The Duties of the Clan of Kohath

27 From Kohath came the clans of Amram, of Izhar, of Hebron, and of Uzziel. These were the Kohathite clans. 28 The number of all the males from one month old and more was eight thousand, six hundred. They were responsible for the care of the holy place. 29 The clans of the descendants of Kohath used to camp on the southern side of the tabernacle. 30 Elizaphan, the son of Uzziel, was the leader of the family of the Kohathite clans. 31 They were responsible for the care of the Ark, the table, the lampstand, the altars, the utensils of the sanctuary that were used in ministering, the curtain, and all the work connected with them. 32 Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, supervised the leaders of the Levites. He supervised those who were responsible for the care of the holy place.

The Duties of the Clan of Merari

33 From Merari came the clans of Mahli and of Mushi. These were Merarite clans. 34 The number of all the males who were counted from one month old and more was six thousand, two hundred. 35 Zuriel, the son of Abihail, was the leader of the family of the Merarite clans. They used to camp on the northern side of the tabernacle. 36 The descendants of Merari were appointed to take care of the planks of the tabernacle, its crosspieces, posts, pedestals, and all its utensils, and all the work connected with them, 37 as well as the posts of the surrounding courtyard with their pedestals, tent pegs, and ropes.

38 Moses and Aaron and Aaron's sons were the ones who used to camp in front of the tabernacle on the eastern side, in front of the Tent of Meeting, toward the sunrise. They were responsible for the care of the holy place, to perform the duties that the Israelites needed. However, anyone else who came near had to be put to death. 39 The total number of the Levites whom Moses and Aaron counted according to their clans, as the LORD had commanded them, including every male who was one month old and more, was twenty-two thousand.

The Substitution of the Levites for all the Firstborn Israelites and the Redemption of those who Exceeded the Number

40 The LORD told Moses: "Count all the firstborn Israelite males who are one month old and more, and determine the number of their names! 41 You shall take the Levites to be Mine — I am the LORD — as substitutes for all the firstborn among the Israelites, and you shall take the livestock of the Levites as substitutes for all the firstborn of the livestock of the Israelites!"

42 So Moses counted all the firstborn among the Israelites, as the LORD had commanded him. 43 When the names were counted, all the firstborn males who were one month old and more totalled twenty-two thousand, two hundred and seventy-three.

44 The LORD also told Moses, 45 "You shall take the Levites as substitutes for all the firstborn among the Israelites, and you shall take the livestock of the Levites as substitutes for their animals! So the Levites shall belong to Me! I am the LORD. 46 As a ransom for the two hundred and seventy-three firstborn of the Israelites who exceed the total of the male Levites, 47 you shall collect for each person sixty grams of silver as it is weighed in the holy place! You shall reckon twenty gerahs to one shekel! 48 You shall give to Aaron and his sons the money paid to redeem the number by which the firstborn exceed the Levites!"

49 So Moses took the money to redeem the number in excess of those whom the Levites redeemed. 50 He collected from the firstborn of the Israelites sixteen kilograms and three hundred and eighty grams of silver according to the weight used in the holy place. 51 Then Moses gave the redemption money to Aaron and his sons, according to the Word of the LORD, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

4

Nm 4

The Duties of the Families of the Levites Descended from Kohath

1 The LORD told Moses and Aaron: 2 "Among the descendants of Levi, take a census of the descendants of Kohath by their clans and their families! 3 Count all the men between thirty and fifty years of age who come on duty to work at the Tent of Meeting! 4 In the Tent of Meeting the work of the descendants of Kohath shall be the care of the most holy things! 5 When the camp is going to move, Aaron and his sons shall go in and take down the curtain that serves as a screen, and shall cover the Ark of the Testimony with it! 6 They shall put over the Ark a covering of dolphin-skin, shall spread over the top of that a cloth made entirely of purple wool, and shall insert the poles of the Ark! 7 They shall spread a cloth of purple wool over the table of the Presence and shall put on it the dishes, the basins, the offering-bowls, and the jars for the drink offerings! The bread that is regularly laid out shall also remain on it! 8 Then they shall spread over them a cloth that has been dyed red, shall cover this with a wrapper of dolphin skins, and shall insert the poles of the table! 9 Then they shall take a cloth of purple wool, and shall cover the lampstand that provides the light, its lamps, its snuffers, its fire-pans, and all the olive-oil containers with which the lamp is supplied! 10 They shall put the lampstand and all its accessories into a covering of dolphin skins and shall put it on the carrying frame! 11 They shall spread a cloth of purple wool over the golden altar, shall cover that with a wrapper of dolphin skins, and shall insert the poles of the altar! 12 They shall take all the utensils that are used for the ministering that is done in the holy place, shall put them in a cloth of purple wool, shall cover them with a wrapper of dolphin skins, and shall put them on the carrying frame! 13 They shall clear away the fatty ashes from the bronze altar, and shall spread a maroon woollen cloth over it! 14 Then they shall place on the altar all its utensils, with which ministry is performed on it, the fire-pans, the meat-forks, the fire-shovels, the bowls used for pouring, and all the utensils of the altar! They shall spread over it a covering of dolphin skins, and shall insert the poles of the altar! 15 After Aaron and his sons have finished covering the holy place, all the articles of the holy place, and the camp starts moving, then the descendants of Kohath shall come to carry them! However, they shall not touch anything holy, or they will die! These are the things in the Tent of Meeting that are carried by the descendants of Kohath.

16 "Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, shall be in charge of the olive-oil for the light, the fragrant perfumes, the regular grain-offering, and the anointing oil! He shall be in charge of the whole tabernacle and everything in it, the holy place and its equipment!"

17 The LORD told Moses and Aaron: 18 "Do not cut off the tribal clans of the Kohathites from the Levites! 19 Do this for them, so that they may live and not die when they come near the most holy things: Aaron and his sons shall go in and shall assign to each of them the work that he shall do and what he shall carry! 20 However, the Kohathites shall not go in to look at the holy things even for a moment, or they will die!"

The Duties of the Families of the Levites Descended from Gershon

21 The LORD told Moses: 22 "Take a census also of the descendants of Gershon by their families and their clans! 23 You shall count all the men from thirty to fifty years of age who come in to perform the service, to carry out the work at the Tent of Meeting! 24 This is the service of the Gershonite clans, the work that they shall do, and the loads that they shall carry. 25 They shall carry the curtain material of the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting, its covering, its outer covering made of dolphin skins, and the curtain for the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, 26 the curtains of the courtyard, and the curtain for the entrance at the gate of the courtyard, which surround the tabernacle and the altar, the ropes for them, and all the equipment used in their upkeep! The Gershonites shall attend to everything that needs to be done with these things! 27 Aaron and his sons shall supervise all the work of the descendants of Gershon, everything that they must carry, and everything that they must do! You shall assign to them the carrying of all the loads for which they are responsible! 28 This shall be the work of the Gershonite clans at the Tent of Meeting! Ithamar, the son of Aaron, the priest, shall supervise their duties!

The Duties of the Families of the Levites Descended from Merari

29 "You shall count the descendants of Merari by their clans and their families! 30 You shall count all the men from thirty to fifty years of age who enter the service, to carry out the work at the Tent of Meeting! 31 In all their work for the Tent of Meeting their duty shall be to carry the following: the planks of the tabernacle, its crossbars, its posts, its pedestals, 32 the posts of the surrounding courtyard, their pedestals, their tent-pegs, their ropes, with all their equipment, and all their accessories! You shall assign to each man by name the articles that he is required to carry! 33 This is the service of the Merarite clans in all the work they have to do in the Tent of Meeting. It shall be under the supervision of Ithamar, the son of Aaron, the priest!"

The Register of the Families Descended from Kohath

34 Moses, Aaron, and the leaders of the congregation counted the descendants of Kohath by their clans and their families, 35 all the men from thirty to fifty years of age who could come on duty to work in the Tent of Meeting. 36 Those who were counted according to their clans totalled two thousand, seven hundred and fifty. 37 This was the total of all those in the Kohathite clans who were serving in the Tent of Meeting. Moses and Aaron counted them as the LORD had commanded through Moses.

The Register of the Families Descended from Gershon

38 The descendants of Gershon were counted according to their clans and their families, 39 all the men from thirty to fifty years of age who entered the service to work in the Tent of Meeting. 40 Those who were counted according to their clans and their families totalled two thousand, six hundred and thirty. 41 This was the total of all those in the clans of the descendants of Gershon who were serving in the Tent of Meeting. Moses and Aaron counted them, as the LORD had commanded.

The Register of the Families Descended from Merari

42 The descendants of Merari were counted according to their clans and their families, 43 all the men from thirty to fifty years of age who could come on duty to work in the Tent of Meeting. 44 Those who were counted according to their clans totalled three thousand, two hundred. 45 This was the total of those in the clans of the descendants of Merari. Moses and Aaron counted them as the LORD had commanded through Moses.

46 All the Levites whom Moses, Aaron, and the leaders of Israel counted according to their clans and their families, 47 all the men from thirty to fifty years of age who came to do the work of serving and carrying the Tent of Meeting, totalled eight thousand, five hundred and eighty. 49 As the LORD had commanded through Moses, Moses assigned each man to his task of serving or carrying his load. So Moses counted them, as the LORD had commanded him.

5

Nm 5

The Instruction to Remove Unclean Persons outside the Camp — Compare Leviticus 15:1-33

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Command the Israelites to put outside the camp anyone who has an infectious skin-disease, everyone who has a discharge, and everyone who has become unclean through contact with a dead body! 3 You shall put them outside the camp, both male and female, that they may not defile their camps, among which I am dwelling!"

4 The Israelites did this, and put them outside the camp. The Israelites did just as the LORD had told Moses.

Confession and Restitution in order to Right Wrongs — Leviticus 6:1-7

5 The LORD told Moses: 6 Tell the Israelites: ‘When any man or woman does any of the sins that people commit, and so is unfaithful to the LORD, so that that person has become guilty, 7 he shall confess the sin that he has committed, and he shall make full restitution for his wrong! He shall also add one fifth to the restitution, and shall give it to the person whom he has wronged!

The Allocations to the Priests

8 "‘However, if the man has no close relative to whom restitution for the wrong can be made, the amount for the wrong that is being repaid shall belong to the LORD! It shall be given to the priest, in addition to the ram of the atonement, with which the priest makes atonement for him! 9 Any contribution among all the holy things of the Israelites, which they bring to the priest, shall belong to him! 10 Each person shall keep his holy donations! What any person gives to the priest shall belong to the priest!'"

Instruction about a Woman who is Suspected of Adultery

11 The LORD told Moses: 12 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘When any man's wife goes astray and is unfaithful to him, 13 and another man has intercourse with her, and this is hidden from her husband, and her impurity is not detected, and there is no witness against her, and she has not been caught in adultery, 14 if then feelings of jealousy come over her husband, and he suspects his wife when she has become unclean, or if feelings of jealousy come over him, and he suspects his wife although she has not become unclean, 15 the man shall bring his wife to the priest! He shall also bring four litres of barley flour, as the gift required for her! He shall not pour olive-oil on it and shall not put frankincense on it! For it is a grain-offering for jealousy, a grain-offering of confession of sin, which makes known some wrong. 16 The priest shall bring her forward and have her stand before the LORD! 17 Then the priest shall take holy water in a clay jar, and the priest shall take some dust that is on the floor of the tabernacle and shall put it in the water! 18 When the priest makes the woman stand before the LORD, he shall untie the hair of her head, and shall place in her hands the grain-offering for confession of sin, which is the grain-offering of jealousy! Meanwhile, the priest shall hold in his hand the bitter water, which brings a curse! 19 The priest shall make the woman take an oath, saying to her: "If no other man has had intercourse with you and you have not gone astray and become unclean while you have been married to your husband, be exempt from this bitter water, which brings a curse! 20 However, if you have gone astray while you have been married to your husband and have become unclean, and some man other than your husband had intercourse with you" — 21 here the priest shall have the woman swear and bind herself with the curse! The priest shall tell the woman: "May the LORD cause an imprecatory oath to be brought down against you among your people by making your thigh waste away and your abdomen swell up! 22 May this water, which brings a curse, go into your bowels to make your abdomen swell and make your thigh waste away!" Then the woman shall say, "Amen. So be it!"

23 "‘Then the priest shall write these curses on a scroll, and shall wash them off into the bitter water! 24 Then he shall make the woman drink the bitter water, which brings a curse! The water, which brings a curse, will enter her and cause bitter pain. 25 The priest shall take from the woman's hand the grain-offering of jealousy, shall move the grain-offering back and forth before the LORD, and shall take it to the altar! 26 The priest shall take a handful of the grain-offering as a memorial portion of it, and shall burn it on the altar! After that, he shall make the woman drink the water! 27 When he has made her drink the water, if she has become unclean by being unfaithful to her husband, the water that brings a curse will enter her and cause bitter pain. Her abdomen will swell, her thigh will waste away, and the woman will be accursed among her people. 28 However, if the woman has not defiled herself, but is pure, she will be exempt from the oath, and will be able to become pregnant.'"

29 This is the Law in cases of jealousy, when a woman goes astray while she is married to her husband, and defiles herself, 30 or when feelings of jealousy come over a man because he suspects his wife. He shall make the woman stand in the presence of the LORD, and the priest shall apply all of this Law to her! 31 The man shall be free from guilt, but the woman shall bear her own guilt!

6

Nm 6

Instructions about the Vow to Live as a Nazirite

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘When a man or a woman makes an extraordinary vow, a vow to be separate to the LORD as a Nazirite, 3 he shall abstain from wine and other intoxicating drink! He shall not drink any vinegar made from wine or from any other intoxicating drink! He shall not drink any kind of grape juice! He shall not eat any fresh grapes or raisins! 4 As long as he is consecrated as a Nazirite, he shall not eat anything made from the grapevine, not even unripe grapes or seeds and skins! 5 As long as he is under his consecration-vow, no razor shall be used on his head! He shall be holy and let the hair on his head grow long and loose until the period for which he has accepted the obligations of a Nazirite to the LORD is over! 6 Throughout the period for which he accepts the obligations of a Nazirite to the LORD he shall not go near a dead body! 7 He shall not make himself ceremonially unclean for his father, mother, brother, or sister when they die, because his consecration to God is on his head! 8 Throughout the period of his consecration he shall be holy to the LORD!

9 "‘When somebody near him dies very suddenly and makes his consecrated head unclean, he shall shave his head on the day when he is purified! He shall shave it on the seventh day! 10 On the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons to the priest at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting! 11 The priest shall prepare the one as a sin-offering and the other as a burnt offering and shall make atonement for him because he has sinned in connection with the dead body! He shall consecrate his head on the same day! 12 He shall accept the obligations of a Nazirite to the LORD for the period for which he was consecrated! He shall also bring a one-year-old male lamb as a guilt-offering! The first period shall lapse, because his consecration has become unclean!

13 "‘This also is the Law for the Nazirite when the period of his consecration is over: He shall proceed to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, 14 and he shall offer, as his gift to the LORD, a one-year-old male lamb without blemish as a burnt offering, a one-year-old female lamb without blemish as a sin-offering, and one ram without blemish as a peace-offering, 15 a basket of bread without yeast, ring-shaped loaves of fine wheat flour, mixed with olive-oil, and wafers without yeast smeared with olive-oil, together with their grain-offering and their drink offerings! 16 The priest shall present these before the LORD and shall prepare his sin-offering and his burnt offering! 17 He shall prepare the ram as a peace-offering to the LORD together with the basket of bread without yeast! The priest shall also prepare its grain-offering and its drink offering! 18 Then the Nazirite shall shave his consecrated head at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting! He shall take the hair of his head, which he had consecrated, and shall put it on the fire that is under the peace-offering! 19 After the Nazirite has shaved the hair from his consecrated head, the priest shall take a boiled shoulder of the ram, one ring-shaped loaf of bread without yeast from the basket, and one wafer without yeast, and shall put them in the hands of the Nazirite! 20 The priest shall move them back and forth as a wave offering before the LORD! They shall be holy and shall belong to the priest, together with the brisket of the wave offering and the hind leg that has been contributed! After that, the Nazirite may drink wine.'"

21 This is the Law for the Nazirite. However, if he vows an offering to the LORD in addition to his Nazirite vow, as something else that he can afford, he shall do it in addition to the Law for the Nazirite in exact accordance with the vow that he takes!

The Blessing of the Israelites by Aaron and his Sons

22 The LORD told Moses, 23 "Speak to Aaron and his sons, saying, ‘This is how you shall bless the people of Israel. Say to them: 24 "The LORD bless you and keep you! 25 The LORD make His face shine on you and be gracious to you! 26 The LORD look on you with favour and give you peace!"

27 "‘In this way they will put My name on the people of Israel, and I shall bless them.'"

7

Nm 7

Offerings from the Leaders of each Tribe for the Dedication of the Tent of Meeting and the Altar

1 On the day when Moses had finished setting up the tabernacle and had anointed and consecrated it and all its equipment, the altar and all its utensils, which he had also anointed and consecrated, 2 the leaders of Israel, the heads of their families, who had been the tribal leaders in charge of the census, came forward. 3 They brought, as their gifts before the LORD, six covered wagons and twelve oxen, a wagon for each two leaders, and an ox for each one of them. They presented them in front of the tabernacle.

4 The LORD told Moses: 5 "Take these from them and let them be used for doing the work at the Tent of Meeting! You shall give them to the Levites, as each man needs them for his work!"

6 So Moses took the wagons and the oxen and gave them to the Levites. 7 He gave two wagons and four oxen to the descendants of Gershon for the work that they had to do. 8 He gave four wagons and eight oxen to the descendants of Merari for the work they had to do under the supervision of Ithamar, the son of Aaron, the priest. 9 However, he did not give any to the descendants of Kohath, because their work involved responsibility for the holy things, which they used to carry on their shoulders.

10 When the altar was anointed, the leaders also presented gifts to dedicate it. So the leaders presented their gift in front of the altar. 11 The LORD told Moses, "A different leader on each day shall present his gift to dedicate the altar."

12 The one who presented his gift on the first day was Nahshon, the son of Amminadab from the tribe of Judah. 13 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram and five hundred and sixty grams, and one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil, for a grain-offering, 14 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 15 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 16 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 17 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Nahshon, the son of Amminadab.

18 On the second day Nethanel, the son of Zuar, the leader of Issachar, presented his gift. 19 He presented, as his gift, one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, and one silver sprinkling-basin weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil, for a grain-offering, 20 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 21 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 22 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 23 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Nethanel, the son of Zuar.

24 On the third day, the leader of the descendants of Zebulun, Eliab, the son of Helon, presented his gift. 25 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil, for a grain-offering, 26 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 27 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 28 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 29 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Eliab, the son of Helon.

30 On the fourth day, the leader of the descendants of Reuben, Elizur, the son of Shedeur, presented his gift. 31 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil, for a grain-offering, 32 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 33 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 34 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 35 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Elizur, the son of Shedeur.

36 On the fifth day the leader of the descendants of Simeon, Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai, presented his gift. 37 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil, for a grain-offering, 38 one gold basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 39 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 40 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 41 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai.

42 On the sixth day the leader of the descendants of Gad, Eliasaph, the son of Deuel, presented his gift. 43 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil, for a grain-offering, 44 one gold basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 45 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 46 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 47 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Eliasaph, the son of Deuel.

48 On the seventh day the leader of the descendants of Ephraim, Elishama, the son of Ammihud, presented his gift. 49 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil, for a grain-offering, 50 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 51 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 52 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 53 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Elishama, the son of Ammihud.

54 On the eighth day the leader of the descendants of Manasseh, Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur, presented his gift. 55 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, and one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil for a grain-offering, 56 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 57 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 58 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 59 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur.

60 On the ninth day the leader of the descendants of Benjamin, Abidan, the son of Gideoni, presented his gift. 61 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, and one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil for a grain-offering, 62 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 63 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 64 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 65 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Abidan, the son of Gideoni.

66 On the tenth day the leader of the descendants of Dan, Ahiezer, the son of Ammishaddai, brought his gift. 67 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, and one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil for a grain-offering, 68 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 69 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 70 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 71 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Ahiezer, the son of Ammishaddai.

72 On the eleventh day the leader of the descendants of Asher, Pagiel, the son of Ocran, presented his gift. 73 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, and one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil for a grain-offering, 74 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 75 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 76 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 77 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Pagiel, the son of Ocran.

78 On the twelfth day the leader of the descendants of Naphtali, Ahira, the son of Enan, presented his gift. 79 His gift was one silver dish weighing one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, and one silver bowl used for pouring weighing eight hundred and forty grams, according to the weight used in the holy place, both of which were filled with fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil for a grain-offering, 80 one golden basin weighing one hundred and twenty grams, filled with incense, 81 one young bull from the herd, one ram, and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering, 82 one male goat, for a sin-offering, 83 and, for a peace-offering, two bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five male lambs a year old. This was the gift of Ahira, the son of Enan.

84 This was the gift of the leaders of Israel to dedicate the altar at the time when it was anointed: twelve silver dishes, twelve silver sprinkling-basins, and twelve golden basins. 85 Each silver dish weighed one kilogram, five hundred and sixty grams, and each bowl used for pouring weighed eight hundred and forty grams. The total weight of the silver vessels was twenty-eight kilograms and eight hundred grams, according to the weight used in the holy place. 86 Each of the twelve golden basins filled with incense weighed one hundred and twenty grams according to the weight used in the holy place. The total weight of the golden basins was one kilogram, four hundred and forty grams. 87 The total number of the animals for burnt offerings was twelve young bulls from the herd, twelve rams, twelve male lambs a year old, with their grain-offerings, and twelve male goats for sin-offerings. 88 The total number of the animals for peace-offerings was twenty-four bulls, sixty rams, sixty male goats, and sixty male lambs a year old. This was the gift to dedicate the altar after it was anointed.

89 When Moses entered the Tent of Meeting to speak with God, he heard the Voice speaking to him from above the propitiatory cover that was on the Ark of the Testimony, from between the two cherubim. Then God spoke to him.

8

Nm 8

The Arrangement of the Seven Lamps in the Tent of Meeting — Exodus 25:31-40

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Speak to Aaron and tell him: ‘When you set up the lamps, the seven lamps shall throw their light towards the front of the lampstand!'"

3 Aaron did that. He set up the lamps in such a way that they faced toward the front of the lampstand, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

4 This is how the lampstand was made: It was made of hammered gold. It was hammered work from its foot to its flower-shaped ornaments. Moses made the lampstand according to the pattern that the LORD had shown him.

The Preparation of the Levites to Serve at the Tent of Meeting

5 The LORD told Moses: 6 "Take the Levites from among the other Israelites and make them ceremonially clean! 7 You shall do this to make them clean: Sprinkle on them the water that purifies from sin, and they shall shave their whole bodies, wash their clothes, and so purify themselves! 8 They shall take from the herd a young bull with its grain-offering of fine wheat flour mixed with olive-oil, and you shall take a second young bull from the herd for a sin-offering! 9 Then you shall bring the Levites forward to the front of the Tent of Meeting, and gather together the whole congregation of the Israelites! 10 You shall present the Levites before the LORD, and the Israelites shall lay their hands on the Levites! 11 Aaron shall present the Levites before the LORD as a wave offering from the Israelites so that they may become men who perform the service of the LORD! 12 Then the Levites shall lay their hands on the heads of the young bulls from the herd, and prepare the one as a sin-offering and the other as a burnt offering to the LORD to make atonement for the Levites! 13 You shall then make the Levites stand before Aaron and his sons, and present them as a wave offering to the LORD! 14 In this way you shall separate the Levites from the other Israelites, that the Levites may be Mine! 15 After that, the Levites shall go in to serve at the Tent of Meeting! In this way you shall purify them and present them as a wave offering! 16 For they have been completely given to Me from among the rest of the Israelites. I have taken them to be My own instead of all the firstborn, the first male offspring from all the Israelite women. 17 For every firstborn male among the Israelites, whether human being or animal, is Mine. On the day when I struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt I consecrated them to be Mine. 18 I have taken the Levites instead of all the firstborn among the Israelites. 19 I have completely given the Levites from among the Israelites to belong to Aaron and his sons, to perform the service of the Israelites in the Tent of Meeting, and to make atonement for the Israelites, so that there may be no plague among the Israelites when the Israelites approach the holy place."

20 Moses, Aaron, and the whole congregation of Israel did to the Levites exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses concerning the Levites. This is what the Israelites did to them. 21 The Levites purified themselves from sin and washed their clothes. Then Aaron presented them as a wave offering before the LORD, and Aaron made atonement for them to make them ceremonially clean. 22 After that, the Levites went in to perform their service at the Tent of Meeting under the supervision of Aaron and his sons. So they did to the Levites just as the LORD had commanded Moses about them.

Instructions about Retirement for the Levites

23 The LORD told Moses: 24 "This shall apply to the Levites: Everyone twenty-five years old and more shall come in to do duty in the work at the Tent of Meeting! 25 However, when he is fifty years old, he shall retire from serving in this work, and shall not serve any more! 26 He may assist the other Levites in performing their duties at the Tent of Meeting, but he shall not perform any service! This is how you shall deal with the Levites regarding their responsibilities!"

9

Nm 9

The Observance at Mount Sinai of the Second Passover — Compare Exodus 12:1-20

1 The LORD spoke to Moses in the Wilderness of Sinai in the first month of the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt. He said, 2 "The Israelites shall celebrate the Passover at the time appointed for it! 3 You shall celebrate it at the time appointed for it, at twilight on the fourteenth day of this month! You shall celebrate it according to all the Statutes for it, and all the Decisions about it!"

4 So Moses told the Israelites to celebrate the Passover, 5 and they celebrated the Passover in the Wilderness of Sinai at twilight on the fourteenth day of the first month. The Israelites did exactly as the LORD had commanded Moses.

6 However, when there were some men who had become unclean by touching the dead body of a human being, so that they could not celebrate the Passover on that day, they came before Moses and Aaron that day. 7 These men told him: "We are ceremonially unclean because we have touched a human corpse. However, why should we be disadvantaged, so that we may not offer the gift of the LORD at the appointed time together with the rest of the Israelites?"

8 Moses answered them, "Wait here, until I find out what the LORD will command about you!"

9 The LORD told Moses: 10 "Tell the Israelites, ‘When anyone of you or your descendants becomes unclean by touching a dead body or is far away on a journey, he shall celebrate the Passover of the LORD! 11 Such people shall celebrate it at twilight on the fourteenth day of the second month! They shall eat it together with bread without yeast and with bitter herbs! 12 They shall not leave any of it until morning and shall not break any bone in it! They shall celebrate the Passover according to all the Statutes for it! 13 However, if a man is ceremonially clean and not on a journey and yet fails to celebrate the Passover, that person shall be cut off from his people! For he has not offered his gift to the LORD at the time appointed for it. That man shall bear the consequences of his sin! 14 When a foreigner is living among you and celebrates the Passover of the LORD, he shall celebrate it according to the Statute for the Passover and according to the specifications for it! You shall apply the same Statute for the foreigner as for the Israelite born in the land!"

God's Leading of the Israelites in the Wilderness by the Cloud and the Fire — Exodus 13:21-22; Exodus 40:34-38

15 On the day when the tabernacle was set up, the cloud covered the tabernacle, the tent of the Testimony. From evening until morning the cloud used to look like fire above the tabernacle. 16 It continued to be like that. The cloud used to cover it, and at night it looked like fire. 17 Whenever the cloud rose from above the tent the Israelites used to set out, and wherever it settled the Israelites used to pitch camp. 18 When the LORD gave His command, the Israelites used to set out, and when the LORD gave His command they used to pitch camp. They used to remain in camp for as long as the cloud stayed over the tabernacle. 19 When the cloud remained over the tabernacle for a long time, the Israelites observed the commandment of the LORD and did not break camp. 20 Sometimes, when the cloud used to stay over the tabernacle for only a few days, they used to remain in the camp, at the direction of the LORD; and, when the LORD directed them, they used to break camp. 21 Sometimes the cloud stayed from evening until morning. When the cloud rose in the morning, they used to break camp. Whether it was by day or by night, whenever the cloud rose they used to break camp. 22 Whether the cloud remained over the tabernacle for two days or a month or a longer time, the Israelites used to stay in camp and did not set out, but when it rose, they used to break camp. 23 They used to camp at the direction of the LORD, and they used to set out at the direction of the LORD. They observed what the LORD commanded them to do, according to the direction that the LORD gave through Moses.

10

Nm 10

The Use of Two Silver Trumpets to Give Signals

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Make yourself two trumpets! You shall make them by hammering them out of silver, that you may use them to call the congregation together and to tell the camps when to set out! 3 When both of them are blown, the whole congregation shall gather around you at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting! 4 If only a single trumpet is blown, the leaders, the heads of the tribes of Israel, shall gather before you! 5 When an alarm is blown, the camps that are situated on the eastern side shall set out! 6 When you blow a second alarm, the camps that are situated on the southern side shall set out! The blowing of an alarm shall signal them to set out! 7 However, when you call the assembly together, you shall give a trumpet blast without sounding an alarm! 8 The sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow the trumpets! The trumpets shall be a permanent Statute for you throughout your coming generations! 9 When you go into battle in your own country against an enemy who is oppressing you, you shall blow the alarm on the trumpets! Then you will be remembered before the LORD, your God, and you will be saved from your enemies. 10 In addition, on the days when you are rejoicing, on your appointed festivals, and on your New Moon festivals, you shall blow the trumpets over your burnt offerings and your peace-offerings! The blowing of trumpets shall be a memorial before your God! I am the LORD, your God."

The Departure of the Israelites from Mount Sinai

11 On the twentieth day of the second month of the second year, the cloud rose from above the tabernacle of the Testimony. 12 So the Israelites set out on their stages from the Wilderness of Sinai, until the cloud settled down in the Wilderness of Paran. 13 They broke camp, this first time, according to the Command of the LORD through Moses. 14 The tribal division of the camp of Judah set out first, in their military companies. Nahshon, the son of Amminadab, was in command of its military force. 15 Nethanel, the son of Zuar, was in command of the military division of the tribe of Issachar. 16 EIiab, the son of Helon, was in command of the division of the tribe of Zebulun. 17 The tabernacle was then taken down, and the descendants of Gershon and of Merari set out, carrying the tabernacle. 18 Then the tribal division of the camp of Reuben set out in their military divisions. Elizur, the son of Shedeur, was in command of its force. 19 Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai, was in command of the military division of the tribe of Simeon. 20 Eliasaph, the son of Deuel, was in charge of the military division of the tribe of Gad. 21 Then the descendants of Kohath set out, carrying the holy things. They set up the tabernacle before the rest arrived. 22 Then the tribal division of the camp of Ephraim set out in their military divisions. Elishama, the son of Ammihud, was in charge of its force. 23 Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur, was in charge of the military division of the tribe of Manasseh. 24 Abidan, the son of Gideoni, was in charge of the military division of the tribe of Benjamin. 25 Then the tribal division of the camp of Dan used to form the rear-guard for all the camps in their military divisions. Ahiezer, the son of Ammishaddai, was in charge of its force. 26 Pagiel, the son of Ocran, was in charge of the military division of the tribe of Asher. 27 Ahira, the son of Enan, was in charge of the military division of the tribe of Naphtali. 28 This was the order of departure when the Israelites set out in their military divisions when they broke camp.

29 Moses told Hobab, the son of his father-in-law Reuel, the Midianite: "We are setting out for the place about which the LORD promised, ‘I shall give it to you.' Come along with us! We shall treat you well. For the LORD has promised good things to Israel."

30 However, Hobab answered him, "I shall not go. Rather, I shall go to my own land and to my relatives."

31 Moses said: "Please do not leave us! For, because you know the places in the wilderness where we can camp, you should be our guide! 32 If you come with us, we shall treat you well with the same good things with which the LORD treats us well."

33 So they set out from the mountain of the LORD and travelled for three days. The Ark of the Covenant of the LORD went ahead of them during that journey of three days, to search for a place for them to rest. 34 The cloud of the LORD was above them during the day when they set out from the camp.

35 When the Ark set out, Moses used to say: "Rise up, O LORD! May Your enemies be scattered, and may those who hate You flee before You!" 36 When it came to rest, he used to say: "Return, O LORD, to the large numbers of the clans of Israel!"

11

Nm 11

The People's Craving for Meat to Eat

1 When the people complained about their misfortunes, the LORD heard it and was displeased. The anger of the LORD flared out, and fire from the LORD blazed up among them, and consumed some outlying parts of the camp. 2 When the people cried out to Moses, Moses prayed to the LORD, and the fire died down. 3 So that place was named "Taberah,"*67 because the fire of the LORD had been burning among them.

4 The non-Israelite rabble among them began to have a strong craving, and the Israelites wept again, and said: "If only we had meat to eat! 5 We remember the fish that we ate freely in Egypt, the cucumbers, the watermelons, the leeks, the onions, and the garlic. 6 Now, however, our appetites are shrivelled. There is nothing but this manna to look at!"

7 The manna was like coriander seed and it looked like a gum resin. 8 The people used to go around and gather it, grind it in hand-mills or crush it in mortars, boil it in cooking-pots, and make bread-cakes with it. It tasted like cakes baked with olive-oil. 9 When the dew fell on the camp at night, the manna fell with it.

10 Moses heard the people weeping in their family groups, everyone at the door of his tent. The LORD became exceedingly angry, and Moses was upset. 11 Moses asked the LORD: "Why have You brought trouble on Your servant, and why are You not kindly disposed towards me? You are placing the burden of all these people on me! 12 Have I fathered all these people? Have I given birth to them, that You should tell me: ‘Carry them in your arms, like a nurse carrying a baby, to the land that You have promised by an oath to their fathers'? 13 Where can I get meat to give to all these people? For they are weeping beside me, and saying, ‘Give us meat to eat!' 14 I alone am unable to carry all these people. For they are too heavy for me. 15 If You are going to treat me like this, and if You are kindly disposed towards me, please just kill me outright, and let me not look at my misery!"

The Appointment of Seventy Elders to Help Moses

16 The LORD answered Moses: "Gather together for Me seventy men from the elders of Israel, whom you know to be elders of the people and officers over them! Bring them to the Tent of Meeting, that they may stand there with you! 17 I shall come down and speak with you there. I shall take some of the Spirit that is on you and I shall put it on them. They will carry the burden of the people with you, so that you may not carry it alone. 18 You shall also tell the people: ‘Consecrate yourselves for tomorrow! You will eat meat. For you have been weeping in the hearing of the LORD and asking: "Who will give us meat to eat? For we were better off in Egypt." The LORD will give you meat to eat. 19 You will not eat it for one day or for two days or for five days or for ten days or for twenty days. 20 Rather, you will eat it for a whole month, until it comes out of your nostrils and you become sick of it, because you have been rejecting the LORD, who is among you, and have been weeping before Him, asking: "Why did we ever come out of Egypt?"'"

21 Moses said: "The people who are with me number six hundred thousand men on foot, and yet You have said, ‘I shall give them meat to eat for a whole month!' 22 Could flocks and herds be slaughtered for them, and would they be enough for them? Or could all the fish in the sea be caught for them, and would they be enough for them?"

23 However, the LORD asked Moses: "Is the arm of the LORD too short? Now you will see whether what I have said will come true for you or not."

The Descent of the Spirit on Seventy Elders

24 So Moses went out and told the people what the LORD had said. He also gathered seventy men from the elders of the people and made them stand around the tent. 25 Then the LORD came down in a cloud and spoke to him, and He took some of the Spirit who was on Moses and put Him on the seventy elders. When the Spirit rested on them, they prophesied, but they did not continue to do it. 26 Two men, the one named Eldad, and the other named Medad, had remained in the camp. The Spirit also rested on them. They had been among those who had been listed, but had not gone out to the tent. However, they prophesied in the camp.

27 Then a young man ran and told Moses, "Eldad and Medad are prophesying in the camp!"

28 Joshua, the son of Nun, who had been Moses' assistant since he had been a young man, spoke up and said, "My master, Moses, stop them!"

29 Moses asked him: "Are you jealous for my sake? I wish that all the people of the LORD were prophets, and that the LORD would put His Spirit on them!"

30 Then Moses and the elders of Israel went back to the camp.

The Sending of Quails around the Camp

31 Then a wind from the LORD sprang up and drove quails in from the sea. It threw them down over the camp about a day's walk in any direction around the camp, about one metre above the surface of the ground. 32 The people went out, and all that day and night and all the next day they gathered the quails. The one who gathered the least collected thirty-eight litres. They kept spreading them out for themselves around the camp.

The Sending of a Plague

33 The meat was still between their teeth and not yet chewed up, when the anger of the LORD burned against the people, and the LORD struck the people down with a very severe plague. 34 That place was named "Kibroth-Hattaavah,"*68 because there they buried the people who had been craving for other food.

31 From Kibroth-Hattaavah the people journeyed to Hazeroth, and then they stayed at Hazeroth.

12

Nm 12

The Opposition of Miriam and Aaron to Moses

1 Miriam and Aaron criticised Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married. For Moses had married a Cushite woman.

2 They asked: "Can it be that the LORD has spoken only through Moses? Has He not also spoken through us?"

The LORD heard this. 3 Now Moses was a very humble man, more humble than anyone else on the surface of the earth. 4 Suddenly the LORD spoke to Moses, Aaron, and Miriam: "Come out, you three, to the Tent of Meeting!"

So the three of them went out. 5 Then the LORD came down in the pillar of a cloud and stood at the entrance of the tent. He called, "Aaron and Miriam!"

So the two of them went out to him. 6 He said: "Please listen to what I say! If you have a prophet, I, the LORD, make Myself known to him in a vision. I speak to him in a dream. 7 This is not so with My servant Moses. He is faithful in My whole family. 8 I speak to him face to face, clearly, and not in riddles. He sees the form of the LORD. Why, then, have you not been afraid to speak against My servant Moses?"

9 The anger of the LORD burned against them, and He departed. 10 When the cloud had moved away from the tent, Miriam was seen to be struck with an infectious skin-disease, as white as snow. Aaron turned to Miriam and saw that she had been struck with a skin-disease. 11 Aaron asked Moses: "With your permission, please do not hold this sin against us! We have proved ourselves foolish, and we have sinned by what we have done. 12 Please do not let her be like a stillborn infant, who comes from its mother's womb with its flesh half eaten away!"

13 Moses cried out to the LORD, "Please, God, please heal her!"

14 The LORD told Moses: "If her father had only spit in her face, would she not be in disgrace for seven days? Let her be shut outside of the camp for seven days! After that she may be brought in again."

15 So Miriam was shut outside the camp for seven days, and the people did not set out on the march until Miriam had been brought in again. 16 After that the people set out from Hazeroth, and pitched camp in the Wilderness of Paran.

13

Nm 13

The Sending of Twelve Spies into Canaan — Deuteronomy 1:19-33

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Send some men to spy out the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the Israelites! You shall send one man from each ancestral tribe! Each one shall be one of their leaders!"

3 So Moses sent them from the Wilderness of Paran, as the LORD had commanded him. All of them were leaders of the Israelites. 4 These were their names: from the tribe of Reuben, Shammua, the son of Zaccur; 5 from the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat, the son of Hori; 6 from the tribe of Judah, Caleb, the son of Jephunneh; 7 from the tribe of Issachar, Igal, the son of Joseph; 8 from the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea, the son of Nun; 9 from the tribe of Benjamin, Palti, the son of Raphu; 10 from the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel, the son of Sodi; 11 from the tribe of Joseph, that is, from the tribe of Manasseh, Gaddi, the son of Susi; 12 from the tribe of Dan, Ammiel, the son of Gemalli; 13 from the tribe of Asher, Sethur, the son of Michael; 14 from the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi, the son of Vophsi; 15 from the tribe of Gad, Geuel, the son of Machi. 16 These were the names of the men whom Moses sent to spy out the land. Moses called Hoshea, the son of Nun, "Joshua."

17 When Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan, he told them: "Go up here through the Negev, and then go up into the hill-country! 18 See what the land is like! See whether the people who are living there are strong or feeble, few or many! 19 See whether the land in which they are living is good or bad! See whether the cities in which they are living are camps or fortified places! 20 See whether the soil is fertile or lean! See whether there are trees there or not! Have courage, and bring back some of the fruit of the land!"

It was the season for the first ripe grapes. 21 So they went up and spied out the land from the Wilderness of Zin to Rehob, near the entrance to Hamath. 22 They went up through the Negev and came to Hebron, where Ahiman, Sheshai and Talmai, the descendants of Anak, lived (Hebron had been built seven years before Zoan in Egypt). 23 When they reached the Valley of Eshcol,*69 they cut off a branch there with a single cluster of grapes, and two of them carried it on a pole. They also brought some pomegranates and some figs. 24 That place was called "the Valley of Eshcol" because of the cluster of grapes that the Israelites had cut off there.

25 Forty days later they came back from spying out the land. 26 They came to Moses and Aaron and the whole congregation of the Israelites at Kadesh in the Wilderness of Paran. They brought them and the whole congregation a report, and showed them the fruit of the land. 27 They reported to Moses: "We came to the land to which you sent us, and it truly does flow with milk and honey. Here is some of its fruit. 28 Nevertheless, the people who are living in the land are strong, and the cities are fortified and very large. We even saw the descendants of Anak there. 29 The Amalekites are living in the Negev. The Hittites, the Jebusites, and the Amorites are living in the hill-country, and the Canaanites are living near the sea and beside the bank of the Jordan."

30 However, Caleb silenced the people in front of Moses. He said: "Let us by all means go up and take possession of the land! For we shall certainly be able to conquer it."

31 Nevertheless, the men who had gone up with him said: "We shall not be able to attack the people. For they are stronger than we are."

32 They spread among the Israelites an untruthful report about the land that they had spied out. They said: "The land, through which we have passed, and which we have been spying out, is one that devours those who are living there. All the people we saw in it are unusually tall. 33 We saw the Nephilim there. The sons of Anak have descended from the Nephilim. We felt like locusts, and we seemed like locusts to them."

14

Nm 14

The Rebellion of the People

1 Then the whole congregation broke into loud crying, and the people wept that night. 2 All the Israelites grumbled against Moses and Aaron. The whole congregation told them: "If only we had died in the land of Egypt! Or if only we had died in this wilderness! 3 Why is the LORD bringing us into this land just to fall by the sword? Our wives and little ones will be taken as plunder! Would it not be better for us to go back to Egypt?"

4 They said to one another, "Let us appoint a leader and let us go back to Egypt!"

5 Moses and Aaron fell facedown in front of the whole assembly of the congregation of the Israelites. 6 Joshua, the son of Nun, and Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, who had been among those who had spied out the land, tore their clothes. 7 They told the whole congregation of the Israelites: "The land through which we passed, and which we spied out, is good! The land is very, very good! 8 If the LORD takes pleasure in us, He will bring us into this land. He will give it to us, a land that flows with milk and honey. 9 Only do not rebel against the LORD! You should not be afraid of the people of the land! For we can eat them like bread. Their protection has left them. The LORD is with us. Do not be afraid of them!"

10 However, the whole congregation talked about stoning them. Then the glory of the LORD appeared to all the Israelites at the Tent of Meeting. 11 The LORD asked Moses: "How long will these people scornfully reject Me? How long are they going to refuse to believe in Me, in spite of all the miraculous signs that I have been performing among them? 12 I shall strike them down with a plague and disinherit them. Then I shall make you into a greater and mightier nation than they are."

Moses' Intercession for the Israelites

13 Nevertheless, Moses replied to the LORD: "Then the Egyptians will hear about this! For by Your power You have brought these people up from among them. 14 They will tell the inhabitants of this land about it. They have already heard that You, the LORD, are among the Israelites, that You, O LORD, have been appearing face to face, that Your cloud is standing over them, and that You are going before them in a pillar of cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night. 15 If You kill all these people as one man, then the nations who have been hearing this report about You will say: 16 ‘Because the LORD has not been able to bring these people into the land that He had sworn to give them, He has slaughtered them in the wilderness.' 17 Now then, please let the strength of my Lord be great! You promised just this when You said: 18 ‘The LORD is slow to become angry and abounding in mercy. He forgives wrongdoing and rebellion. He certainly does not declare anyone exempt from punishment. He avenges the wrongdoing of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generation.' 19 Please forgive the wrongdoing of these people, according to Your great mercy, and as You have been pardoning this people from Egypt even until now!"

God's Threat of Judgment on the Israelites

20 Then the LORD said: "I have forgiven them, as you have asked. 21 Nevertheless, as surely as I live, and as surely as the glory of the LORD will fill the whole earth, 22 truly, none of the men who have seen My glory and the miraculous signs that I have performed in Egypt and in the wilderness, and yet have put Me to the test ten times, and have been refusing to obey Me, 23 will see the land that I promised with an oath to their fathers. None of those who are scornfully rejecting Me will see it. 24 However, I shall take My servant Caleb into the land to which he has gone because he has had a different spirit in him, and he has followed Me fully. His descendants will also take possession of it. 25 Since the Amalekites and Canaanites are living in the valleys, turn and set out toward the wilderness tomorrow, along the road to the Red Sea!"

The Condemnation to Forty Years of Wandering in the Wilderness

26 Then the LORD asked Moses and Aaron: 27 "How long shall I put up with this wicked congregation, which keeps on grumbling against Me? I have been hearing the complaints that the Israelites are making against Me. 28 Tell them: ‘As surely as I live,' the LORD has said, ‘I shall certainly do to you what I heard you saying! 29 Your bodies will fall dead in this wilderness. Because you have been grumbling against Me, absolutely none of you who were counted in your entire census, from twenty years old and more, 30 will enter the land where I swore with a raised hand I would let you live, except Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, and Joshua, the son of Nun. 31 As for your little ones, who, you said, would be taken as plunder, I shall bring them in, so that they become acquainted with the land that you have rejected. 32 However, your own bodies will fall in this wilderness. 33 Your children will be shepherds in the wilderness for forty years. They will suffer because of your unfaithfulness, until the last of your bodies have died in the wilderness. 34 You will suffer for your offences according to the number of days during which you spied out the land. You spied for forty days. You will suffer a year for each day, for forty years. You will experience My opposition. 35 I, the LORD, have spoken. I shall certainly do this to this whole wicked congregation, which has banded together against Me. They will perish in this wilderness, and there they will die.'"

36 Therefore the men whom Moses had sent to spy out the land, who had returned and made the whole congregation grumble against him by spreading an untruthful report about the land, 37 these men, who had authored the bad report about the land, died of a plague before the LORD. 38 Only Joshua, the son of Nun, and Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, survived out of those men, after they had gone to spy out the land.

The Unauthorised Attempt to Enter Canaan and its Defeat — Deuteronomy 1:41-45

39 When Moses reported this to all the Israelites, the people mourned bitterly. 40 They got up early the next morning and went up to the top of the hill-country. They said, "Here we are. We shall go up to the place that the LORD has promised. For we have sinned."

41 However, Moses asked: "Why then do you keep on transgressing against the Command of the LORD? This will not be successful! 42 Do not go up! For the LORD is not among you. Desist, so that your enemies may not defeat you! 43 For the Amalekites and the Canaanites are there to face you, and you will fall by the sword. For the LORD will not be with you, because you have turned away from following the LORD."

44 Nevertheless, they had the audacity to go up to the top of the hill-country, although neither the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD nor Moses left the camp. 45 Then the Amalekites and Canaanites who were living in that hill-country came down, defeated them, and scattered them as far as Hormah.

15

Nm 15

Instructions about the Offering of Grain and Wine with Sacrifices

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘When you come into the land where you will live, which I am giving to you, 3 and you prepare an offering made by fire to the LORD, from the herd or the flock, either a burnt offering, or a sacrifice to fulfil a vow, or a freewill offering, or an offering at your appointed festivals, in order to make a soothing aroma to the LORD, 4 then the one who presents his gift shall also offer to the LORD, as a grain-offering, four litres of fine wheat flour mixed with one litre of olive-oil! 5 You shall also prepare, as a drink offering, one litre of wine for each lamb as an addition to the burnt offering or the sacrifice! 6 If it is an addition to a ram, you shall prepare, as a grain-offering, eight litres of fine wheat flour mixed with one litre and two hundred and seventy millilitres of olive-oil! 7 You shall also offer, for a drink offering, one litre and two hundred and seventy millilitres of wine, as a soothing aroma to the LORD!

8 "‘When you prepare a young bull as a burnt offering, or as a sacrifice to fulfil a vow, or as a peace-offering to the LORD, 9 twelve litres of fine wheat flour mixed with two litres of olive-oil shall be offered as an addition to the young bull! 10 You shall also present two litres of wine as a drink offering! It will be a sacrifice made by fire as a soothing aroma to the LORD. 11 Each bull, each ram, each lamb, or each young goat shall be prepared in this manner! 12 Whatever number you prepare, you shall do this for each one of them! 13 Every native-born Israelite shall do these things in this way when he presents a sacrifice made by fire for a soothing aroma to the LORD! 14 When a stranger is residing among you or when anyone else is living permanently among you in your coming generations, and he prepares a sacrifice made by fire, as a soothing aroma to the LORD, he shall do it in the same way as you do it! 15 The same Statute shall apply to your congregation and to the foreigner who is residing among you! The same Statute shall apply permanently throughout your coming generations! The foreigner shall be as you are before the LORD! 16 The same Law and the same Regulation shall apply both to you and to the stranger who is residing among you!'"

The Requirement to Give the First Dough to God

17 The LORD told Moses: 18 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them: ‘When you come into the land to which I am bringing you, 19 and when you eat any of the bread of the land, you shall present a contribution to the LORD! 20 You shall present a ring-shaped loaf from the first of your dough as a contribution, and you shall present it as a contribution from the threshing floor! 21 You shall give some of the first of your dough as a contribution to the LORD throughout your coming generations!

Offerings after Unintentional Sins

22 "‘When you do wrong involuntarily by failing to observe any of these Commandments, which the LORD has spoken to Moses — 23 any of the Commandments that the LORD has given you through Moses, from the day when the LORD gave His Commandments and then on throughout your coming generations — 24 if it has been committed inadvertently and the congregation has not been aware of it, the whole congregation shall prepare one young bull from the herd as a burnt offering, as a soothing aroma to the LORD! You shall prepare it with its accompanying grain-offering and drink offering, as prescribed, and one male goat as a sin-offering! 25 The priest shall make atonement for the whole congregation of the Israelites! Then they will be forgiven. For the sin had been unintentional, and they had presented their gift as a sacrifice made by fire to the LORD, and had brought their sin-offering before the LORD because of their unintentional sin. 26 So the whole congregation of the Israelites will be forgiven, together with the foreigner who is living among them. For all the people had been involved in the unintentional wrong.

27 "‘However, if one person sins unintentionally, he shall present a one-year old female goat as a sin-offering! 28 The priest shall make atonement before the LORD for the person who has sinned inadvertently! When the priest has made atonement for him, he will be forgiven.

29 "‘You shall have the same Law for the person who commits a sin in ignorance, whether he is a native-born Israelite or he is a foreigner who is living among them!

The Consequence of Deliberate Sin

30 "‘However, the person who sins deliberately, whether he is a native-born Israelite or a foreigner, insults the LORD, and that person shall be cut off from his people! 31 For he has despised the Word of the LORD and has broken His commandment. That person shall certainly be cut off! His guilt shall remain on him!'"

The Stoning of a Man for Breaking the Sabbath — Exodus 31:12-17

32 While the Israelites were in the wilderness, they found a man collecting pieces of wood on the Sabbath day. 33 Those who had found him collecting pieces of wood brought him to Moses and Aaron and the whole congregation. 34 They put him in custody, because it had not been explained what should be done to him.

35 The LORD told Moses: "The man shall certainly be put to death! The whole congregation must stone him outside the camp!"

36 The whole congregation took him outside the camp and stoned him to death as the LORD had commanded Moses.

The Command to the Israelites to Wear Fringes on Their Garments

37 The LORD told Moses: 38 "Speak to the Israelites and tell them to make tassels for themselves on the corners of their garments throughout their coming generations, and to attach a cord of purple wool to the tassel on each corner! 39 They shall become your tassels! You shall look at them, and remember all the Commandments of the LORD, so that you may obey them, and may not eagerly go after what your hearts desire and what your eyes see! You used to run wantonly after these things. 40 Do this, so that you may remember to obey all My Commandments, and may be holy to your God! 41 I am the LORD, your God, and I have brought you out of the land of Egypt to be your God. I am the LORD, your God."

16

Nm 16

The Rebellion of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram

1 Korah the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, and Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On, the son of Peleth, who were Reuben's descendants, gathered a following. 2 They rebelled against Moses, along with two hundred and fifty other Israelites. They were well-known leaders of the congregation, and had been appointed by the assembly.

3 They gathered together against Moses and Aaron. They told them: "You have taken on too much! For the whole congregation is holy, every member of it, and the LORD is among them. Why, then, are you putting yourselves above the assembly of the LORD?"

4 When Moses heard this, he fell facedown. 5 He told Korah and all his company: "In the morning the LORD will show who is His, and who is holy, and He will cause that person to come near to Him. He will cause the man whom He chooses to come near to Him. 6 You, Korah and all your followers, should do this: Take fire-pans, 7 put fire in them tomorrow, and put incense on them before the LORD! Then the man whom the LORD chooses will be the holy one. You Levites have taken on too much!"

8 Moses told Korah: "Now listen, you Levites! 9 Is it not enough for you that the God of Israel has selected you from the congregation of Israel, and has brought you near to Himself to work in the service of the tabernacle of the LORD, and to stand before the congregation to minister to them? 10 He has brought you near Himself with all of your fellow Levites, but now you are demanding the priesthood as well! 11 Therefore it is against the LORD that you and all your company are gathering together. As for Aaron, what is he, that you should be grumbling against him?"

12 Moses sent someone to summon Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab. However, they answered: "We shall not come! 13 Is it not enough that you have brought us out of a land flowing with milk and honey to kill us in the wilderness, that you must also keep on lording it over us? 14 Besides, you have not brought us into a land flowing with milk and honey or given us an inheritance of fields and vineyards! Will you gouge out the eyes of these men? We shall not come."

15 Then Moses became very angry and said to the LORD: "Do not pay attention to their grain-offering! I have not taken as much as one donkey from them or harmed any of them."

16 Moses told Korah: "Tomorrow you and all your followers shall appear before the LORD — both you, they, and Aaron! 17 Each of you shall bring his fire-pan, and you shall all put incense on them! Then each of you shall present his fire-pan before the LORD, two hundred and fifty fire-pans in all! You and Aaron shall also come, each with his fire-pan!"

18 So each man took his fire-pan. They all put fire in them, laid incense on them, and, together with Moses and Aaron, they stood at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. 19 When Korah had gathered the entire congregation against them at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, the glory of the LORD appeared to the whole congregation.

20 The LORD told Moses and Aaron, 21 "Separate yourselves from this congregation, that I may suddenly destroy them!"

22 However, Moses and Aaron fell facedown and said: "O God, the God of the breath of life inside all mankind! When one man sins, will You be angry with the whole congregation?"

23 Then the LORD instructed Moses, 24 "Tell the congregation: ‘Move away from the tents of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram!'"

25 Then Moses got up and went to Dathan and Abiram, and the elders of Israel followed him. 26 He told the congregation: "Please move back from the tents of these wicked men, and do not touch anything belonging to them, that you may not be swept away because of all their sins!"

27 So they withdrew from the tents of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. Dathan and Abiram had come out and were standing at the entrances to their tents with their wives, their children, and their little ones.

28 Moses said: "This will show you that the LORD has sent me to do all these things, and that I have not done them of my own accord. 29 If these people die as all other human beings die, and if what happens to all other human beings happens to them, then the LORD has not sent me. 30 However, if the LORD creates something new, and the ground opens up its mouth and swallows them and everything that belongs to them, and they go down alive into Sheol, then you will know that these men have scornfully rejected the LORD."

31 As soon as he had finished speaking all these words, the ground that was under them split open. 32 The earth opened its mouth and swallowed them, their families, and all the other people who were with Korah, together with all their property. 33 They went down alive to Sheol with everything that belonged to them. The ground closed over them, and so they perished and were gone from the assembly. 34 All the people of Israel who were around them ran away when they heard their cries. For they thought, "We do not want the ground to swallow us, too!"

35 Then a fire came out from the LORD and consumed the two hundred and fifty men who were offering incense.

36 Then the LORD instructed Moses: 37 "Tell Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, to pick the fire-pans out of the smouldering remains and scatter the fire elsewhere! For the fire-pans have become holy. 38 The fire-pans of these men, who have sinned at the cost of their lives, shall be hammered into plates to cover the altar! For they have brought the fire-pans before the LORD, so that they have become holy. Let them become a sign to the Israelites!"

39 So Eleazar the priest took the bronze fire-pans, which the men who were burned up had presented, and they were hammered out to make a covering for the altar. 40 The covering became a reminder to the Israelites that no unauthorised person, who was not a descendant of Aaron, should come near to burn incense before the LORD, in order that he might not become like Korah and his company. This was done as the LORD had directed Eleazar through Moses.

41 The next day the whole congregation of the Israelites grumbled against Moses and Aaron. They said, "You have killed the people of the LORD."

42 However, when the congregation had gathered together against Moses and Aaron and they turned toward the Tent of Meeting, they saw that the cloud had covered it, and that the glory of the LORD had appeared. 43 Then Moses and Aaron went to the front of the Tent of Meeting. 44 The LORD told Moses, 45 "Move away from this congregation, that I may destroy them at once!"

They fell facedown. 46 Moses told Aaron: "Take the fire-pan, and put fire from the altar on it! Lay incense on it, and hurry into the congregation and make atonement for them! For wrath has come out from the LORD. The plague has begun."

47 So Aaron took it, as Moses had told him, and ran into the middle of the congregation. Indeed, the plague had already begun among the people. Aaron put on the incense, and made atonement for the people. 48 He stood between the dead and the living, and the plague was brought to a standstill. 49 The people who died in the plague numbered fourteen thousand, seven hundred, in addition to those who had died in the affair of Korah. 50 Then Aaron returned to Moses at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. For the plague had been brought to a standstill.

17

Nm 17

The Silencing of Complaints by the Growing and Blossoming of Aaron's Staff

1 The LORD told Moses: 2 "Speak to the Israelites, and get from them one staff from each paternal family, one each from all the leaders of their paternal families, twelve staffs! You shall write each man's name on his staff! 3 You shall write Aaron's name on the staff of Levi! For there shall be one staff for the head of each paternal family! 4 You shall place them in front of the Tent of Meeting before the Testimony, where I appear to you! 5 The staff belonging to the man whom I choose will sprout, and I shall rid Myself of the grumblings that the Israelites are making against both of you."

6 So Moses spoke to the Israelites, and all their leaders gave him a staff, one staff for each leader of their paternal families. There were twelve staffs, and Aaron's staff was among them. 7 Moses placed the staffs before the LORD in the tent of the Testimony. 8 The next day Moses went into the tent of the Testimony, and saw that Aaron's staff for the family of Levi had sprouted, and that, after it had sprouted, it had blossomed and produced ripe almonds. 9 Moses brought out all the staffs from the presence of the LORD to all the Israelites. They looked at them, and each man took his own staff. 10 The LORD told Moses: "Put Aaron's staff back in front of the Testimony, to be kept there as a sign to obstinate people! In this way you will bring their grumblings against Me to an end, that they may not die."

11 Moses did that. He did as the LORD had commanded him.

12 The Israelites told Moses: "Look! We are as good as dead! We have perished! All of us have perished! 13 Anyone who even goes near the tabernacle of the LORD will die. Are we all going to die?"

18

Nm 18

The Responsibilities of the Levites and the Priests

1 The LORD told Aaron: "You, together with your sons and your father's family, will be responsible for any sins connected with the holy place. You together with your sons will be responsible for any sins associated with your work as priests. 2 Bring with you also your relatives from the tribe of Levi, the tribe of your father, that they may join you, and assist you and your sons before the tent of the Testimony! 3 They shall fulfil their responsibilities to you and to the whole tent, but they shall not come near the equipment of the holy place or the altar, so that both they and you may not die! 4 They shall join you and attend to the needs of the Tent of Meeting, including all the service at the tent! However, no unauthorised person shall come near you! 5 You people shall attend to the duties of the holy place and the altar, so that the Israelites may not incur wrath again! 6 Be aware that I Myself have chosen your relatives, the Levites, from among the Israelites. They are a gift to you and allotted to the LORD, to attend to the service at the Tent of Meeting, 7 However, you and your sons shall carry out your priestly work, in connection with everything at the altar and inside the curtain! You shall attend to the service as a gift! I shall give you your priestly work. However, any unauthorised person who comes near shall be put to death!"

The Support of the Priests and Levites through the Contributions of the People

8 The LORD told Aaron: "Look! I Myself have given you the responsibility for the contributions made to Me in connection with all the holy offerings of the Israelites. I have given them as a portion to you and your descendants as a permanent rule. 9 This is what shall belong to you out of the most holy offerings, kept back from the fire! All their gifts, including all their grain-offerings, all their sin-offerings, and all their guilt-offerings, which they render to Me, shall be most holy, belonging to you and your sons! 10 You shall eat it in a most holy place! Any male may eat it. You shall regard it as holy!

11 "This also is yours: whatever gifts the Israelites contribute in connection with all their wave offerings. I have given them to you, your sons, and your daughters as your regular portion. Any ceremonially clean person in your family may eat them. 12 I have given to you all the best of the olive-oil, all the best wine and grain that they give to the LORD as their firstfruits. 13 The first products of everything that is in their land, which they will bring to the LORD, shall be yours! Any ceremonially clean person in your family may eat them. 14 Everything set apart for holy use in Israel shall be yours! 15 Every firstborn of any living thing, both man and animal, which they will bring to the LORD, shall be yours! Nevertheless, you shall certainly redeem the firstborn of human beings, and you shall redeem the firstborn of any unclean animal! 16 When a boy is one month old, you shall redeem him at the ransom value of sixty grams of silver according to the shekel at the holy place, which weighs twenty gerahs! 17 Nevertheless, you shall not redeem the firstborn of a cow, a sheep, or a goat! They are holy. You shall pour their blood out against the altar, and you shall burn their fat as an offering made by fire, for a soothing aroma to the LORD! 18 Their meat shall be yours, just as the brisket of the wave offering and the right leg are yours! 19 I have given to you, to your sons, and to your daughters, as a regular portion, all the holy contributions that the Israelites offer to the LORD. It shall be an everlasting Covenant of salt before the LORD, for you and for your descendants!"

20 The LORD told Aaron: "You shall have no inheritance in their land and you shall have no share among them! I am your Share and your Inheritance among the Israelites. 21 Be aware that I have given to the Levites every tithe in Israel as their inheritance, as compensation for their service, which they are carrying out, the service at the Tent of Meeting. 22 The other Israelites shall never again come near the Tent of Meeting! Otherwise, they will bring sin on themselves and die. 23 The Levites are the ones who shall carry out the service at the Tent of Meeting! They shall be responsible for any guilt on their part! This shall be a permanent Statute throughout your coming generations! They shall not inherit any property among the Israelites! 24 For I have given to the Levites, as their inheritance, the tithe, which the Israelites will contribute to the LORD. That is why I have said about them, ‘They will not inherit any property among the Israelites.'"

25 The LORD told Moses: 26 "You shall speak to the Levites and tell them: ‘When you receive from the Israelites the tithe, which I have given you from them as your inheritance, you shall present a tenth out of the tithe as the contribution of the LORD! 27 Your contribution will be credited to you as if it were grain from the threshing floor or as full yield from the winepress. 28 In this way you yourselves will also present a contribution to the LORD out of all the tithes that you will receive from the Israelites. Out of these tithes you shall give the contribution of the LORD to Aaron the priest! 29 You shall present every contribution to the LORD out of all the choicest parts of all your gifts, as the holiest parts of them!

30 "You shall also tell them: ‘When you present the choicest parts of them, the rest shall be reckoned as the property of the Levites, as if it were the produce of the threshing floor or of the winepress! 31 You may eat it anywhere with your families. For it is your wages to compensate for your service at the Tent of Meeting. 32 You will not bear sin because of it when you have presented the best part out of it. Then you will not profane the holy offerings of the Israelites, and you will not die.'"

19

Nm 19

The Cleansing of Persons who become ceremonially Unclean through Contact with a Dead Body

1 The LORD told Moses and Aaron: "This is the requirement of the Law that the LORD has commanded: ‘Tell the Israelites to bring you a red heifer that has no defect or blemish in it, and that has never had a yoke on it! 3 You people shall give it to Eleazar the priest and he shall take it outside the camp, and it shall be slaughtered in his presence! 4 Eleazar the priest shall take some of its blood with his finger and shall sprinkle it seven times in the direction of the front of the Tent of Meeting! 5 The heifer shall be burnt while he watches! Its hide, its meat, its blood, as well as the contents of its stomach shall be burnt! 6 The priest shall take cedar-wood, hyssop, and a crimson yarn and throw them into the fire that is burning the heifer! 7 Then the priest shall wash his clothes, and bathe his body in water! After that he may come into the camp. However, the priest shall be ceremonially unclean until the evening. 8 The one who burns the heifer shall also wash his clothes in water, bathe his body in water, and shall be ceremonially unclean until the evening! 9 Then a man who is ceremonially clean shall gather the ashes of the heifer and put them in a clean place outside the camp! They shall be preserved for the congregation of the Israelites for use in the water to remove impurity! It is for purification from sin. 10 The man who gathers the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening! This shall be a permanent Statute for the Israelites and for the stranger who is living among them!

11 "Whoever touches the dead body of any human person shall be unclean for seven days! 12 He shall free himself from sin with the water on the third day and the seventh day! Then he will be clean. However, if he does not free himself from sin on the third day and on the seventh day, he will not become clean. 13 Whoever touches the body of any human person who dies, and does not free himself from sin, has profaned the tabernacle of the LORD. That person shall be cut off from Israel! For the water to remove impurity has not been poured out on him. He shall be unclean! His uncleanness remains on him. 14 This is the Law when a human being dies in a tent: Everyone who enters the tent and everyone who is in the tent shall be unclean for seven days! 15 Every open container that has no lid fastened on it by a cord shall be unclean! 16 Everyone in the open field who touches someone who has been killed with a sword or who has died, or touches a human bone or a grave shall be unclean for seven days! 17 For such an unclean person, people shall take some ashes left by the burning of the sin-offering, and shall pour fresh water over them in a container! 18 Then a ceremonially clean person shall take some hyssop, dip it in the water, and sprinkle the tent, all the furnishings, and all the persons who were there, and anyone who has touched the bone, or the person who has been slain, or the person who has died, or the grave! 19 The clean person shall sprinkle it on the unclean person on the third day and on the seventh day, and so shall free him from sin by the seventh day! Then he shall wash his clothes, and bathe in water! Then in the evening he will be clean. 20 However, any person who becomes unclean and does not free himself from sin shall be cut off from the congregation! For he has profaned the sanctuary of the LORD. The water to remove impurity has not been poured out on him. He is unclean. 21 This shall be a permanent Statute for them! The one who sprinkles the water to remove impurity shall wash his clothes, and anyone who touches the water to remove impurity shall be unclean until the evening! 22 Everything that the unclean person touches shall be unclean, and any person who touches him shall be unclean until the evening!"

20

Nm 20

The Supply of Water from a Rock, and Moses' Disobedience — Deuteronomy 3:23-29; Compare Exodus 17:1-7

1 The whole congregation of the Israelites came into the wilderness of Zin in the first month, and the people stayed at Kadesh. There Miriam died and was buried. 2 The congregation had no water, and the people gathered against Moses and Aaron. 3 The people quarrelled with Moses. They said: "We wish that we had died when our fellow-Israelites died before the LORD! 4 Why have you brought the assembly of the LORD into this wilderness, so that we and our livestock should die here? 5 Why have you people made us come up out of Egypt to bring us into this unfavourable place? The place has no grain, figs, grapes, or pomegranates, and there is no water to drink!"

6 Moses and Aaron went from the assembly to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. They fell facedown, and the glory of the LORD appeared to them.

7 The LORD told Moses: 8 "You and your brother Aaron, take the staff, and gather the congregation! Speak to that rock while they are watching you! Then it will yield its water. You will bring water out of the rock for them, and you will provide drink to the congregation and their livestock."

9 Moses took the staff from the presence of the LORD as He had commanded him. 10 Then Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together in front of the rock. He told them, "Just listen, you rebels! Must we bring water for you out of this rock?"

11 Then Moses raised his hand and struck the rock twice with his staff. A great deal of water gushed out, and the congregation and their livestock drank.

12 However, the LORD told Moses and Aaron: "Because you have not trusted Me, so that you should treat Me as holy while the Israelites were watching, you will not bring this assembly into the land that I have given them."

13 That was the water of Meribah,*70 where the Israelites quarrelled with the LORD, and where He proved Himself holy among them.

The Refusal of the Edomites to Allow Israel to Pass through their Country

14 Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, to tell him: "This is what your brother Israel has said: ‘You know all the hardship that we have endured. 15 Our fathers went down to Egypt and we lived in Egypt for a long time. The Egyptians mistreated our fathers and us. 16 We cried out to the LORD, and He heard our cry, sent an angel, and brought us out of Egypt. Now we are here in Kadesh, a city on the edge of your territory. 17 Please let us pass through your country! We shall not go through any field or vineyard, or drink water from any well. We shall go along the King's Highway, and we shall not turn aside to the right or the left until we have passed through your territory.'"

18 However, Edom answered him: "You shall not pass through my land! If you try, I shall come out against you with the sword."

19 So the Israelites told him: "We shall go along the formed road, and, if we or our livestock drink any of your water, we shall pay for it. We merely want to pass through on foot, nothing else."

20 Edom answered, "You shall not pass through!"

Then Edom came out against them with a large and powerful army. 21 When the Edomites refused to allow Israel to pass through their territory, Israel turned away from them.

The Death of Aaron

22 The whole congregation of the Israelites journeyed from Kadesh and came to Mount Hor. 23 At Mount Hor, near the border of the land of Edom, the LORD told Moses and Aaron: 24 "Aaron will be gathered to his people. For he will not enter the land that I have given to the Israelites, because you people rebelled against My Word at the water of Meribah. 25 Take Aaron and his son Eleazar, and bring them up on Mount Hor! 26 Remove Aaron's garments and put them on his son Eleazar! Then Aaron will be gathered to his people and die there."

27 Moses did as the Lord had commanded. They went up on Mount Hor while the whole congregation was watching. 28 Moses removed Aaron's garments and put them on his son Eleazar. Aaron died there on top of the mountain. Then Moses and Eleazar came down from the mountain. 29 When the whole congregation learned that Aaron had died, the entire household of Israel mourned for Aaron for thirty days.

21

Nm 21

The Defeat of the Canaanite King of Arad

1 When the Canaanite king of Arad, who lived in the Negev, heard that Israel was coming along the road to Atharim, he fought against Israel and captured some of them. 2 Then Israel made this vow to the LORD: "If You indeed deliver these people into our hands, I shall completely destroy their cities."

3 The LORD heard Israel's request and delivered the Canaanites to them. Israel devoted them and their cities to destruction, and named the place "Hormah."*71

The Setting up of the Bronze Snake on a Pole — Compare John 3:14

4 Then they journeyed from Mount Hor on the road to the Red Sea to go around the land of Edom, but the people grew impatient on the way. 5 The people spoke against God and against Moses: "Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no bread or water, and we detest this wretched food."

6 Then the LORD sent poisonous snakes among the people. They bit the people, and many of the people of Israel died. 7 Then the people came to Moses, and said: "We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD and against you. Pray to the LORD, that He may take the snakes away from us!"

So Moses prayed for the people. 8 The LORD told Moses: "Make a fiery snake and put it on a pole! Anyone who has been bitten should look at it! Then he will live."

9 Therefore Moses made a bronze snake and put it up on a pole. Then, when anyone who had been bitten by a snake looked at the bronze snake, he lived.

The Journey of the Israelites past Edom and to the East of Moab

11 The Israelites moved on and camped at Oboth. 11 After they left Oboth, they camped at Iye-Abarim in the wilderness that faces Moab on the eastern side. 12 From there they moved on and camped in the Zered Valley. 13 They set out from there and camped on the other side of the Arnon, which is in the wilderness that extends out from the border of the Amorites. For the Arnon is Moab's border between Moab and the Amorites. 14 This is why it is said in the Book of the Wars of the LORD: "Waheb in Suphah, and the ravines, the Arnon, 15 and the slopes of the ravines that extend toward the site of Ar and that lean on the border of Moab."

16 From there they went to Beer. This was the well where the LORD told Moses: "Gather the people together, that I may give them water!"

17 Then Israel kept singing this song: "Spring up, O well! Sing about it, 18 the well that princes have sunk, that the nobles of the people have dug with their sceptres and their staffs!"

Then they went from the wilderness to Mattanah. 19 From Mattanah they moved to Nahaliel, from Nahaliel to Bamoth, 20 and from Bamoth to the valley that is in the open country of Moab, beside the top of Pisgah, where it looks down on the wilderness.

The Defeat of Sihon, the King of the Amorites — Deuteronomy 2:24-37; Joshua 12:1-6

21 Then Israel sent messengers to tell Sihon, the king of the Amorites: 22 "Let me pass through your land! We shall not turn aside into any field or vineyard. We shall not drink water from any well. We shall go along the King's Highway until we have passed through your territory."

23 However, Sihon did not permit Israel to pass through his territory. Sihon gathered his whole army and came out into the wilderness against Israel. When he reached Jahaz, he fought against Israel. 24 Nevertheless, Israel struck him down with the edge of the sword and took possession of his land from the Arnon to the Jabbok, but only as far as the Ammonites. For the Ammonite border was fortified. 25 Israel captured all these cities and Israel settled in all the cities of the Amorites, including Heshbon and all its neighbouring settlements. 26 For Heshbon had been the city of Sihon, the Amorite king. He had fought against the former king of Moab and had taken from him all his land as far as the Arnon. 27 That is why those who compose proverbs say:

"Come to Heshbon! Let it be rebuilt! Let the city of Sihon be restored!

28 For fire has come out of Heshbon, flame from the city of Sihon. It has consumed Ar of Moab, the landowners on the heights of the Arnon.

29 How terrible for you, Moab! You have perished, you people of Chemosh! Chemosh has yielded up his sons as fugitives and his daughters as captives of Sihon, the king of the Amorites.

30 However, we have shot arrows on them. Heshbon has been destroyed as far as Dibon. We have laid waste as far as Nophah, which reaches as far as Medeba."

31 So Israel settled in the land of the Amorites.

The Defeat of Og, the King of Bashan — Deuteronomy 3:1-22

32 Then Moses sent some men to spy out Jazer, and they captured its neighbouring settlements and drove out the Amorites who were there. 33 Then they turned and went up along the road towards Bashan. Og, the king of Bashan, came out with his whole army to meet them in battle at Edrei. 34 The LORD told Moses: "Do not be afraid of him! For I have put him, all his people, and his land into your hands. Do to him what you have done to Sihon, the king of the Amorites, who used to live in Heshbon!"

35 So they struck him down, together with his sons and his whole army, so that he had no survivors, and they took possession of his land.

22

Nm 22

The Refusal of Balaam to Come to Moab to Curse the Israelites

1 Then the Israelites moved and camped on the waterless plains of Moab, on the opposite side of the Jordan from Jericho. 2 Balak, the son of Zippor, saw everything that Israel had done to the Amorites, 3 and Moab was very afraid of the people because there were so many of them. Moab felt disgust with the Israelites. 4 The Moabites told the elders of Midian, "Now this crowd of people will lick up everything around us like an ox licking up the grass in the field."

At that time Balak, the son of Zippor, was the king of Moab. 5 He sent messengers to Balaam, the son of Beor, at Pethor, which was in his people's land near the Euphrates, to summon him. Balak said: "Look! A people has come out of Egypt. Indeed, they have covered the surface of the land and they are settling in front of me. 6 So now, please come! Curse this people for me! For they are too powerful for me. Then perhaps I shall prevail, so that I may defeat them, and that I may drive them out of the land. For I know that the one whom you bless is blessed and that the one whom you curse is cursed."

7 The elders of Moab and the elders of Midian left with the fees for sorcery in their hands. They came to Balaam and told him what Balak had said. 8 He told them: "Stay here tonight! I shall report to you the reply that the LORD makes to me."

So the princes of Moab stayed with Balaam. 9 God came to Balaam and asked, "Who are these men with you?"

10 Balaam replied to God: "Balak, the son of Zippor, the king of Moab, has sent them to me. 11 He says, ‘Look! This people has come out of Egypt, and they are covering the surface of the land. Come now! Curse them for me! Perhaps I shall be able to fight them, that I may drive them away.'"

12 God told Balaam: "You shall not go with them! You shall not curse the people! For they are blessed."

13 When Balaam got up in the morning, he told Balak's princes: "Go to your own land! For the LORD has refused to allow me to go with you!"

14 The princes of Moab left and came to Balak! They said, "Balaam has refused to come with us!"

15 Balak again sent other princes, this time a larger group, which was higher in rank than the others were. 16 When they came to Balaam, they told him: "This is what Balak, the son of Zippor, has said: ‘Please do not let yourself be deterred from coming to me! 17 For I shall reward you very richly. I shall also do whatever you ask me. So please come! Curse these people for me!'"

18 Balaam answered Balak's officials: "If Balak were to give me his palace full of silver and gold, I could not go beyond the Directions of the LORD, my God, to do anything less or more. 19 So now you, too, please stay here tonight, that I may find out what else the LORD will tell me!"

20 God came to Balaam at night and told him: "If the men have come to summon you, leave, and go with them! However, you shall do only what I tell you!"

Balaam's Journey to Moab and his Donkey's Rebuke to him

21 When Balaam got up in the morning, he saddled his donkey and went with the princes of Moab. 22 However, God's anger was aroused because he was going, and the Angel of the LORD took His stand on the road to oppose him. He was riding his donkey, and his two servants were with him. 23 When the donkey saw the Angel of the LORD standing on the road with His drawn sword in His hand, the donkey turned off the road and went into a field. Balaam hit the donkey to turn her back onto the road. 24 Then the Angel of the LORD stood on a narrow path between vineyards where there was a stone wall on each side. 25 When the donkey saw the Angel of the LORD, she pushed against the wall and pressed Balaam's foot against the wall. Then he hit her again. 26 Then the Angel of the LORD moved on again and stood in a narrow place, where there was no room to turn to the right or to the left. 27 When the donkey saw the Angel of the LORD, she lay down under Balaam. Balaam's anger was aroused, and he hit the donkey with his staff. 28 Then the LORD opened the mouth of the donkey, and she asked Balaam, "What have I done to you, that you have hit me these three times?"

29 Balaam told the donkey: "Because you have made a fool of me! If only I had a sword in my hand, I would kill you now."

30 The donkey asked Balaam: "Am I not your donkey, which you have always ridden until today? Have I really been in the habit of doing this kind of thing to you?"

He answered, "No."

31 Then the LORD opened Balaam's eyes, and he saw the Angel of the LORD standing on the road with His drawn sword in His hand. He fell facedown and worshipped. 32 The Angel of the LORD asked him: "Why did you hit your donkey these three times? Look! I have come out Myself to oppose you, because your path against Me has been a steep one. 33 When the donkey saw Me, she turned away from Me these three times. If she had not turned away from Me, I would have killed you by now, and I would have let her live."

34 Balaam told the Angel of the LORD: "I have sinned. For I did not know that You were standing on the road to oppose me. However, now, if this displeases You, I shall go back."

35 Nevertheless, the Angel of the LORD told Balaam, "Go with the men, but you shall speak only the Word that I shall speak to you!"

So Balaam went on with the princes of Balak.

The King of Moab's Disappointment with Balaam

36 When Balak heard that Balaam had come, he went out to meet him at the city of Moab that is on the border at the Arnon, at the edge of his territory. 37 Balak asked Balaam: "Did I not send men urgently to you to summon you? Why did you not come to me? Am I really unable to honour you?"

38 Balaam told Balak: "You see that I have come to you now. Have I any ability of my own to say anything? I shall be speaking only what God puts in my mouth."

39 Balaam went with Balak, and they came to Kiriath-Huzoth. 40 Balak sacrificed cattle and sheep and sent some of them to Balaam and the princes who were with him. 41 The next morning Balak took Balaam and brought him up to Bamoth-Baal, from where he could see the nearest part of the people.

23

Nm 23

The First Prophecy of Balaam

1 Balaam told Balak, "Build me seven altars here, and prepare seven bulls and seven rams for me here!"

2 Balak did what Balaam had asked, and Balak and Balaam sacrificed a bull and a ram on each altar! 3 Balaam told Balak: "Stand beside your burnt offering that I may go away! Perhaps the LORD will make Himself available to meet me. I shall tell you whatever Word He reveals to me."

Then he went away along a bare track. 4 God met Balaam, and Balaam told Him: "I have set out the seven altars, and I have sacrificed a bull and a ram on each altar."

5 The LORD put a Message into Balaam's mouth. He said, "Go back to Balak, and speak this Message!"

6 So he went back to him and found him standing beside his burnt offering with all the princes of Moab. 7 Then Balaam pronounced his Oracle:

"Balak has brought me from Aram, Balak the king of Moab, from the mountains of the east: ‘Come! Curse Jacob for me! Come! Condemn Israel!'

8 "How shall I curse those whom God has not cursed? How shall I condemn those whom the LORD has not condemned?

9 "For I see them from the top of the rocks, and I gaze on them from the hills. Look! They are a people dwelling alone, and they do not count themselves among the nations.

10 "Who can count the dust particles of Jacob? Or who can number the fourth part of Israel? May I die the death of the righteous, and may my end be like theirs!"

11 Balak asked Balaam: "What have you done to me? I have brought you here to curse my enemies. However, look! You have done nothing but bless them!"

12 Balaam answered: "Shall I not faithfully speak what the LORD puts in my mouth?"

The Second Prophecy of Balaam

13 Balak told him: "Please come with me to another place, from where you can see them! You will see only the nearest part of them. You will not see them all. Curse them for me from there!"

14 So he took him to the Field of Zophim on the top of Pisgah, and he built seven altars and sacrificed a bull and a ram on each altar. 15 Then Balaam told Balak, "Stand here beside your burnt offering, and let me make myself available there!"

16 The LORD met Balaam, put a Message in his mouth, and said, "Go back to Balak and speak in this way!"

17 Balaam went to Balak and found him standing beside his burnt offering with the princes of Moab. Balak asked him, "What has the LORD said?"

18 Then he pronounced his Oracle:

"Rise up, Balak, and listen! Hear me, son of Zippor!

19 "God is not a man, that He should lie, or a son of man, that He should change His mind. If He says something, will He not do it? If He speaks, will He not carry it out?

20 "You see! I have received a Command to bless. If He blesses, I shall not reverse it.

21 "He has not observed calamity in Jacob. He has not seen misfortune in Israel. The LORD, their God, is with them, and the shout of a King is among them.

22 "God has brought them out of Egypt, and He is for them the horns of an Arabian antelope.

23 "For there is no magic curse against Jacob, and there is no divination against Israel. It will now be said about Jacob and about Israel: ‘See what God has done!'

24 "Look! A people will rise up like a lioness. They will lift themselves up like a lion. It will not lie down until it devours the prey and drinks the blood of creatures that it has killed."

25 Then Balak told Balaam, "You shall neither curse them at all nor bless them at all!"

26 Balaam answered Balak, "Have I not told you, ‘I shall do everything that the LORD says'?"

27 Then Balak told Balaam: "Please come! Let me take you to another place! Perhaps God will consider it right if you curse them for me from there."

28 So Balak took Balaam to the top of Peor, which overlooks the nearest part of the wasteland. 29 Balaam told Balak, "Build me seven altars here, and prepare seven bulls and seven rams for me here!"

30 Balak did what Balaam had told him, and he offered a bull and a ram on each altar.

24

Nm 24

The Third Prophecy of Balaam

1 When Balaam saw that it pleased the LORD to bless Israel, he did not resort to magic curses as he had done before, but turned his face toward the wilderness. 2 When Balaam looked out, and saw that Israel was camping in their separate tribes, God's Spirit came on him, 3 and he proclaimed his Oracle:

"This is the Declaration of Balaam, the son of Beor. This is the Declaration of the man whose eye sees clearly:

4 "This is the Declaration of him who hears the Words of God. He sees a vision from the Almighty. When he falls down, he has open eyes:

5 "How attractive are your tents, O Jacob, and your dwelling places, O Israel!

6 "They are like streambeds that have spread out, like gardens beside a river, like aloes that the LORD has planted, like cedar trees beside the waters.

7 "Water will flow down from their leather buckets, and their seed will have abundant water. Their king will rise higher than Agag, and their kingdom will be exalted.

8 "God has brought them out of Egypt, and He is like the strength of an Arabian antelope for them. They will devour nations who are their enemies. They will gnaw their bones and pierce them with their arrows.

9 "They have crouched and lain down like a lion, and, like a lioness, who will rouse them? Blessed is the one who blesses you, and cursed is the one who curses you!"

10 Balak became very angry with Balaam, and he clapped his hands. Balak told Balaam: "I have summoned you to curse my enemies, but look! You have continued to bless them these three times. 11 So now, leave at once and go back home! I had promised that I would certainly honour you, but, you see, the LORD has prevented you from being honoured."

12 Balaam answered Balak "Did I not already tell your messengers, whom you sent to me, 13 ‘If Balak were to give me his palace full of silver and gold, I could not go beyond the Directions of the LORD to do anything good or bad of my own accord. I shall speak only what the LORD speaks'? 14 So now, you see, I am going back to my people. Come! Let me advise you what these people will do to your people in the future!"

The Fourth Prophecy of Balaam

15 Then he proclaimed his Oracle:

"This is the Oracle of Balaam, the son of Beor, the Oracle of the man whose eye sees clearly, 16 the Declaration of him who hears the Words of God, who has knowledge from the Most High, who sees a vision from the Almighty. When he falls down, he has open eyes:

17 "I shall see Him who is not here now. I shall gaze on Him who is not near. A Star will come from Jacob. A Sceptre will rise from Israel. He will beat to pieces the heads of Moab, and the skulls of all the sons of Sheth.

18 "Edom will be occupied land, and Seir, Edom's enemy, will be occupied land, but Israel will gain strength.

19 "One from Jacob will rule and will destroy the survivors from the city."

20 Then Balaam looked at Amalek and proclaimed his Oracle:

"Amalek was first among the nations, but in the end he will be destroyed."

21 Then he looked at the Kenites and proclaimed his Oracle:

"Your dwelling-place is permanent. Your nest is set on a rock.

22 "However, it will fall into ruin, O Kenite. How long until Asshur takes you away as a captive?"

23 Then he proclaimed his Oracle:

"How terrible! Who will live because God has appointed this to happen?

24 "Ships will come from the coast of Cyprus. They will humiliate Asshur, and they will humiliate Eber. However, they too will be destroyed."

25 Then Balaam left and went back home, and Balak also went his way.

25

Nm 25

The Worship of Baal by the Israelites at Peor

1 While Israel was staying at Shittim, the people began to sin sexually with Moabite women. 2 The women invited the people to the sacrifices to their gods. The people ate food and worshipped their gods. 3 When the Israelites attached themselves to the Baal of Peor, the anger of the LORD burned against Israel. 4 The LORD told Moses: "Take all the leaders of these people, and expose them with broken limbs in the light of the sun before the LORD, so that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel!"

5 So Moses told the judges of Israel: "Each of you, kill those of your men who have attached themselves to the Baal of Peor!"

 6 Indeed, an Israelite man came and brought to his kinsmen a Midianite woman in plain view of Moses and of the whole congregation of the Israelites while they were weeping at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. 7 When Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw this, he left the congregation and took a spear in his hand. 8 He followed the Israelite man into the women's quarters and pierced both of them, through the Israelite man and into the woman's belly. So the plague against the Israelites was stopped. 9 Nevertheless, those who died in the plague numbered twenty-four thousand.

The Covenant of God with the Priest Phinehas

10 Then the LORD told Moses: 11 "Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, turned My anger away from the Israelites when he eagerly supported My jealousy among them. As a result, I did not, in My jealousy, completely destroy the Israelites. 12 Announce, therefore: ‘Look! I am making My Covenant of peace with him! 13 He and his descendants after him will have a Covenant that ensures a permanent priesthood, because he was zealous for his God and made atonement for the Israelites.'"

14 The name of the Israelite man who was killed, the one killed with the Midianite woman, was Zimri, the son of Salu, the leader of a clan of Simeon. 15 The name of the Midianite woman who was killed was Cozbi, the daughter of Zur, who was a tribal chief of a Midianite clan.

16 Then the LORD told Moses: 17 "Treat the Midianites as enemies and attack them! 18 For they have treated you as enemies with their cunning schemes, by which they have tricked you in the incident at Peor, and in the affair of Cozbi, the daughter of the prince of Midian."

She was one of their women, who was killed at the time when the plague struck because of what happened at Peor.

26

Nm 26

The Census of the New Generation of the Israelites — Compare Numbers 1

1 After the plague the LORD told Moses and Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest: 2 "Take a census of the whole congregation of the Israelites, of the people who are twenty years old or more, according to their clans, everyone in Israel who can serve in the army!"

3 Moses and Eleazar the priest told them, in the waterless regions of Moab near the Jordan across from Jericho: 4 "Take a census of the people who are twenty years or more, as the LORD has commanded Moses!"

The Israelites, who had come from the land of Egypt, were as follows. 5 Reuben was Israel's firstborn. The descendants of Reuben were: from Hanoch the clan of the Hanochites; from Pallu the clan of the Palluites; 6 from Hezron the clan of the Hezronites; from Carmi the clan of the Carmites. 7 These were the clans of Reuben. Those of them who were counted were forty-three thousand, seven hundred and thirty. 8 Eliab was the son of Pallu, 9 and the sons of Eliab were Nemuel, Dathan, and Abiram. Dathan and Abiram were the men whom the congregation had chosen and who had quarrelled with Moses and Aaron. They had been in Korah's band when they quarrelled with the LORD. 10 The ground had opened its mouth and swallowed them along with Korah, when his band had died as the fire consumed the two hundred and fifty men. They had served as a warning. 11 However, the sons of Korah did not die.

12 The descendants of Simeon by their clans were: from Nemuel the clan of the Nemuelites, 13 from Jamin the clan of the Jaminites; from Jachin the clan of the Jachinites; 13 from Zerah the clan of the Zerahites; and from Shaul the clan of the Shaulites. 14 These were the clans of Simeon. They totalled twenty-two thousand, two hundred.

15 The descendants of Gad by their clans were: from Zephon the clan of the Zephonites; from Haggai the clan of the Haggites; from Shuni the clan of the Shunites; 16 from Ozni the clan of the Oznites; from Eri the clan of the Erites; 17 from Arod the clan of the Arodites; and from Areli the clan of the Arelites. 18 These were the clans of the sons of Gad. Those of them who were counted totalled forty thousand, five hundred.

19 Er and Onan were sons of Judah, but Er and Onan had died in the land of Canaan. 20 The descendants of Judah by their clans were: from Shelah the clan of the Shelanites; from Perez the clan of the Parzites; from Zerah the clan of the Zerahites. 21 The descendants of Perez were: from Hezron the clan of the Hezronites; from Hamul the clan of the Hamulites. 22 "These were the clans of Judah. Those of them who were counted totalled seventy-six thousand, five hundred.

23 The descendants of Issachar by their clans were: from Tola the clan of the Tolaites; from Puah the clan of the Punites; 24 from Jashub the clan of the Jashubites; from Shimron the clan of the Shimronites. 25 These were the clans of Issachar. Those of them who were counted totalled sixty-four thousand, three hundred.

26 The descendants of Zebulun by their clans were: from Sered the clan of the Sardites; from Elon the clan of the Elonites; from Jahleel the clan of the Jahleelites. 27 These were the clans of Zebulun. Those of them who were counted totalled sixty thousand, five hundred.

28 The descendants of Joseph by their clans through Manasseh and Ephraim were: 29 the descendants of Manasseh: from Machir the clan of the Machirites, and Machir was the father of Gilead; and from Gilead the clan of the Gileadites. 30 These were the descendants of Gilead: from Iezer the clan of the Iezerites; from Helek the clan of the Helekites; 31 from Asriel the clan of the Asrielites; from Shechem the clan of the Shechemites; 32 from Shemida the clan of the Shemidaites; and from Hepher the clan of the Hepherites. 33 Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, had no sons but only daughters. The names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. 34 These were the clans of Manasseh. Those of them who were counted totalled fifty-two thousand, seven hundred.

35 These were the descendants of Ephraim by their clans: from Shuthelah the clan of the Shuthalhites; from Becher the clan of the Bachrites; and from Tahan the clan of the Tahanites. 36 These were the descendants of Shuthelah: from Eran the clan of the Eranites. 37 These were the clans of the sons of Ephraim. Those of them who were counted totalled thirty-two thousand, five hundred. These were the descendants of Joseph by their clans.

38 The descendants of Benjamin by their clans were: from Bela the clan of the Belaites; from Ashbel the clan of the Ashbelites; from Ahiram the clan of the Ahiramites; 39 from Shupham the clan of the Shuphamites; and from Hupham the clan of the Huphamites. 40 The descendants of Bela through Ard and Naaman were: from Ard the clan of the Ardites, and from Naaman the clan of the Naamanites. 41 These were the descendants of Benjamin by their clans. Those of them who were counted totalled forty-five thousand, six hundred.

42 These were the descendants of Dan by their clans: from Shuham the clan of the Shuhamites. These were the clans of Dan by their clans. 43 All of them were Shuhamite clans. Those of them who were counted totalled sixty-four thousand, four hundred.

44 The descendants of Asher by their clans were: from Imnah the clan of the Imnites; from Ishvi the clan of the Ishvites; from Beriah the clan of the Beriites. 45 The descendants of Beriah were: from Heber the clan of the Heberites, and from Malchiel the clan of the Malchielites. 46 The name of the daughter of Asher was Serah. 47 These were the clans of the sons of Asher. Those of them who were counted totalled fifty-three thousand, four hundred.

48 The descendants of Naphtali by their clans were: from Jahzeel the clan of the Jahzeelites; from Guni the clan of the Gunites; 49 from Jezer the clan of the Jezerites: from Shillem, the clan of the Shillemites. 50 These were the clans of Naphtali by their clans. Those of them who were counted totalled forty-five thousand, four hundred.

51 The total of Israelites who were counted was six hundred and one thousand, seven hundred and thirty.

52 Then the LORD told Moses: 53 "The land shall b